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on her 100 ducats, or about 121, being one tenth of all he possessed, which thousand ducats would at present be equivalent to between three and four hundred pounds sterling. - * * In the following year he went to reside in Seville, where he remained till 1598. We know nothing of him after that time, till the year 1604, when he lived in Valladolid, and was employed as an agent in business. In 1605, a gentleman was murdered in the street in which Cervantes resided, and in consequence of the inquests which were made, we learn that in the apartments which were occupied in one of the houses in that street, there lodged Miguel de Cervantes, aged 57, Dona Catalina, his wife; Dona Isabel de Saavedra, his natural glaughter, spinster, 20 years of age, Dona Andrea, his sister, twice a widow, above 50 years old, her daughter, aged 28, and Maria Ce. yallos, their only servant, aged 18. Cervantes, his daughter, his sister, and her daughter, were sent to prison, but the next day they were all released upon bail, although confined to their own house, from which confinement they were soon liberated, and the court returning to Madrid, Cervantes followed it thither, and remained there during the remainder of his life.
Cervantes was always complaining of his poverty, and notwithstanding his military services, and his merits in the republick of letters, he could never emerge from that miserable state, because “we know not how it happens,” says Petronius, “that poverty is the sister of good understanding.”
Nescio quomodo paupertas soror est bonae mentis. Satir. p. 84.
And, as our author makes Gines de Pasemont say,
“Genius is always persecuted by misfortune.”
At last, Cervantes, undeceived, and convinced that he could not obtain any establishment, being continually persecuted by envy and ignorance, resolved to struggle no longer, but to live in retirement, and return, as he says, to his leisure, which he, however, employed in composing new works, and improving others.
Cervantes received a small pension from the archbishop of Toledo, and another from the count de Lemos, which barely kept him out of prison. Cervantes became a brother of the order of St. Francis, in his own house, where he was confined through illness on the 2d of April, 1616, like those, who
co to be sure of Paradise
Dying, put on the weeds of Dominick, Or in Franciscan think to pass disguised.” Parad. Lost, book 3.
He died three weeks after, and was buried in the poorest manner, in a convent in Madrid, without any epitaph, so that the precise place is not known.
The Spanish edition of Don Quixote, which was published in Madrid, 1797, in four volumes, in quarto, by Juan Antonio Pellicer, contains, in the life of Cervantes, the following paragraphs:
“After an illness, of seven months, died Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, on the 23d of the month of April, Anno 1616, in Madrid, aged 69. On
which day, died likewise, the celebrated English poet, William Shakspeare, aged 53.”
“A very good book may do much. harm, witness Don Quixote. Cervantes extinguished the brilliant ideas of chivalry; and since that period, Spain has been on the decline. It is dangerous to cure a people of its chimeras and irregularities, when those chimeras form the very essence of its character, and that character is a good one. There are certain follies which are worth preserving.”
The first English translation of Don Quixote was by Thomas Shelton, in 2 vols. 4to. 1620. The second edition of this book, was in 1652, in folio, 274 leaves, London, by Richard Hodgkinsonne. In the dedication Shelton says, he “ translated the Historie of Don Quixote, out of the Spanish tongue into the English, in the space of fourty dayes.” 274 leaves are 548 pages [in folio] 55 lines to a page and 16 words to a line, are contained in this edition; so that he translated 14 pages every day, or 770 lines, which would, even at this time, be considered as very laborious work. Perhaps this is the best English translation, or that of Smollet, as being the most modern: but a new edition of Jarvis’s translation has been lately published, with all the modern Spanish additions.
MR. WILLIAM PENN'S LETTER. My De AR wife AN D CHI I I, DR EN, My love, that sea nor land, nor
death itself, can extinguish or lessen toward you, most endearedly visits you with etermal embraces, and will abide with you for ever; and may the God of my life watch over you, and bless you, and do you good in this world, and for ever. Some things are, upon my spirits to leave with you, in your respective capacities, as I am to one a husband, and to the rest a father, if I should never see you more in this world.
