my beatee declared, and with my gun cocked, I advanced crouching towards the bush; as I expected to see him through the branches near the ground, which seldom have any foliage, but could not get a glimpse of him; when, lo! as I had just touched the outer sprays, the monster rose not a yard from me, and rushed out with a roar that withdrew all my strength. “It appeared as if the bush was eoming up by the roots; he brushed me in passing, and sprang at my beatee, when, to my astonishment, I witnessed more courage and presence of mind than I ever hope to see again. As the tiger was springing, the man, undismayed, struck at him with his bamboo full in the face, and the tyger turned off. I had neither presence of mind nor

strength to fire, and perhaps it is fortunate I did not. The tiger galloped off, turned about, and then galloped at some distance past us, and in sight of the whole line of baggage. Four men were killed by a tiger on the road, and I have no doubt but it was by this one. You will agree that I had a narrow escape; for it was wonderful that he did not spring on one of us, on first beating the bush; and more wonderful, that he did not paw me in passing, for he actually touched me. The only reason that can be given is, that he must have been gorged. If I had possessed your eyes, I must have killed him; when within two, or even six yards, I could easily have lodged four balls in his head, and I had a brace of pistols to have finished him.”



Ansando versus Brandon [King's Bench, December 10, 1810.]

THE following action of trespass, in which Mr. Bernard Ansando was plaintiff, and a Mr. Brandon, defendant, we lay before our readers, in order that the publick may understand correctly the full extent of that custom, which is now emphatically termed the law of the road. As Mr. Ansando was travelling in his own chaise to his country seat, near Mortlake, on the third of last September, he was encountered with such violence by the defendant driving in a gig, that the shaft of the gig entered the neck of . Mr. Ansando’s horse; wounded him so desperately, that he died in little more than an hour. Mr. Ansando’s coachman and Mr. Brandon were both driving on what is called the wrong side respectively, both having their left hands instead of their right to the centre of the road. It was proved, on the trial, that Brandon must

have seen the other, as it was not then dark, and the coachman swore that he could see one hundred and fifty yards before him, and that the road was wide enough to admit of five or six carriages. Under these circumstances, when the violation of the custom, or law of the road, was attended with no inconvenience, and when Mr. Brandon's gig was almost opposite to the carriage, from some sudden impulse he thought proper to pass over to his own side with such rapidity, that the accident abovementioned was the immediate consequence. The coachman and another witness were cross-examined; but as no contradiction took place, and as counsel for the defendant admitted that he had nothing but circumstantial to oppose to positive evidence, the jury, under the direction of his lordship, gave their verdict for the plaintiff, to the amount of ninety two guineas, for the horse and other losses with which the accident was attended. An allusion being made to Christian's explanation of the law of the road, as found in his notes on Black

stone, vol. i. cap. 74, lord Ellenborough was pleased to remark, that the custom must not be enforced unnecessarily, or so as to produce Inconvenience. o



THE following most extraordinary event happened in Lincolnshire, in the autumn of 1807, and may be relied on as an absolute fact:

The violence of a fall deprived sir Henry F. of his faculties, and he lay entranced several hours; at length his recollection returned. He faintly exclaimed, “ where am I ?” and looking up, found himself in the arms of a venerable old man, to whose kind offices sir H. was probably indebted for his life. “You revive,” said the venerable old man: “fear not: yonder house is mine: I will support you to it: there you shall be comforted.” Sir H. expressed his gratitude; they walked gently to the house. The friendly assistance of the venerable old man and his servants, restored sir H. to his reason. His bewildered faculties were reorganized. At length he suffered no inconvenience, except that occasioned by the bruise he received in the fall. Dinner was announced, and the good, old man entreated sir H. to join the party. He accepted the invitation, and was shown into a large hall, where he found sixteen covers; the party consisted of as many persons—no ladies were present. The old man took the head of the table; an excellent dinner was served, and rational conversation gave a zest to the repast.

