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Hyder Saheb, the former about early age, and that his subsequent nine, tlie latter seven years of age, temper was not found fitted to were called upon for payment. bear the control of a pedagogue. The usual methods were resorted When approaching maturity of to and succeeded ; but not before age, he had shown a greater disthe torture, in its most cruel and position to the pursuit of pleasure ignominious forms, had been ap- and the sports of the chase, than plied to both the boys, and pro- to the restraints of a military life ; bably to their mother. This in- and would frequently absent himhuman conduct was not forgotten; self for weeks together, secretly and it will be seen in the sequel immersed in voluptuous riot, or that Hyder, in his prosperous for- passing with facility, as was the tune, sought his revenge after the habit of his whole life, to the oplapse of thirty-two years, with all posite extreme of abstinence and the virulence belonging to the excessive exertion ; wandering in memory of a recent injury. the woods while pursuing, not

The family, plundered of its without danger, his favourite property, was permitted to depart, amusements. In the siege of and the mother, after the loss of Deonhully he began to pay atevery thing but her children and tention to the profession of arms, her honour, * proceeded to Banga- first appearing as a volunteer Jore to seek the protection of her horseman in his brother's corps, brother Ibraham Saheb, who was and afterwards occasionally in. in the service of the Killadar of trusted with the command of parthat place, with a small command ties of infantry in the trenches. of Peons. When the elder bro. He was observed

service ther Shabaz Saheb had attained of danger to lead the way, and to a sufficient age, his uncle pro- conduct himself with a coolness cured for him a recommendation and self-possession seldom found toa Hindoo officer of rank at Serin- in a young soldier. This bungling gapatam, and he was received into and unskilful siege, directed by a the service as a subordinate offi- man who had neither seen cer of Peons, in which situation studied the profession of arms, and he distinguished himself, and gra. possessed no quality of a soldier dually rose to the command of but headlong courage, was protwo hundred horse and one thou- tracted for nine months, when the sand Peons, which he now held Poligar consented to evacuate the in the army before Deonhully. place on the condition of being Hyder, although twenty-seven permitted to retire unmolested years of age, was not in the ser- with his family to his relation the vice ; and as he remained through Poligar of little Balipoor. In the life unacquainted with the first course of this service Hyder was elements of reading or writing, it distinguished by the particular may be inferred that the misfor- favour of Nunjeraj; and, at its tunes of his family prevented an close, was raised at once to the attention to this object during his command of fifty horse and two

on every

nor

• The exact phrase of the original Suttaun à Towareekh by Tippoo Sultaun,

hundred infantry, with orders to the plunderers received, besides recruit and augment his corps, and their direct pay, one half of the to the charge of one of the gates booty which was realized; the of this frontier fortress.

other half was appropriated by Hyder, under a combination of

checks which rendered it nearly Anecdotes of Hyder. From impossible to secrete any portion

of ihe plunder. Moveable property the same.

of every description was their obIn the course of the operations ject; and, as already noticed, they before Trichinopoly, the Beder did not hesitate to acquire it by peons, in the service of Hyder, simple theft from friends, when that were gradually augmented, and could be done without suspicion, exercised their usual industry; and with more convenience than and a body of select Pindaries, or from enemies. Nothing was unBeid, was also gradually raised seasonable or unacceptable ; from for similar purposes. This de- convoys of grain, down to the scription of horse receive no pay clothes, turbans, earrings, of train the service of many of the states vellers, or villagers, whether men, of India, but live on the devasta. women, or children. Cattle and tion of the enemy's country. sheep were among the most profit. Hyder, on his first nomination to able heads of plunder: muskets a command, had engaged in his and horses were sometimes observice à bramin muiteseddy, tained in booty, sometimes by named Kundè Row, who will occu- purchase. The numbers under his py a prominent place in our future command increased with his narrative. To the cool and cal- resources: and before he left culating mind of a bramin ac- Trichinopoly, besides the usual countant, this man added great appendages of a chief of rank, sagacity and original thinking ; a in elephants, camels, tents, and boldness which did not hesitate magnificent appointments, he was regarding means; and a combina- rated on the returns and received tion of ideas which enabled him pay for one thousand five hundred to convert the unprofitable busi- horse, three thousand regular in. ness of war into a regular system fantry, two thousand peons, and of finance. Hyder, who could four guns, with their equipments. neither read nor write, remedied Of the horses, five hundred were this defect of education by trust- his own property ; and the differing to a most extraordinary me- ence between the sum allowed by mory; and valued himself, at this government, and that disbursed in early period of his political life, the pay of the man, and the proon going through arithmetical vender of the horse, was Hyder's calculations of some length, with profit. In consideration of his equal accuracy, and more quick, furnishing the cannon and their ness, than the most expert ac- draught, the muskets and accou. countant. The consultations of trements of regular infantry, he these two persons produced a sys. was allowed a certain sum for each tem, regularly organized, by which gun with its equipments, and for every hundred men; and was per- friend, until he had reached the promitted to make his own agree- per position; when, the distribuments with the individuals at in- tion of troops being previously ferior rates; they also, as well as made, he swept off the whole of the rest of his troops, regularly ac- the cattle of the open country, counting for one half of the plun- and drove them rapidly to Darader they acquired. Some portion poor; where they were divided of this description belongs to the according to compact, and sold system of most native armies, and at high prices, generally to their would enter into the history of former proprietors. He now com: most successful Indian chiefs; but menced his operations against none ever combined with so much the Poligars, in which, after an skill the perfect attachment of his obstinate and protracted contest, men, with the conversion to his he

