the nursery, of two, three, and curious gentlemen, one of them four years old.

sir Nicholas Carew, at Bedington, 1761. Our last winter, if it near Croydon, in Surrey." (The may be called só, exceeded for title is lately extinct, anno 1763). mildness 1759. The autumnal These orange-trees were planted flowers were not gone before in the natural ground; but against spring began in December with every winter an artificial covering aconites, snowdrops, polyanthus- was raised for their protection. I es, &c. and continued without any have seen them some years ago in alloy of intervening sharp frosts, great perfection. But this appaall January, except two or three ratus going to decay, without due frosty nights and mornings: a consideration a green-house of more delightful season could not brick-work was built all round be enjoyed in southern latitudes. them, and left on the top uncoIn January and February my gar- vered in the summer. I visited den was covered with flowers. them a year or two after, in their This

summer, 1762, I was visit. new habitation, and to my great ing Mr. Wood of Littleton, Mid- concern found some dying, and all dlesex. He shewed me a curiosity declining; for, although there were which surprised me. On a little windows on the south side, they slender twig of a peach-tree about did not thrive in their confine four inches long that projected ment; but, being kept damp with from the wall, grew a peach, and the rains, and wanting a free, airy close to it, on the other side of the full sun all the growing months of twig, a nectarine. This Mr. Mil- summer, they languished, and at ler also assured me he had himself last all died. known, although not mentioned A better fate has hitherto ata here (in his Dictionary); and an- tended the other fine parcel of other friend * assured me, that he orange-trees, &c. brought over at had a tree which produced the like the same time by sir Robert Man. in his garden at Salisbury: but sell, at Margam late lord Manthis I saw myself, and it induces sell's, now Mr. Talbot's, called me to think that the peach is the Kingsey-castle, in the road from mother of the nectarines; the Cowbridge to Swansey, in South latter being a modern fruit, as Wales. My nephew counted 80 there is no Greek or Latin name trees of citrons, limes, burgamots, for it.

Seville and China orange-trees, Copied from my nephew Tho- planted in great cases all ranged mas Collinson's Journal of his in a row before the green house. Travels, 1754-"In the reign of This is the finest sight of its kind Queen Elizabeth, anno the in England. He had the curiosity first orange and lemon trees were to measure some of them. A introduced into England by two China orange measured in the ex

* I well knew the gentleman here alluded to, Dr. Hancock of Salisbury, who assured me of this fact; and a drawing shewing both the fruits on the same branch is now in the possession of H. P. Wyndham, esq. of Salisbury:

Dr. Hancock told me that he had the tree taken up to send to the earl of Harburgh but it was killed by removing.- A. B.L.

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tent of its branches fourteen feet. His garden and all his plants were A Seville orange was fourteen feet sold by auction April 14, 1766. high, the case included, and the The seeds of the rhubarb with stem twenty-one inches round. A broad curled leaveswere first raised China orange twenty-two inches by me. They were sent by Dr. and a half in girth.

Amman, professor of botany at July 11th, 1777. I visited the Petersburg, whose father-in-law orangery at Margam in the year was Russian governor of the pro1766, in company with Mr. Lewis vince near which the rhubarb Thomas, of Eglews Nynogt in grows. The seed of that with that neighbourhood, a very sensi- long narrow curled leaves was sent ble and attentive man, who told me by the Jesuits in China to my that the orange trees, &c. in that friend Dr. Tanches, at Petersburg, garden were intended as a present by the Russian caravan, and he from the king of Spain to the king sent it to me. of Denmark, and that the vessel ;

Lord Rochefort, our ambassain which they were shipped being dor in Spain, in a letter dated taken in the Channel, tbe trees Madrid, November 1765, says, were made a present of to sir R. that in the parts where he had Mansell.