The gentleman on the left hand of sir H. asked him to drink a glass

of wine, when the old man, in a dignificq and authoritative tone, at the same time extending his hand, said, “No l’” Sir H. was astonished at the singularity of the check, yet unwilling to offend, remained silent. The instant dinner was over, the old man left the room, when one of the company addressed him in the following words: “By what misfortune, sir, have you been trepanned by that unfeeling man who has quitted the room 2 O sir! you will have ample cause to curse the fatal hour that put you in his power, for you have no prospect in this world but misery and oppression; perpetually subject to the capricious humour of the old man, you will remain in this mansion the rest of your days; your life, as mine is, will become burdensome; and, driven to despair, your days will glide on, with regret and melancholy, in one cold and miserable meanness. This, alas ! has been my lot for fifteen years; and not mine only, but the lot of every one you see here, since their arrival at this cursed abode l’” The pathetick manner that accompanied this cheerless narrative, and the singular behaviour of the old man at dinner, awoke in sir H’s breast sentiments of horrour, and he was lost in stupor some minutes; when recovering, he said: “By what authority can any man detain me against my will 2 I will not submit; I will oppose him by force, if necessary.” “Ah, sir!” exclaimed a second gentleman, “your argument is just, but your threats are vain. The old man, sir, is a magician; we know it by fatal experience; do not be rash, sir, your attempt would prove futile; and your punishment would be dreadful.” “I will endeavour to escape,” said sir H. “Your hopes are groundless,” rejoined a third gentleman; “ for it was but six months ago, that, in an attempt to escape, I broke my leg.” Another said he had broken his arm, and that many had been killed by falls, in their endeavours to escape; others had suddenly disappeared, and never had been heard of Sir. H. was about to reply, when a servant entered the room, and said his master wished to see him. “ Do not go,” said one; “take my advice,” said another, “ for God’s sake do not go.” The servant told sir H. he had nothing to fear, and begged

he would follow him to his master. He did so, and found the old man seated at a table covered with a desert and wine. He arose when sir H. entered the room, and asked pardon for the apparent rudeness he was under the necessity of committing at dinner; “ for,” said he, “I am Dr. Willis; you must have heard of me; I confine my practice entirely to cases of insanity; and, as I board and lodge insane patients, mine is vulgarly called a madhouse. The persons you dined with are madmen. I was unwilling to tell you of this before dinner, fearing it would make you uneasy; for, although I know them to be perfectly harmless, you very naturally might have apprehensions.” The surprise of sir H. on hearing this, was great; but, his fears subsiding, the doctor and he passed the evening rationally and agreeably.


To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR, I OFTEN puzzle persons, who in general reason closely, by asking them, why a boat sinks when a hole is made in the bottom 2 Many of our readers, from habitually considering this cause and effect as inseparable, will be disposed to smile at the question. I will, however, prove its claim to consideration, by reminding them, that the beat, which sinks when there is a hole in the bottom, is specifically lighter than water; that is, we have in this fact, the philosophical paradox, of a body sinking in a fluid of greater specifick gravity The cause is worthy of consideration, because, as boats and marine vessels in general, are of great importance to man, deductions and inferences may arise from its explication, of considerable practical utility. The ship builder and the navigator may avail themselves of it in a way Wor... v. 2 M

which I cannot hastily anticipate; and the principle may, in various respects, prove of consequence to mankind. In brief then: A boat, or shift, the materials of which are shecifically lighter than water, sinks when a hole is made in it below the water, by the firessure of the farts of the vessel which are out of or above the water, usion the fiarts which are immersed. This principle being understood, numerous practical inferences flash on the mind; and I shall briefly state those which at this moment occur to me. 1. When a ship springs a dangerous leak, the true way to prevent her sinking, is to diminish her height, and voluntarily sink all that is possible of her bulk in the water. Whatever belongs to her which is specifically lighter , than water, should be cast overboard, without

being detached from the ship's body. The masts should be cut away and

fastened alongside, on or under the

water. Every thing should be re-
moved which is above the level of
the deck; and, if specifically lighter
than water, should be fastened to the
sides, in, or under the water. The
very crew should immerse their bo-
dies to their chins, and nothing
should be allowed to remain above
the surface, that can be conveniently
immersed. Of course, as much iron
work, and other bodies specifically
heavier than water, as possible,
should be detached and thrown over-
board. By due attention to this prin-
ciple, I should presume, a friori,
that no ship could founder simply
from a leak, or from filling with
Watel'. -
2. With respect to a boat, the
principle is the same. If a boat
springs a leak, or from any other
cause fills with water, the passen-
gers should instantly lie down, and
keep nothing but their faces above
the water. Every thing heavier than
water should be thrown overboard,
and nothing be allowed to stand
above the level of the water, or on
the top of the boat.
3. By attending to the same prin-
ciple, persons may often avoid being
drowned. The total of the human
body, in vital action, is specifically
lighter than water; a living human
body, therefore, will swim in water,
provided it is not sunk by parts of it
being protruded above the water,
which unimmersed parts force down
the parts under the water, till the
internal cavities fill. If a person who
falls into water, holds his breath,
till, by the laws of specifick gravity,
he rises again to the surface, and
then protrudes no part of his body
above the surface besides his face,
he cannot sink again. But the weight
of his arms alone, if protruded out
of the water, or even the entire of
his head, without appropriate action,
will be sufficient to sink him. Men
are drowned, and all animals swim,

