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songs' Beat the drum ! When you have broken off” ten versts, the first company cast off their load and lie down. After them, the second company, and so forth, one after the other. But the first never wait for the rest : A line in columns will, on the march, always draw out. At four abreast, it will draw out one and a half more than its length. At two abreast, it will draw out double. A line one verst in length will draw out two; two versts will draw out four; so the first companies would have to wait for the others half an hour to no purpose. After the first ten versts, an hour's rest. The first division that arrived (upon the coming up of the second) takes up its baggage, and moves forward ten or fifteen paces; and if it passes through defiles on the march, fifteen or twenty paces. And in this manner, division after division that the hindmost may get rest. The second ten versts, another hour’s rest or . more. If the third distance is less than ten versts, halve it, and rest three quarters, half, or a quarter of an hour, that the children't may soon get to their kettles. So much for infantry. The cavalry marches before. They alight from their horses and rest a short time, and march more than ten versts in one stage, that the horses may rest in the camp. The kettle-wagons and the tentwagons go on before. When the brotherst arrive, the kettle is ready. The master of the mess instantly serves out the kettle. For breakfast, four hours rest; and six or eight hours at night, according as the road proves. When you draw near the enemy, the kettle-wagons
* This is a Russian mode of expression. off ten.
# Children and Brothers.
+ Whatever arrives. if he had but half a regiment advanced.
remain with the tent-wagons, and wood must be prepared for beforehand.
By this manner of marching, soldiers suffer no fatigue. The enemy does not expect us. He reckons us at least a hundred versts distant; and when we come from far, two hundred, or three hundred, or more. We fall all at once upon him, like snow on the head. His head turns. Attack instantly with whatever arrives f; with what God sends. The cavalry instantly fall to work; hack and slash / stab and drive / Cut them off! Don’t give them a momcnt’s rest!
Appellations given by Suvorof to his troops.
§ Strength and a half. A common mode of expression in Russia. Suvorof aimed at the style and language of the common soldiers, which renders his composition often * Professor Pallas supposed this to have been a manual of medicine, published for
down; and the third perfects the work. . Rules for Diet.
Have a dread of the hospital : German physick stinks from afar, is good for nothing, and rather hurtful. A Russian soldier is not used to it. Messmates, know where to find roots, herbs, and pismires. A soldier is inestimable. Take care of your health Scour the stomach when it is foul! Hunger is the best medicine! He who neglects his men, if an officer, arrest ; if a subofficer, lashes ; and to the private, lashes, if he neglects himself. If loose bowels want food, at sun-set a little gruel and bread. For costive bowels, some purging plant in warm water, or the liquorice-root. Remember, gentlemen, the field fishysick of Doctor Bellyflotski /* In hot fevers eat nothing, even for twelve days;f and drink your soldiers’ quas; that’s a soldier's physick. In intermitting fevers, neither eat or drink. It’s only a punishment for neglect, if health ensues. In hospitals, the first day the bed seems soft; the second, comes French soup; and the third, the brother is laid in his coffin, and they draw him away! One dies, and ten companions round him inhale his expiring breath. In camp the sick and feeble are kept in huts, and not in villages; there the air is purer. Even without an hospital, you must not stint your money for medicine, if it can be bought; nor even for other necessaries. But all this is frivolous; we
know how to preserve ourselves! Where one dics in an hundred with others, we lose not one in five hundred in the course of a month. For the healthy, drink, air, and food; for the sick, air, drink, and food. , Brothers, the enemy trembles for you! But there is another enemy, greater than the hospital; the d--mn’d I don’t know$! From the half-confessing, the guessing, lying, deceitful, the palavering equivocation, squea
mishness, and nonsense of don’t Know, many disasters originate. Stammering, hackering and so
forth; it’s shameful to relate A soldier should be sound, brave, firm, decisive, true, honourable ! Pray to God! from him comes victory and miracles I God conducts us! God is our general For the I don’t know, an officer is put in the guard; A staff-officer is served with an arrest at home. Instruction is light ! Not instruction is darkness / The work Jears its master || If a peasant knows not how to plough, the corn will not grow ! One wise man is worth three fools! and even three are little, give six and even six are little", give ten One clever fellow will beat them all—overthrow them —and take them prisoners! In the last campaign the enemy lost 75,000 well-counted men; perhaps not much less than 100,000. He fought desperately and artfully, and we lost not a full thousand”. There, brethren, you behold the effect of military instructions Gentlemen officers, what a triumph!
the use of the army.
f Here he endeavours to counteract a Russian prejudice, that it is favourable to
immoderate eating during fevers.
