yet, strange to tell, in some dise excellence, we may be disposed to tricts, by reciprocal concessions, judge with more charity of the and a coalition of religious dogmas absurdity of these distinctions. with temporal interests, they have The Jungum priests and the elect descended to receive as their spi- among their disciples abstain alto. ritual preceptors the cast of which gether from animal food; while the they have been successively the Sheneveea bramins of the Concan martyrs and persecutors, and are and the Deckan indulge in fish ; consequently considered as here- and many of Bengal, Hindostan, tics or renegadoes by the genuine and Cashmire, eat the flesh of fawn, jungum.

of mutton, and whatever is slain in The religion which inculcates sacrifice: the bramins of the south what is real, in preference to the abhor these abominations, but the observance of form, is, according latter at least is distinctly authoto this sect, of great antiquity; and rized by Menu and all the ancient they consider Chen Bas Ishwur, a Smirtis, as the most bigoted are native of Callian in the Deckan, compelled to admit. the reputed founder of the sect in In the leading traits of the docthe eleventh century, to have been trine of the Jungum which have only the restorer of the ancient hitherto been noticed we recognize true belief ; and in spite of the the hand of a rational reformer. most sanguinary persecutions, they The sequel is not so favourable. are found scattered in considerable The Jungum profess the exclusive numbers over the Concan, Canara, worship of Siva ; and the approDeckan, Mysoor, and every part priate emblem of that deity in its of the south of India, and consti- most obscene form, enclosed in a tute a considerable portion of the diminutive silver or copper shrine, population of Coorg, the Raja him. or temple, is suspended from the self being of that persuasion, as neck of every votary as a sort of were the former Rajas of Mysoor, personal god; and from this cirBednore, and Loonda.

cumstance they are usually distin. The fanciful notions of internal guished by the name of Ling-ayet, and external purity and unclean- or Lingevunt. They profess to ness (the former having a twofold consider Siva as the only god; but division of bodily and mental) are on the subject of this mode of dethe foundation of most of the dis- votion they are not communicative, tinction of casts which seem so ab- and the other sects attribute to surd to Europeans. To the question them not very decent mysteries, of what is the difference between It is however a dogma of general such and such a cast, the first an- notoriety, that if a Jungum has swer will certainly be to indicate the mischance to lose his personal what they respectively can and can- god, he ought not to survive that not eat; but when we consider the misfortune. plausible dogma not altogether un- Poornia, the present minister of known in Europe, that a regular Mysoor, relates an incident of a and abstemious life (which they Ling-ayet friend of his who had would name the internal purity of unhappily lost his portable god, the body) contributes to mental and came to take a last farewell.


The Indians, like more enlightened has the entire direction of the renations, readily laugh at the absur- venues, but allows the bramins to dities of every sect but their own, officiate in the ceremonial part acand Poornia gave him better coun- cording to their own good pleasure, sel. It is a part of the ceremonial as a concern altogether below his preceding the sacrifice of the indi: notice. He has generally the revidual, that the principal persons putation of an irreproachable life, of the sect should assemble on the and is treated by the bramins of the bank of some holy stream, and temple with great reverence;

while placing in a basket the lingum on his part he looks down with images of the whole assembly, pu- compassion at the absurd trifles rify them in the sacred waters. The which occupy their attention. destined victim, in conformity to These facts seem to point to the advice of his friend, suddenly some former revolution in which a seized the basket and overturned Jungum government obtained the its contents into the rapid Caveri. superiority over the braminical Now, my friends, said he, we are establishments, and adopted this on equal terms : let us prepare to mild mode of superseding the subdie together. The discussion ter- stantial part of their authority. It minated according to expectation. is a curious instance of the sooder The whole party took an oath of being the spiritual lord of the brainviolable secrecy, and each pri- min, and is worthy of farther bisvately provided himself with a new torical investigation. image of the lingum.