been, there are very few forestDecember 10th, 1765. A few trees worth notice : but the ilexes days ago died friend Mr. Ben about the Escurial are fine. One net, who was very curious and in- sort produces acorns of a mon. dustrious in procuring seeds and strous size, which they eat in plants from abroad. He had a gar. Spain at their best tables, and den behind the Shadwell water- they are as sweet as chesputs. works, near the spot where he May 17th, 1761. I was invited lived, and built several very hand. by Mr. Sharp, at South Lodge,on some stoves at a great expense, Enfield Chase, to dine, and see filling them with fine exotics of all the Virginia dog-wood (Cornus kinds ; but the erecting a fire-en- florida). The calyx of the flowers, gine to raise the water, so hurt his is as large as those figured by plants by the smoke, that he re- Catesby, and(what is remarkable) imoved to a large garden of two or this is the only tree that bears three acres in the fields, at the these flowers amongst many bunback of White-chapel laystalls. dreds that I have seen : it began Here he built a large house for to bear them in May, 1759. pines and other rare exotics, which Anno 1747. Raised a new spehe left well stocked. In this garden cies of what appears to be a threehe raised water melons to a great thorned acacia, from seeds from size and perfection; I have told Persia, that came with Azad or above forty lying ripe on the Persian hornbeam, given me by ground. They were raised in Mr. Baker : it thrives well in my frames, and transplanted out garden. I gave seed to Mr. Gorunder béll-glasses. “A basket of don, and he also raised it. these melons was sent to the king. The eastern hornbeam (Miller's Mr. Bennet had besides a great Dictionary, edition 8th) was raised collectionof hardy-ground plants, from seed given to me, which came from Persia by the name of Azad. procumbens Hispanica flore flavesI gave it to Mr. Gordon, gardener cente pulchrè striato, labiis nigroat Mile-End, who was so fortunate purpureis, which I have yet in my as to have it come up anno 1747, garden, anno 1761 ; and at the and from him my garden and other same time he brought the broadgardens have been supplied. There leaved Teucrium, and a species of is a large tree in my field at Hen- periwinkle, neither of which were don, Middlesex.

in our gardens before, and some Mr. Miller is greatly mistaken roots of what is called Hyacinths in saying the Arundo, No. 2, or of Peru. Donat, dies down every year, In In the year 1756, the famous my garden the stalks have conti- tulip-tree in Lord Peterborough's nued for some years, making an- garden at Parson's Green, near nually young green shoots from Fulham, died. It was about seevery joint, and bear a handsome venty feet high, the tallest tree in tassel of flowers. The first time I the ground, and perhaps a hundred ever saw it in flower was Septem- years old, being the first tree of ber 15th, 1762. This very long the kind that was raised in Enghot dry season has made many land. It had for many years the exotics flower.

visitation of the curious to see its Donar seu Arundo flowered this flowers, and admire its beauty, for year also (1762) at Mr. Gordon's it was as straight as an arrow, and at Mile-End.

died of age by a gentle decay. But October the 22nd, 1746, I re- it was remarkable, that the same ceived the first double Spanish year that this died, a tulip-tree, broom that was in England, sent which I had given to sir Charles me by my friend Mr. Brewer at Wager, flowered for the first time Nuremberg: it cost there a golden in his garden, which was opposite ducat ; and, being planted in a lord Peterborough's. This tulippot nicely wickered all over, came

tree I raised from seed, and it was from thence down the river Elbe thirty years old when it flowered. to Hamburgh, from whence it was April 8th, 1749. I removed brought by the first ship to Lon- from my house at Peckham, Surdon. I inarched it on the single. rey; and was for two years in transflowered broom, and gave it to planting my garden to my Gray and Gordon, gardeners, and Mill Hill,called Ridgeway-House,

from them all have been supplied. in the parish of Hendon, Middle

Anno 1756. Some roots of Siberian martagon sent me by Mr. Anno 1751. I raised the China Demidoff, proprietor of the Sibe- or paper-mulberry from seed given rian iron mines, flowered for the me by: Dr. Mortimer. first time, May 24, 1756. The flower is but little reflexed, and is, I think, the nearest to black of Visit to the SULPHUR Mounany Aower that I know.