My dear wife, remember thou wast the love of my youth, and much the joy of my life; the most beloved as well as the most worthy, of all my earthly comforts: and the reason of that love was more thy inward than thy outward excellencies (which yet were many.) God knows, and thou knowest it, I can say it was a match of Providence's making; and God’s image in us both was the first thing, and the most amiable and engaging ornament in our eyes. Now I am to leave thee, and that without knowing whether I shall ever see thee more in this world, take my counsel into thy bosom, and let it dwell with thee in my stead while thou livest. * -
1st, Let the fear of the Lord, and
a zeal and love to his glory, dwell richly in thy heart; and thou wilt watch for good over thyself and thy dear children and family, that no rude, light, or bad thing be committed; else God will be offended, and he will repent himself of the good he intends thee and thine. 2dly, Be diligent in meetings of worship and business; stir up thyself and others herein; ’tis thy duty and place; and let meetings be kept once
a day in the family to wait upon the
Lord, who has given us so much time for ourselves: and, my dearest, to make thy family-matters easy to thee, divide thy time, and be regular; ’tis easy and sweet; thy retirement will afford thee to do it: as in the morning to view the business of the house, and fix it as thou desirest, seeing all be in order; that by thy counsel all may move, and to thee render an account every evening. The time for work, for walking, for meals, may be certain, at least as near as may be; and grieve not thyself with careless servants, they will disorder thee; rather pay them, and let them go, if they will not be better by admonitions; this is best to avoid many words, which I know wound the soul, and offend the Lord,
3dly, Cast up thy income, and see what it daily amounts to; by which thou mayst be sure to have it in thy sight and power to keep within compass; and I beseech thee to live low and sparingly, till my debts are paid; and then enlarge as thou seest it convenient. Remember thy mother’s example when thy father's publick-spiritedness had worsted his estate (which is my case.) I know thou lovest plain things, and are averse to the pomp of the world; a nobility natural to thee. I write not as doubtful, but to quicken thee, for my sake, to be more vigilant herein; knowing that God will bless thy carc, and thy poor children and thee for it. My mind is wrapt up in a saying of thy father's, “I desire not riches, but to owe nothing;” and truly that is wealth; and more than enough to live, is a snare attended with many sorrows. I need not bid thee be humble, for thou art so; nor meek and patient, for it is much of thy natural disposition: but I pray thee be oft in retirement with the Lord, and guard against encroaching friendships. Keep them at arm’s end; for it is giving away our power, aye and self too, into the possession of another; and that which might seem engaging in the beginning may prove a yoke and burthen, too hard and heavy in the end. Wherefore keep dominion over thyself, and let thy children, good meetings, and friends, be the pleasure of thy life. 4thly, And now, my dearest, let me recommend to thy care my dear children; abundantly beloved of me as the Lord’s blessings, and the sweet pledges of our mutual and endeared affection. Above all things, endeavour to breed them up in the love of virtue, and that holy plain way of it which we have lived in, that the world, in no part of it, get into my family. I had rather they were homely than finely bred, as to outward behaviour; yet I love sweetness mixed with gravity, and cheerfulness tempered with sobriety. Religion in the heart leads into this true civility, teaching men and women to be mild and courteous in their behaviour; an accomplishment worthy indeed of praise. 5thly, Next breed them up in a love one of another; tell them ’tis the charge I left behind me; and that 'tis the way to have the love and blessing of God upon them: also what his portion is who hates or calls his brother fool. Sometimes separate them, but not long; and allow them to send and give each other small things, to endear one another with. Once more, I say, tell them it was my counsel, they should be tender and affectionate one to another. For their learning be liberal; spare no cost; for, by such par
