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PREFACE.

DURING a period of peace the eras of cratic interest during the same year in history can not be so clearly perceived on France. The effects of the measures pura first and superficial glance as when they sued during this period were not perceived are marked by the decisive events of war; at the time, but they are very apparent but they are not on that account the less now. The seeds which produced such deobvious when their respective limits have cisive results in after times were all sown been once ascertained. The triumphs of during its continuance. It forms the subparties in the Senate House or the Forum ject of the first volume, now submitted to are not, in general, followed by the same the public. immediate and decisive results as those of The Second Period is still more clearly armies in the field ; and their consequen- marked; for it begins with the entire esces are often not fully developed for several tablishment of a Liberal government and years after they have taken place. But system of administration in France in they are equally real and decisive. The 1819, and ends with the Revolution which results do not follow with less certainty overthrew Charles X. in 1830. Foreign from the movements which have preceded transactions begin, during this era, to bethem. It is in tracing these results, and come of importance; for it embraces the connecting them with the changes in leg- revolutions of Spain, Portugal, Naples, and islation or opinion in which they origina- Piedmont in 1820 ; the rise of Greece as ted, that the great interest and utility of an independent state in the same year, the history of pacific periods consist. and the important wars of Russia with

The periods which have passed over dur. Turkey and Persia in 1828 and 1829; ing the thirty-seven years of European na- and the vast conquests of England in Intional peace—from the Fall of Napoleon, dia over the Goorkhas and Burmese emin 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napol- pire. This period will be embraced in eon, in 1852—are not so vividly marked as the second volume of this history. The those which occurred during the wars of topics it embraces are more various and the French Revolution, but they have a exciting than those in the first, but they distinctness of their own, and the changes are not more important: they are the in which they terminated were not less growth which followed the seeds previ. important. The resumption of cash pay- ously sown. England and France were ments in England in 1819 was not, to still the leaders in the movement; the outward appearance, so striking an event convulsions of the world were but the as the battle of Austerlitz, but it was fol. consequence of the throes in them. lowed by results of equal permanent im The Third Period commences with the portance. The Reform Bill was not the great debate on the Reform Bill—of two cause of so visible a change in human af- years' continuance-in England in 1931, fairs as the battle of Wagram, but it was and ends with the overthrow of the Whig attended with consequences equally grave Ministry, by the election of October, 1841. and lasting. Without pretending to have The great and lasting effects of the change discerned with perfect accuracy, as yet, in the Constitution of Great Britain, by the the most important of the many important passing of the Reform Act, partially develevents which have signalized this memo-oped themselves during this period ; and rable era, it may be stated that it natu- the return of Sir Robert Peel to power rally divides itself into five periods. was the first great reaction against them.

The First, commencing with the entry During the same time, the natural effects of the Allies into Paris after the fall of of the Revolution in France appeared in Napoleon, terminates with the passing of the government, unavoidable in the cirthe Currency Act of 1819 in England, and cumstances, of mingled force and corrupthe great creation of peers in the demo- tion of Louis Philippe, and the growth of

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discontent in the inferior classes of society, the Indus and the Himalaya snows. At from the disappointment of thoir expecta- the same time, the spirit of republican tions as to the results of the previous con- aggrandizement, not less powerful in the vulsion. Foreign episodes of surpassing New than in the Old World, impelled the interest signalize this period ; for it con- Anglo-Saxons over their feeble neighbors tains the heroic effort of the Poles to re-in Mexico; Texas was overrun 1-CALI store their national independence in 1831; FORNIA conquered—and the discovery of the revolt of Ibrahim Pacha, the bombard- gold mines, of vast extent and surpassing ment of Acre, and the narrow escape of riches, hitherto unknown to man, changed Turkey from ruin ; our invasion of Af- the fortunes of the world. The simulta ghanistan, and subsequent disaster there. neous discovery of mines of the same preThis period, so rich in important changes cious metal in AustRALIA acted as a magand interesting events, will form the sub- net, which attracted the stream of migraject of the third volume.

tion and civilization, for the first time in The Fourth Period, commencing with the history of mankind, to the Eastern the noble constancy in adversity displayed World ; and now, while half a million by Sir Robert Peel and the English Gov- Europeans annually land in America, ernment in 1842, terminates with the over- and double the already marvelous rate of throw of Louis Philippe, and consequent Transatlantic increase, a hundred thou European Revolutions in February, 1848. sand Anglo-Saxons yearly migrate to AusIf these years were fraught with internal tralia, and lay the foundations of a secand social changes of the very highest ond England and another Europe, in the moment to the future fortunes of Great vast seats provided there for their recepBritain, and of the whole civilized world, tion. they were not less distinguished by the Events so wonderful, and succeeding brilliancy of her external triumphs. They one another with such rapidity, must imwitnessed the second expedition into Af- press upon the most inconsiderate observer ghanistan and capture of Cabul; the con- the belief of a great change going forward clusion of a glorious peace with China in human affairs, of which we are the under the walls of Nankin; the conquest unconscious instruments. That change of Scinde, and desperate passage of arms is THE SECOND DISPERSION OF MANKIND ; on the Sutlej. Never did appear in such the spread of civilization, the extension of striking colors the immense superiority Christianity, over the hitherto desert and which the arms of civilization had ac- unpeopled parts of the earth. It is hard quired over those of barbarism, as in this to say whether the passions of civilization, brief and animating period.