was ultimately successful. own use of so large a portion of Among the deceptions which he what was issued for their pay- practised on the government in ment: and Sevagi alone could be the course of this service, some brought into competition with were so ludicrously gross, that I Hyder for theregular organization should hesitate to state them, if of a system of plunder.

they had not been related to me The designation of Hyder's by more than one eye-witness. new appointment was that of Fou. Nunjeraj, on the receipt of Hyder's jedar of Dindegul ; and having re- dispatches, with a long list of cruited his corps with the most killed and wounded, sent a special select of the men discharged by commissioner with rich presents Nunjeraj, he marched at the head for Hyder and the officers who of five thousand regular infantry, were represented to have distintwo thousand fi hundred horse, guished themselves and Zuckhum two thousand peons and six guns. puttee for the wounded. This The department of accounts under officer was soon made to underKundè Row had necessarily been stand his business. Zuckhum augmented, and furnished em- puttee is an allowance to wounded ployment for several clerks, who men, as some compensation for were well versed in his system; their sufferings, and for the purand on the departure of Hyder pose of enabling them to defray to a distant station, it was con- the expences of their cure; for sidered expedient that his confi- an Indian army has neither hosdential friend and servant Kundè pitals, nor surgeons, provided by Row should remain at court to the State. The allowance on this watch over his interests. On ap- occasion was fourteen rupees a proaching Pylney and Veerapat- month, until the cure should be chey, he lulled those Poligars into completed. Hyder marshalled security by offering to exert his his wounded men to be inspected influence at court to obtain a re- by the commissioner : sixty-seven mission of their tribute on condi. was the true number ; but about tion of their consenting to serve

seven' hundred had their legs or with his army; and was thus per

arms bound up with yellow bandamitted to pursue his rout as a ges, and acted their parts with en

tire success. The money was ter to Nunjeraj ; exaggerating the paid to Hyder according to the disturbed state of the country muster, and to the probable time and the necessity of augmenting of cure reported by the attending the forces; which was accordingly surgeons, at the rate of fourteen authorized from time to time, and rupees per man per month. To assignments on the revenues of the really wounded he gave seven other districts were added for that and of the presents brought for purpose to his other resources. the officers of the army he made Special commissioners were al. a distribution equally skilful, ways deputed to muster the new while each officer was made to levies ; and on one occasion, believe that he was the person Jehan Khan saw exhibited the most particularly favoured by manceuvre which he calls a circu. Hyder. During these operations lar muster, by which ten thousand Kundè Row perpetually men were counted and passed as sounding the exploits of his masa eighteen thousand.

was

VOL. LIII.

2 E.

418

MANNERS, CUSTOMS, &c.

.

OF

NATIONS AND CLASSES or PEOPLE.

I on her to perform

Account Of A SINGULAR Sect placed on a block : the blacksmith AT MYsoor.

places a chisel over the articulation

of the joint, and chops it off at a From Historical Sketches of the single blow. If the girl to be be

South of India, by Lieut. Col. trothed is motherless, and the moMark Wilks.

ther of the boy have not before

been subjected to the operation, it N

gut to Deonhully in the month the sacrifice. of August, 1805, I became acci- After satisfying myself with redentally informed of a sect, pecu- gard to the facts of the case, I inliar, as I since understand, to the quired into the origin of so strange north-eastern parts of Mysoor, the a practice, and one of the women women of which universally un- related with great fluency the foldergo the amputation of the first lowing traditionary tale, which has joints of the third and fourth fin- since been repeated to die with no gers of their right hands. On my material deviation by several others arrival at Deonhully, after ascer- of the sect. taining that the request would not A Rachas (or giant), named give offence, I desired to see some Vrica, and in after times Bus. of these women, and the same maasoor, or the giant of the ashes, afternoon seven of them attended had, by a course of austere devoat my tent.

tion to Mahadeo, obtained from The sect is a subdivision of the him the promise of whatever boon Murresoo wokul, and belongs to he should ask. The Rachas acthe fourth great class of Hindoos, cordingly demanded, that every viz. the Souder. Every woman of person, on whose head he should the sect, previously to piercing the place his right hand, might incars of her eldest daughter, pre- stantly be reduced to ashes ; and paratory to her being betrothed in Mahadeo conferred the boon, marriage, must necessarily under- without suspicion of the purpose go this mutilation, which is per- for which it was designed. formed by the blacksmith of the The Racbas no sooner found village for a regulated fee, by a himself possessed of this formidasurgical process sufficiently rude. ble power, than he attempted to The finger to be amputated is use it for the destruction of his

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