Mr. Ellis considers the Jungum of the upper countries, and the ON THE JAIN. From the same. Pandarum of the lower, to be of the same sect, and both to deny in The following abstract is the rethe most unequivocal terms the sult of several conversations with doctrine of the metempsychosis. Dhermia, a Jain bramin far adA manuscript in the Mackenzie vanced in years, whom Lieutenant collection ascribes the origin of the Colonel Mackenzie has discovered Pandarums, as a sacerdotal order and taken into his service since that of the servile cast, to the religious essay was written; and corresponds disputes which terminated in the in what relates to their doctrines, suppression of the Jain religion in with the notes of similar discusthe Pandian (Madura) kingdom, sions taken by Pere Dubois, a and the influence which they at- worthy and intelligent missionary tained, to the aid which they ren- who has lived for seventeen years dered to the bramins in that con- among the Hindoos as one of troversy ; but this origin seems to themselves. require confirmation. In a large The ancient religion of India, portion, perhaps in the whole, of and, as Dhermia supposes, of the the braminical temples dedicated whole world, was uniform : nameto Siva in the provinces of Arcot, ly, the worship of one God, a pure Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Madura, spirit, indivisible, without form, and Tinnevelly, the Pandarum is or extent, or any corporeal attrithe high priest of the temple, and bute, omniscient, all powerful,

possessing infinite wisdom, and bramios the Jain attributes all the infinite happiness. Absorbed in corruptions of the present state of the contemplation of his own per- religion; the fabrication of the four fections, he interferes in no respect vedas; the eighteen Pooranas; the in the government of the universe, blasphemous doctrine of the Trior in terrestrial concerns. Having ‘mourty, or three Gods, and the originally given to all things their monstrous fables which relate to appointed order and course of ac- it ; the Avatars of Vishnoo; the tion; having rendered punishment obscene worship of the lingum, of the inevitable result of vice, and cows and snakes, of the sun, the happiness after death the sure re- stars, the planets, and the eleward of virtue ; he leaves mankind ments ; the sacredness of the to the consequences of their ac. waters of the Ganges, and other tions, and considers with indiffer- rivers ; and the whole catalogue ence the complicated effects of of modern superstition. These good and evil upon earth which corruptions, as the Jain affirms, necessarily arise from the opera- did not take place at once, but tion of free-will.

have been gradually introduced ; After death the virtuous go to and among them the crime of Heordwaloga (Paradise), and the murder, in the sacrifice of animals, wicked to Ashdaloga (Hell), for a which though less frequent now determined number of years, ac- than at some former times, is still cording to the measure of their ac- practised in the Egniam. tions upon earth; at the expiration Even the remnant of the Jain of that period they return again on which had survived the repeated earth to a new state of existence, persecutions incited by the bradetermined also by their conduct mins has not escaped the corrupin the last; and thus to circulate tion of the times ; and the rites of through various transmigrations. their religion in the temples forBut a superior degree of sanctity merly most sacred (as those of Capurifies the soul from the grossness nara, Baligola, and Mudgery) are of corporeal contact, and causes it now performed by unqualified perto be reunited for ever with the sons of the third cast ; whom divine spirit. The twenty-four Dhermia considers as heretics. I Teerters, or saints, of this religion have myself conversed with the have thus been deified, and they Gooroos of the two former places, are worshipped accordingly, as mentioned by Major Mackenzie being intimately and inseparably and Doctor Buchanan in the ninth united with God.

volume of the Asiatic Researches; Although the fourfold division and they have acknowledged to of casts prevails among the Jain, me that they are Vaysias. The and they, like the ordinary Hin- Jain bramins appear to have been doos, have their bramins, we are

the select objects of persecution ; obliged for want of more conve- and in all Mysoor not more than nient terms to discriminate the fifty or sixty families now remain. sects, by calling thedoctrine of the I have heard of none in any other latter that of the bramins, and the part of the south, and the only former that of the Jain. To the temple where the rites of the reliThis person

gion are duly performed is in the to the extent of being professed small village of

Maleyoor, of which by several dynasties of kings, Dhermia is one of the officiating among whom we may enumerate priests.

with some certainty a very ancient The bramins relate with exulta- dynasty which ruled at or near tion the lacs of Jain who have Conjeveram before that part of been destroyed at different periods, Drauveda was conquered or coloin persecutions which appear to nized by the Chola dynasty, and have been more sanguinary than assumed the name of Tondamunany recorded in the western delum, from the name of the son world : and the following brief of the Chola king who commanded notice of these persecutions is taken the expedition; the Pandean rulchiefly from the bramins, and from ing at Madura; and a branch of documents in the Mackenzie col. it in Canara ; and the Hoisala or lection. The earliest persecutor Bellals who ruled at Doorasumof the Jain of whom I have remoder, now called the Hallabede, ceived any distinct account, is near the western range of the Bhutt Acharya, who lived about hills of Mysoor. In 1133 Ramaor before the commencement of nuja or Ramanjacharee, the fathe Christian æra.