simony all is lost that is saved; but let it be useful knowledge, such as is consistent with truth and godliness, not cherishing a vain conversation or idle mind; but ingenuity mixed with industry is good for the body and mind too. I recommend the useful parts of mathematicks, as building houses or ships, measuring, surveying, dialling, navigation, &c. but aggriculture is epecially in my eye: let my children be husbandmen and house wives: ’tis industrious, healthy, honest, and of good example: like Abraham, and the holy ancients, who pleased God, and obtained a good report. This leads to consider the works of God and nature, of things that are good, and diverts the mind from being taken up with the vain arts and inventions of a luxurious world. 'Tis commendable in the princes of Germany and nobles of that empire that they have all their children instructed in some useful occupation. Rather keep an ingenious person in the house to teach them than send them to schools; too many evil impressions being commonly received there. Be sure to observe their genius, and don’t cross it as to learning: let them not dwell too long on one thing, but let their change be agreeable, and all their diversions have some little bodily labour in them. When grown big have most care for them; for then there are more snares both within and without. When marriageable, see that they have worthy persons in their eye, of good life and good fame for piety and understanding. I need no wealth but sufficiency; and be sure their love be dear, fervent, and mutual, that it may be happy for them. I chuse not they should be married into earthly covetous kindred; and of cities and towns of concourse beware; the world is apt to stick close to those who have lived and got wealth there: a country life and estate I like best for my children. I prefer a decent mansion of an hundred pounds per annum, before ten thousand pounds in London, or such like place in a way of trade. In fine, my dear, endeavour to breed them dutiful to the Lord, and his blessed light, truth, and grace in their hearts, who is their Creator; and his fear will grow up with them. Teach a child (says the Wise Man) the way thou wilt have him to walk, and when he is old he will not forget it. Next, obedience to thee their dear mother; and that not for wrath, but for conscience sake: liberal to the poor, pitiful to the miserable, humble and kind to all, And may my God make thee a blessing, and give thee comfort in our dear children; and in age gather thee to the joy and blessedness of the just (where no death shall separate us) for ever. And now my dear children, that are the gifts and mercies of the God of your tender father; hear my counsel, and lay it up in your hearts; love it more than treasure, and follow it, and you shall be blessed here and happy hereafter. In the first place, remember your Creator in the days of your youth: it was the glory of Israel in the 2d of Jeremiah: and how did God bless Josiah, because he feared him in his youth; and so he did Jacob, Joseph, and Moses. Oh, my dear children remember, and fear, and serve him who made you, and gave you to me and your dear mother: and that you may live to him, and glorify him in your generations. To do this, in your youthful days seek after the Lord, that you may find him; remembering his great love in creating you; that you are not beasts, plants, or stones; but that he has kept you, and given his grace within and substance without, and provided plentifully for you. This remember in your youth, that you may be kept from the evil of the world: for in age it will be harder to overcome the temptations of it. Wherefore, my dear children, eschew the appearance of evil, and Vo L. V. 3 II
Christ, that he has given you for
your salvation; if you do this, and follow my counsel, God will bless you in this world, and give you an inheritance in that which shall never have an end. For the light of Jesus is of a purifying nature: it seasons those, who love it, and take heed to it; and never leaves such till it has brought them to the city of God, that has foundations. O ! that ye may be seasoned with the gracious nature of it; hide it in your hearts, and flee, my dear children, from all youthful lusts; the vain sports, pastimes, and pleasures of the world; redeeming the time, because the days are evil. You are now beginning to live: what would some give for your time ! Oh, I could have lived better, were I, as you, in the flower of youth. Therefore, love and fear the Lord, keep close to meetings, and delight to wait upon the Lord God of your father and mother, among his despised people, as we have done, and count it your honour to be members of that society, and heirs of that living fellowship which is enjoyed among them, for the experience of which, your father’s soul blesseth the Lord for ever. Next, be obedient to your dear mother, a woman whose virtues and good name is an honour to you; for she has been exceeded by none in her time for her plainness, integrity, industry, humility, virtue, and good understanding: qualities not usual among women of her worldly condition and quality. Therefore, honour and obey her, my dear children, as your mother, and your father's love and delight: nay, love her too, for she loved your father with a deep and upright love, chusing him before all her many suitors; and though she be of a delicate constitution and noble spirit, yet she de