# A sour beverage, made of fermented flour and water. § Suvorof had so great an aversion to any person’s saying I don't know, in answer
to his questions, that he became almost mad with passion. His officers and soldiers were so well aware of this singularity, that they would hazard any answer instantly, accurate or not, rather than venture to incur his displeasure by professing ignorance. | A Russian proverb. * Here Suvorof is a little in his favourite character of the buffoon. He generally closed his harangues by endeavouring to excite laughter among his troops; and this mode of forming a climax is a peculiar characteristick of the conversation of the Russian boors. In this manner; “And not only of the boors, but the gentry!—and not only of the gentry, but the nobles'—and not only of the nobles, but the emperour!”. ** A slight exaggeration of Suvorofs.
WITH respect to these land winds, it has been judiciously observed, that the subject is deservedly ranked among the curious phenomena of nature, and merits the attention of the natural philosopher; but as the minds of Europeans who have visited these regions, have been occupied with pursuits very different from philosophick research, our acquaintance with these causes have hitherto been very imperfect. The land winds on the coast of Caromandel, says Dr. Roxburgh, are those hot winds which blow at a particular season of the year and hour of the day, from the western hills, commonly called the Ghauts, towards the bay of Bengal. In the more inland countries, as above the Ghauts, they are not confined to any regularity, though they are felt sometimes with a great degree of severity, and for hours together. I understand also, that in the upper parts of Bengal, they are sometimes experienced very severely; but whether from the west or the northward, or in what part of the year, I have not been able to ascertain. As far as this only tends to prove the insufficiency of the denomination, it would signify little, although in other respects it would be of more moment. As they are generally supposed to be peculiar to this country, and are felt during several months in the year, we should imagine their history and causes to have been perfectly investigated and understood; but, I know not why, neither the one nor the other has as yet been satisfactorily explained. The most plausible reason generally given for the great accumulation of heat in them, is the heat of
the season in which they prevail, and the long tract of country over which they have to pass. That this, however, is not the true cause, it shall be my endeavour to demonstrate; to which I will add an attempt to point out the most probable one, founded on known chymical principles. Respecting the theory I have to offer, I regret that it has found but few patrons in this country, which, however, I flatter myself may be ascribed more to the manner in which it has been proposed, than to the foundation on which it is constructed. In order to facilitate the explanation of my sentiments, as well as to show that the land winds really deserve some attention from the philosopher, I shall briefly recount the phenomena accompanying their beginning and progress, as well as the effects by which they are generally followed. Could my pen equal my sensations, I should be able to paint their effects in the most lively colours, aided by eight years experience in a country the most noted on the coast” for their intensity. The land winds are preceded in the latter end of March, or in the beginning of April, by whirlwinds, which, between eleven and twelve o'clock at noon, hurry, in various directions, mostly from west to east, towards the sea. These are called by the natives Peshashs or Devils, because they sometimes do a little mischief to the lighter buildings. * About the same time, or a little after the appearance of the whirlwinds, we may observe all ranges of hills garnished as it were with clouds, which become daily darker
* Samulcotah, in the northern Circars
and heavier, until they discharge themselves with much thunder and lightning in a heavy shower of rain. After this marked phenomenon, the land winds set in immediately with all the violence of which they are capable. Their commencement is generally in the latter end of April, or beginning of May, and their reign lasts to the earlier days of June, during which period they generally exert their violence from ten or eleven o'clock in the morning, until about three or four o’clock in the afterIndon. In this season the atmosphere is commonly hazy and thick, except that in the evenings and nights, the sky is screne and clear, provided the land winds do not continue the whole day. The rising sun which portends, a land wind day, appears of a fiery red, and as if involved in mist, which mist is changed afterwards into clouds that lie heavy on the Ghauts. The land-wind of each day is almost always preceded by a long calm, and immediately by a cloud of dust. Their diurnal violence is terminated along the coast about two or three o’clock, by the setting in of the sea breeze, which wafts delight and health as far as its influence extends, which is not more than ten or twelve miles inland. An abatement of their intensity from thence to the Ghauts, is ail that can be hoped for. The sea breeze regularly begins in the afternoon, at one or two o'clock, blowing pretty steadily until sunset, when it dies away gradually, and at sunrise it is again perceptible, though weakly. When I say its influence is only felt ten miles inland, I do not wish to be understood that it does not extand further; I mean only its powerful refreshing properties, which it loses in proportion to the distance from the sca, and in an in
