possessing infinite wisdom, and bramins the Jain attributes all the infinite happiness. Absorbed incorruptions of the present state of the contemplation of his own per- religion; the fabrication of the four fections, he interferes in no respect vedas; the eighteen Pooranas ; the in the government of the universe, blasphemous doctrine of the Trior in terrestrial concerns. Having 'mourty, or three Gods, and the originally given to all things their monstrous fables which relate to appointed order and course of ac- it ; the Avatars of Vishnoo; the tion; having rendered punishment obscene worship of the lingum, of the inevitable result of vice, and cows and snakes, of the sun, the happiness after death the sure re- stars, the planets, and the eleward of virtue; he leaves mankind ments; the sacredness of the to the consequences of their ac- waters of the Ganges, and other tions, and considers with indiffer- rivers ; and the whole catalogue ence the complicated effects of of modern superstition. These good and evil upon earth which corruptions, as the Jain affirms, necessarily arise from the opera- did not take place at once, but tion of free-will.

have been gradually introduced ; After death the virtuous go to and among them the crime of Heordwaloga (Paradise), and the murder, in the sacrifice of animals, wicked to Ashdaloga (Hell), for a which though less frequent now determined number of years, ac- than at some former times, is still cording to the measure of their ac- practised in the Egniam. tions upon earth; at the expiration Even the remnant of the Jain of that period they return again on which had survived the repeated earth to a new state of existence, persecutions incited by the bradetermined also by their conduct mins has not escaped the corrupin the last; and thus to circulate tion of the times ; and the rites of through various transmigrations. their religion in the temples forBut a superior degree of sanctity merly most sacred (as those of Capurifies the soul from the grossness nara, Baligola, and Mudgery) are of corporeal contact, and causes it now performed by unqualified perto be reunited for ever with the sons of the third cast ; whom divine spirit. The twenty-four Dhermia considers as heretics. I Teerters, or saints, of this religion have myself conversed with the have thus been deified, and they Gooroos of the two former places, are worshipped accordingly, as mentioned by Major Mackenzie being intimately and inseparably and Doctor Buchanan in the ninth united with God.

volume of the Asiatic Researches; Although the fourfold division and they have acknowledged to of casts prevails among the Jain, me that they are Vaysias. The and they, like the ordinary Hin- Jain bramins appear to have been doos, have their bramins, we are

the select objects of persecution ; obliged for want of more conve- and in all Mysoor not more than nient terms to discriminate the fifty or sixty families now remain. sects, by calling the doctrine of the I have heard of none in any other Jatter that of the bramins, and the part of the south, and the only former that of the Jain. To the temple where the rites of the religion are duly performed is in the to the extent of being professed small village of Maleyoor, of which by several dynasties of kings, Dhermia is one of the officiating among whom we may enumerate priests.

with some certainty a very ancient The bramins relate with exulta. dynasty which ruled at or near tion the lacs of Jain who have conjeveram before that part of been destroyed at different periods, Drauveda was conquered or coloin persecutions which appear to nized by the Chola dynasty, and have been more sanguinary than assumed the name of Tondamunany recorded in the western delum, from the name of the son world: and the following brief of the Chola king who commanded notice of these persecutions is taken the expedition, the Pandean rulchiefly from the bramins, and from ing at Madura; and a branch of documents in the Mackenzie col. it in Canara ; and the Hoisala or lection. The earliest persecutor