mous Vishnavite reformer, flying had become the disciple of a Jain from the persecution of a king of Gooroo for the express purpose of the Chola dynasty in Tanjore of learning the philosophy of that the sect of Siva, who exacted a sect (in which the bramins admit confession of faith from all his that they excelled), and thus de- subjects, ascended to Mysoor, and feating them with their own wea- converted to the Vishnavite relia pons. He betrayed what he found gion the reigning king of the last exceptionable in their doctrines; mentioned dynasty, named Veera and after having excited against Narsa Bellal, who thenceforth as. them the most active persecution, sumed the name of Vishnoo Verfinally condemned himself to pe- dana ; and it is to the persecution rish by a slow fire, as an expiation of this period that the bramins for the crime of having betrayed exultingly refer for the final exhis Gooroo. In the act of sustain- tinction of the Jain, by the most ing this punishment at Hurdwar, extensive slaughter and unheard where the Ganges enters Hindos- of torments, one of which was tan, he was visited by the cele- that of grinding them in an oilbrated Sancara Acharya, a native mill. of Kerala or Malabar. In the The relative antiquity of the midst of his sufferings Bhutt Jain and the bramins cannot perAcharya instructed this apt dis- haps at present be decided : there ciple, and exhorted him to con- is little room to doubt that they tinue the holy work of persecution: were originally the same, and the an injunction which Sancara question would relate to the docAcharya effectually observed in trine which each of them pretend his travels through every part of to have preserved unpolluted. But India. The Jain religion however it appears to me incontestable, that continued to flourish to the south, the distinction of doctrine and se


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paration of sects had taken place PRESENT STATE OF EDUCATION beforethe expedition of Alexander. AND LITERATURE IN ICELAND, On asking Dhermia the reason of BY HENRY HOLLAND, M. D. prefixing the popular term Sravana to the names of all their temples, From Sir George Steuart Mackenhe tells me that the word is a cor- zie's Travels in Iceland. ruption of Sramana, the most usual term for the sect, or rather for the In the Dissertation prefixed to holy persons belonging to it; he this volume, an attempt has been enumerated six other distinctive made to explain the circumstances terms which are indiscriminately in which the literature of the Iceapplied to them, viz. Arhata, Di- landers originated, and to trace its gumbera, Jenna, Jaina, and Pra- progress through the successive mâna, It will not probably be periods of the history of the island. questioned that the Sramana are It will be the object of this chapter the Sarmanes, Germanes, Samanes; to complete the view of Icelandic and Pramana the Pramnæ of the literature, by exhibiting the preancient authors of the west. Strabo sent state of mental cultivation would seem to consider the Ger- among the people ; their institumanes and the Pramnæ as distinct tions for the promotion of learnsects; but both are said to be op- ing; and the modes of education ponents of the Brachmanes, and among different classes of the comthe latter particularly to ridicule mụnity. From the more minute their study of astrology. It may description to which they lead, be noticed as a confirmation of these circumstances could not with the distinction of doctrine at this propriety form a part in the geneperiod, that Philostratus and Pliny ral history of the country; though, speak of the Brachmanes as wor- as a sequel to it, they may possibly shipping the sun ; but although be interesting to the reader. some obscurity may be expected in The picture of the present state the imperfect information of the of literature in Iceland is much ancients, I do not find this worship less imposing than that of its early any where attributed to the Sar- condition andgrowth. Thechanges manes or Pramnæ, who to this day however, which the lapse of time hold it in abhorrence. The Zar- has effected, are rather relative, manochagas, noticed so much by than absolute in their nature; and ancient authors for having publicly though the glory of the Icelanders destroyed himself at Athens, was is now for ever sunk, and their probably a Jain.

In a note on name almost lost among nations, Strabo, lib.15--1048, on this name, yet in their own island they still we are told that old manuscripts keep alive much of that spirit of (Veteres libri) have two distinct literary pursuit by which the chawords, Zarmanas and Chagas, and racter of their ancestors was so Dion Cassius names this person greatly distinguished. A few of Zarmanes without any addition. the names which adorn the moSramana-ganna, as Dhermia in- dern history of the country have forms me, is the usualformofspeech already been mentioned. At the to indicate the sect of Jain. present time there are many india

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