the discoveries of science, or the treasures The Fifth Period commences with the of the wilderness have acted most poweroverthrow of Louis Philippe in Februa- fully in working out this great change. ry, 1848, and terminates with the seizure The first developed the energy in the of supreme power by Louis Napoleon in breast of civilized man, which rendered 1852. It is, beyond all example, rich in him capable of great achievements, and external and internal events of the very inspired him with passions which prompthighest moment, and attended by lasting ed him to seek a wider and more unfet. consequences in every part of the world. tered situation for their gratification than It witnessed the spread of revolution over the Old World could afford. The second, Germany and Italy, and the desperate in the discoveries of steam, furnished him military strife to which it gave rise; the with the means of reaching with facility brief but memorable campaign in Italy the most distant parts of the earth, and and Hungary; and the bloodless suppres- armed him with powers which rendered sion of revolution in Great Britain and barbarous nations powerless to repel his Ireland by the patriotism of her people advance; the third presented irresistible and the firmness of her government. In attractions, at the same time, in the most teresting, however, as these events were, remote parts of the earth, which overcame they yield in ultimate importance to those the attachments of home and the indowhich, at the same period, were in prog- lence of aged civilization, and sent forth ress in the distant parts of the earth. The the hardy emigrant, a willing adventurrich territories of the Punjaub were, dur-er, to seek his fortune in the golden loting it, added to the British dominions intery of distant lands.

No such powerIndia, which was now bounded only by | ful causes, producing the dispersion of the

species, have come into operation since from the effect of these very passions, the mankind were originally separated on the British family is rapidly increasing in dis. Assyrian plains; and it took place from tant hemispheres, and that the human an attempt, springing from the pride and race is deriving fresh life and vigor, and ambition of man, as vain as the building spreading over the wilds of nature, from the Tower of Babel.

the causes which portend its decline in its That attempt was the endeavor to es- former habitations. tablish social felicity, and insure the for As the history of a period fraught with tunes of the species, by the mere spread such momentous changes, and distinguishof knowledge, and the establishment of ed by such ceaseless and rapid progress,

emocratic institutions, irrespective of the as that which is undertaken in this work, moral training of the people. As this of necessity brings the author in contact project was based on the pride of intellect, with all the great questions, social and and rested on the doctrine of human per- political, which have agitated society dur fectibility, so it met with the same result ing its continuance, he has deemed it esas the attempt, by a tower raised by hu- sential invariably to follow out the two man hands, to reach the heavens. Car- rules which were observed in his former ried into execution by •fallible agents, it publication. These were, to give invawas met and thwarted by their usual riably at the end of every paragraph the passions; and the selfishness and grasping authorities, by volume and page, on which desires of men led to a scene of discord it is founded; and never to introduce a and confusion unparalleled since the be- great question without giving as copious ginning of the world. But it terminated an abstract as the limits of the work will in the same result in Europe as in Asia : admit, of the facts and arguments brought the building of the political tower of Babel forward on both sides. The latter, espe. in France was attended by consequences cially, seemed to be peculiarly called for identical with those which had followed in a work which is more occupied with the construction of its predecessor on the social and political than with military plains of Shinar. The dispersion of man- changes, and which is occupied with a kind followed, in both cases, the vain at- period when the victories were won in the tempt; and after, and through the agen- Forum or the Senate-House, not the field. cy of a protracted period of suffering, men The author has made no attempt to disin surpassing multitudes found themselves guise his own opinions on every subject; settled in new habitations, and forever but he has not exerted himself the less severed from the land of their birth, from anxiously to give, with all the force and the consequences of the visionary projects clearness in his power, those which are in which they had been engaged. adverse to it; and he should regret to

Views of this kind must, in the present think that the reader could find in any aspect of human affairs, force themselves other publication a more forcible abstract upon the most inconsiderate mind; and of the arguments in favor of Parliamentthey tend at once to unfold the designs of ary Reform, a Contracted Currency found. Providence, now so manifest in the direc- ed on the retention of gold, or Free Trade tion of human affairs, and to reconcile us in corn and shipping, than are to be met to much which might lead to desponding with in this. views if we confined our survey to the In making this abstract, he has adopted fortunes of particular states. An examin- two rules, which seemed essential to the ation of the social and political condition combining a faithful record of opposite of the principal European monarchies, opinions with the interest and limits necparticularly France and England, at this essary in a work of general history. The time, and a retrospect of the changes they first is to give one argument only on each have undergone during the last thirty side, and not attempt to give separate abyears, must probably lead every impartial stracts of the speeches of different men. person to the conclusion that the period Felicitous or eloquent expressions are ocof their greatest national eminence has casionally preserved; but, in general, the passed, and that the passions by which argument given is rather an abridgment they are now animated are those which of the best parts of the arguments of many tend to shorten their existence. But we different speakers than a transcript of the shall cease to regard this inevitable change oration of any one. That this is neceswith melancholy, when we reflect that, I sary, must be obvious, from the considera

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