Bellals who ruled at Doorasumof the Jain of whom I have re. moder, now called the Hallabede, ceived any distinct account, is near the western range of the Bhutt Acharya, who lived about hills of Mysoor. In 1133 Ramaor before the commencement of nuja or Ramanjacharee, the fathe Christian æra. This person mous Vishnavite reformer, flying had become the disciple of a Jain from the persecution of a king of Gooroo for the express purpose of the Chola dynasty in Tanjore of learning the philosophy of that the sect of Siva, who exacted a sect (in which the bramins admit confession of faith from all his that they excelled), and thus de subjects, ascended to Mysoor, and feating them with their own wea- converted to the Vishnavite relipons. He betrayed what he found gion the reigning king of the last exceptionable in their doctrines; mentioned dynasty, named Veera and after having excited against Narsa Bellal, who thenceforth asthem the most active persecution, sumed the name of Vishnoo Verfinally condemned himself to pe- dana ; and it is to the persecution rish by a slow fire, as an expiation of this period that the bramins for the crime of having betrayed exultingly refer for the final exhis Gooroo. In the act of sustain- tinction of the Jain, by the most ing this punishment at Hurdwar, extensive slaughter and unheard where the Ganges enters Hindos- of torments, one of which was tan, he was visited by the cele- that of grinding them in an oilbrated Sancara Acharya, a native mill. of Kerala or Malabar. In the The relative antiquity of the midst of his sufferings Bhutt Jain and the bramins cannot perAcharya instructed this apt dis- haps at present be decided : there ciple, and exhorted him to con- is little room to doubt that they tinue the holy work of persecution: were originally the same, and the an injunction which Sancara question would relate to the docAcharya effectually observed in trine which each of them pretend his travels through every part of to have preserved unpolluted. But India. The Jain religion however it appears to me incontestable, that continued to flourish to the south, the distinction of doctrine and separation of sects had taken place PRESENT STATE OF EDUCATION beforethe expedition of Alexander. AND LITERATURE IN ICELAND, On asking Dhermia the reason of BY HENRY HOLLAND, M. D. prefixing the popular term Sravana to the names of all their temples, From Sir George Steuart Macken. he tells me that the word is a cor- zie's Travels in Iceland. ruption of Sramana, the most usual term for the sect, or rather for the In the Dissertation prefixed to holy persons belonging to it; he this volume, an attempt has been enumerated six other distinctive made to explain the circumstances terms which are indiscriminately in which the literature of the Iceapplied to them, viz. Arhata, Di- landers originated, and to trace its gumbera, Jenna, Jaina, and Pra- progress through the successive mâna. It will not probably be periods of the history of the island. questioned that the Sramana are It will be the object of this chapter the Sarmanes, Germanes, Samanes; to complete the view of Icelandic and Pramana the Pramnæ of the literature, by exhibiting the preancient authors of the west. Strabo sent state of mental cultivation would seem to consider the Ger- among the people; their institumanes and the Pramnæ as distinct tions for the promotion of learnsects; but both are said to be op- ing; and the modes of education ponents of the Brachmanes, and among different classes of the comthe latter particularly to ridicule mụnity. From the more minute their study of astrology. It may description to which they lead, be noticed as a confirmation of these circumstances could not with the distinction of doctrine at this propriety form a part in the geneperiod, that Philostratus and Pliny ral history of the country; though, speak of the Brachmanes as wor- as a sequel to it, they may possibly shipping the sun; but although be interesting to the reader. some obscurity may be expected in The picture of the present state the imperfect information of the of literature in Iceland is much ancients, I do not find this worship less imposing than that of its early any where attributed to the Sar- conditionandgrowth. Thechanges manes or Pramna, who to this day however, which the lapse of time hold it in abhorrence. The Zar- has effected, are rather relative, manochagas, noticed so much by than absolute in their nature; and ancient authors for having publicly though the glory of the Icelanders destroyed himself at Athens, was is now for ever sunk, and their probably a Jain. In a note on name almost lost

nations, Strabo,lib.15--1048, on this name, yet in their own island they still we are told that old manuscripts keep alive much of that spirit of (Veteres libri) have two distinct literary pursuit by which the chawords, Zarmanas and Chagas, and racter of their ancestors was so Dion Cassius names this person greatly distinguished. A few of Zarmanes without any addition. the names which adorn the moSramana-ganna, as Dhermia in- dern history of the country have forms me, is the usualformofspeech already been mentioned. At the to indicate the sect of Jain. present time there are many indi. viduals living on this remote spot, few years ago, theschool was again and from their situation exposed transferred to its present situation to innumerable privations, whose at Bessestad ; the building being talents and acquirements would vacant which was formerly the grace the most refined circles of abode of the governors of Iceland. civilized society. The business of This edifice, though by no means education is systematically carried in good repair, is from its size on among all ranks of the inhabi. better adapted than any other in tants; and the degree of informa- the country for the purposes to tion existing, even among the which it is now applied ; and, but lower classes, is probably greater for the intervention of the war than in almost any part of conti- between England and Denmark, nental Europe.