verse ratio to its strength, which is not great. In general, it arrives at thirty miles distance from the sea, in the evening, and is then only agreeable by the ventilation it effectuateS. In the country above the Ghauts, as in Mysore, the east wind prevails also in the afternoon, but from a period much earlier, or cotemporaneous with the sea breeze on the coast, which renders it clear that this inland breeze either does not extend further than to the Ghauts, or really originates there; a point which deserves to be ascertained, as another phenomenon depends upon this circumstance. * Should the sea breeze fail, as sometimes happens, the land wind decreases gradually until it dies away in the beginning of the night, which, on account of its calmness is dismal to a degree: next morning, a little motion of the airis again perceptible, but at the usual time the wind sets in as strong and hot as the day before. Every thing we put our hands upon is then distressing to the touch, which must be the case when the temperature of the body is inferiour to that of the atmosphere. This we experienced for almost a fortnight in the year 1799, in the northesn Circars, when the thermometer, at eight o'clock in the night, stood at 108°, and at noon at 1 12°. Shades, globes, tumblers, then very often crack and break to pices, and the wooden furniture warps and shrinks so much, that even the nails fall out of the doors and tables, &c. In their greatest intensity, however, I have never seen the thermometer rise higher than 115°, viz. in the coolest part of the house, though some say they have observed it at 130°. The Ghauts, and the hills at no great distance from them, are then seen lighted all night by spontaneous fires, and often in a very picturesque manner. These illuminations appear, in
general, about the middle of the mountains, and seldom or never extend to the top or bottom of them. They take place especially on those hills on which the bamboos grow very thick, which has probably led the natives to explain this phenomemon so rationally, by ascribing it to the friction of these bushes against each other. Lieutenant Kater, of his majesty’s 12th regiment, thinks that the corky bark of the adenanthera flavonina, is often spontaneously inflamed, as he has frequently found, on his surveys, its bark converted into charcoal, and several of these trees burnt down to the roots, although they were not in the vicinity of any other trees. In Europe, I know these spontaneous ignitions have been much discredited; and I doubt not, but should these few sheets ever be published, many objections will be raised against what I have related; but I have endeavoured to state facts only, which a luxuriant imagination might have painted in more striking colours, but I am sure not with more strict adherence to truth. The land winds are noticed for the dryness which they generally produce on the face of the country, as well as on that of the animal creation. This sensation is particularly felt in the eyelids, which become, in some measure, quite stiff and painful. This is owing to the immediate volatilization of all humids that irrigate ou organs, and which, in this particular one, probably gives rise to inflammations of the
eyes, so frequent at this time of the year.” The continuance of this wind causes pains in the bones, and a general lassitude, in all that live; and in some, paralytick or hemiplectic affections. Its sudden approach has, besides, the dreadful effect of destroying men and animals instantaneously. It is very common to see large kites or crows, as they fly, drop down dead; and smaller birds I have known to die, or take refuge in houses, in such numbers, that a very numerous family has used nothing else for their daily meals than these victims of the inclemency of the season and their inhospitality. In populous places it is also not very uncommon to hear, that four or five peoplet have died in the streets in the course of a day, in consequence of being taken unprepared. This happens especially at the first setting-in of those winds. The natives use no other means of securing themselves against this wind, but shutting up their houses, and bathing in the morning and evening; Europeans cool it through wetted tats; made of straw or grass, sometimes of the roots of the wattie, which, wetted, exhale a pleasant but faint smell. It will be incredible to those that have never witnessed it, but the evaporation is really so great, that several people must be kept constantly throwing water upon the tats (eight feet by four) in order to have the desired effect of cooling a small room. It would be scarcely necessary to
* The eye-flies, so often supposed to occasion it, produce a transient and sharp pain in the eye, but never, I believe, a lasting inflammation it is generally thought infectious, and may be so by the interference of the eye-flies carrying the contagious matter from an affected eye to a sound one. - f Four people dropped down dead at Yanam, in the year 1797, an hour after my arrival there from Masulipatam; and at Sainulcotah, four or five died the same day on the short road between that place and Peddapore: the number of inhabitants of either of these places does not exceed, I believe, five thousand. # The frame of them is made of bamboos, in the form of the opening in the house to be tatted, let it be door or window, which is then covered with straw in the manner every one thinks best suited to retain the water longest.