when thrown into water; simply because men are able to raise their fore limbs above their heads, and animals are not able to do so. The animal sinks to the level ascertained by his own specifick gravity, and that of the fluid, which leaves, perhaps, nothing but his nose above the water; and then, to regain the shore, he exerts the same action with his limbs as he does in walking. If men were to remain passive, keep down their hands, trust to the laws of specifick gravity, and put themselves in the attitude of walking, the same results, , and the same security, would, in general, be the conse. quence, Savages swim from their inr fancy on the same principle; and civilized man may, in this respect, condescend to take a lesson from savage and animal life; or, in other words, from pure nature.

For the present, I am content with having, through your magazine, submitted these ideas to the world, and I leave it to the leisure opportunity, patriotism, or benevolence, of others, to apply them to all their beneficial purposes.


N. B. It concerns me to observe, by the records of mortality in your magazine, that numerous females were burnt to death during the last winter, notwithstanding I pointed out an infallible means of avoiding such accidents in a former paper. As those means cannot too often be published, I shall remind your readers that they consist simply in the narty lying down, as soon as the ..!othes are discovered to be on fire, A lady's muslin dress, which might take fire at the skirt, would burn from top to bottom, and produce a fatal density of flame in half a minute, while she is standing upright; but if she were instantly to lie down, even though she took no pains leisurely to extinguish the flames, ten minutes would elapse before her dress could be consumed, and the flame would be such as might, at most afflicting, that fatal accidents any instant, be extinguished by the should arise from a cause so easily thumb and fingers. Is it not then averted 3

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SEVERAL natives of the South Sea islands have lately visited England, having been brought by different merchant vessels, in which they engaged themselves as common sailors. Among these is Duaterra, nephew to Tippihee, a chief of New Zealand, and son-in-law of another chief named Wanakee. He is a very intelligent young man, only twenty two years of age, possessing a most amiable temper, considerable natural abilities, and an ardent thirst of knowledge. His only object, as he said, for leaving his native country was to see king george. For this purpose he entered on board the Santa Anna, belonging to Port Jackson, which touched at New Zealand, on her way to some of the South Sea islands, on a sealing voyage, in the course of which he was exposed to many dangers, hardships, and toils. As a reward for these, Duaterra expected, on his arrival in the Thames, to see the king, but was unfortunately disappointed. The captain kept him, nearly the whole time he was in England, on board the ship, at work, till she was discharged; and on the 5th of August last, sent him on board the Ann, which sailed almost immediately for Portsmouth. Duaterra was much concerned at being compelled to return, without accomplishing the object of his voyage, for which, he observed, his countrymen would find great fault with him. It is certainly a circumstance much to be regretted, that this young man, who, by birth and marriage, is related to eleven out of the thirteen chiefs of New Zealand, should have lost the only reward which he expected for two years

hard toil as a common sailor, without wages, or other remuneration than clothing and provision. Duaterra, during his residence in this country, related certain particulars respecting the tradition and manners of those remote islanders, which open a field for curious speculation. In regard to the creation of man, he reports, that the New Zealanders have been taught, from time immemorial, by their priests and fathers, to believe that three gods made the first man. The general term for bone is eve; and they universally believe that the first woman was made of an eve, or bone, taken from the side of the first man. The fable of the Man in the Moon is likewise an ancient tradition among these people. There was, say they, a long time ago, in New Zealand, a man named Rona, who was going for some water one very dark night, for neither moon nor stars were then to be seen. He accidentally hurt his foot. While in this situa

tion, and so lame as to be unable to

return home, the moon came suddenly upon him. Rona laid hold of a tree to save himself, but in vain; for the moon carried both him and the tree away, and they are still to be seen there to this day. The belief of the following tradition, by which the faculty of speech at some former period is assigned to the serpent, may perhaps prove favourable to the introduction among them of the Mosaick account of the fall of man. The sharks wanted to leave the sea, and to live on shore; the serpent would not allow them, and said, that if they attempted to come on shore, they would be eaten by men; the sharks answered, they

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