would have been further improved This state of mental culture will by the completion of some addiappear more wonderful, when it is tional buildings, which are yet in considered that the circumstances an unfinished state. of the country do not allow of any The establishment at Bessestad extended scheme of public educa. consists at present of three mastion, and that the transmission of ters, and twenty-three or twentyknowledge can take place only four scholars ; the funds of the through the private and domestic school not allowing the reception habits of the people. In the ex- of a greater number. The headistence among the Icelanders of master, or Lector Theologiæ, has habits which are fitted to this end, an annual salary of 600 rix-dollars. we contemplate a feature which is It is his office to superintend the justly entitled to admiration and general concerns of the school, and esteem,

to conduct more especially the At the present time, the school theological department, and the of Bessestad is actually the only study of the Hebrew language. establishment for education in Ice. At the time of our arrival in Iceland. About the middle of the land, the person who held this 16th century, when the reforma situation was Mr. Steingrim Jontion of religion took place in the son; a man apparently not more island, two schools were founded; than thirty-five years of age, but one at Skalholt, the other at Hoo- possessed of talents and learning lum in the northern province; and which well fitted him for the disa landed property was attached to charge of its important duties. For these institutions, sufficient for the several years he was the pupil and support of between twenty and secretary of thelate Bishop Finsson thirty scholars at each place. To- at Skalholt, after whose death he wards the close of the last century, studied some time at Copenhagen, the two schools were united into where, as a classical scholar, he one, and transferred to Reikiavik, acquired very great credit. His while in lieu of the school lands, knowledge of the Greek and Hewhich were appropriated by the brew languages is said to be accucrown, an annual sum from the rate and extensive; and to theolopublic money was allotted to the gical studies he has given a very support of the establishment. A minute attention, being intimately acquainted with the writings of close of each session; and at the the most eminent of the German latter time, to superintend the ex. theologians. This gentleman, dur. aminations of the scholars, which ing our stay in Iceland, was re- then take place. These examinamoved from Bessestad to thechurch tions continue during several days, of Oddè, in Rangaavallè Syssel, with a prescribed form of proceed. one of the most valuable livings in ing, of which a sketch has already the island. He was succeeded by been given in the narrative. another person, of the same name,

After a certain degree of prowho is likewise reputed to be a gress in the studies allotted to him, man of learning and acquirements. each scholar becomes what is term

The two inferior masters of the ed a demissus ; leaving the school, school have salaries of 300 rix-dol. and pursuing his future studies at lars each. The office of the second home. No particular period is master comprehends the instruc- fixed for a demission. This is detion of the scholars in Latin, his- termined solely by the proficiency tory, geography, and arithmetic; of the student, as ascertained by while the third is occupied in an examination ; for which it is teaching the Greek, Danish, and required that he should be able to Icelandic languages. It is a sin- read and write Latin with accugular circumstance in the regula- racy, that he should have some tions of the school, that each scho- knowledge of Greek and Hebrew, lar, whether intended for the pas- and of the rules for interpreting toral office or not, is obliged to the Old and New Testaments ; study the elements of Hebrew, and that he should be acquainted and to undergo some examination with the Danish language, with in this language. By farthe greater history, arithmetic, and geography. number, however, of those who The knowledge of Greek and 'Heattend the school, are preparing brew, though officially required, themselves for this future situation is, however, in the practice of in life; and in the admission of these examinations, by no means scholars, a preference is always very rigorously exacted. Where given to the children of priesis. the students are preparing for the A youth is not allowed to enter priesthood, asis generally the case, until he has been confirmed; and they are farther questioned upon a certificate of his talents and dis- the Bible and ecclesiastical history, position is required from the mi- upon the doctrines of the Lutheran nister of the parish in which he church, &c. If a youth has conhas resided. The period of annual tinued seven years

without attain. study extends from the beginning ing the qualifications which entitle of October to the end of May; him to become a demissus, the the summer being made the sea- Lector writes to his family, represon of vacation, to accommodate senting the matter to them, and the rural occupations, in which all he is not allowed to remain longer ranks among the Icelanders are at the school, obliged to partake. It is a part of A library is attached to the esta. the office of the Bishop to visit the blishment at Bessestad, containing school at the commencement and probably twelve or fourteen hun.

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