TAIN IN ICELAND. From Sir In the year 1727, my

intimate G. Mackenzie's Travels in Icefriend sir Charles Wager, first lord

land. of the admiralty, brought plants from Gibraltar-hill, of the Linaria The weather being warm and

house at


calm, we slept very comfortably I perceived that the steam was in our tent, which was pitched mixed with a small quantity of near the banks of a small stream, sulphurated hydrogen gas. When at a short distance from the the thermometer was sunk a few church. The 25th of May was a inches into the clay, it rose genedelightful day, and having taken rally to within a few degrees of an early breakfast of biscuit, the boiling point. By stepping cheese, and milk, we set out to- cautiously,

and avoiding every litwards the Sulphur Mountain, tle hole from which steam issued, which is about three miles distant we soon discovered how far we from Krisuvik. At the foot of might venture. Our good fortune, the mountain was a small bank however, ought not to tempt any composed chiefly, of white clay person to examine this wonderful and some sulphur, from all parts place, without being providedwith of which steam issued. Ascend- two boards, with which any one ing it, we got upon a ridge imme. may cross every part of the banks diately above a deep hollow, from in perfect safety. At the bottom which a profusion of vapour arose, of this hollow we found a cauldron and heard a confused noise of of boiling mud, about fifteen feet boiling and splashing, joined to in diameter, similar to that on the the roaring of steam escaping top of the mountain, which we from narrow crevices in the rock. had seen the evening before ; but This hollow, together with the this boiled with much more vehewhole side of the mountain oppo- mence. We went within a few site, as far up as we could see, was yards of it, the wind happeningto covered with sulphur and clay, beremarkably favourable for viewchiefly of a white or yellowish ing every part of this singular colour. Walking over this soft and scene. The mud was in constant steaming surface we found to be agitation, and often thrown up to very hazardous ; and I was fre- the height of six or eight feet. quently very uneasy when the va- Near this spot was an irregular pour concealed my friends from space filled with water boiling me. The day, however, being dry briskly. At the foot of the hill, and warm, the surface was not so in a hollow formed by a bank of slippery as to occasion much risk clay and sulphur, steam rushed of our falling. The chance of the with great force and noise from crust of sulphur breaking, or the among the loose fragments of clay sinking with us was great, rock. and we were several times in dan- Further up the mountain, we ger of being much scalded. Mr. met with a spring of cold water, a Bright ran at one time a great circumstance little expected in a hazard, and suffered considerable place like this. Ascending still pain from accidentally plunging higher, we came to a ridge comone of his legs into the hot clay. posed entirely of sulphurand clay, From whatever spot the sulphur joining two summits of the moun. is removed, steam instantly es- tain. Here we found a much capes; and in many places the greater quantity of sulphur than sulphur was so hot that we could

on any other part of the surface scarcely handle it. From the smell we had gone over, It formed a


smooth crust from a quarter of an which might not probably be surinch to several inches in thickness. mounted. The crust was beautifully crystal- Below the ridge on the further lized. Immediately beneath it we side of this great bed of sulphur, found a quantity of loose granular we saw a great deal of vapour essulphur, which appeared to be cole caping with much noise.

We lecting and crystallizing as it was crossed to the side of the mounsublimed along with the steam. tain opposite, and found the surSometimes we met with clay of face sufficiently firm to admit of different colours, white, red, and walking cautiously upon it. We blue, under the crust ; but we had now to walk towards the princould not examine this place to cipal spring, as it is called. This any depth, as the moment the was a task of much apparent dancrust

removed, steam ger, as the side of the mountain, came forth, and proved ex- for the extent of about half a mile, tremely annoying. We found se- is covered with loose clay, into veral pieces of wood, which were which our feet sunk at every step. probably the remains of planks In many places there was a thin that had been formerly used in crust, below which the clay was collecting the sulphur, small crys- wet, and extremely hot. Good tals of which partially covered fortune attended us;

and we reachthem. There appears to be a con- ed, without any serious inconvestant sublimation of this substance; nience, the object we had in view. and were artificial chambers con- A dense column of steam, mixed structed for the reception and con- with a little water, was forcing its densation of the vapours, much of way impetuously through a crevice it might probably be collected. As in the rock, at the head of a narit is, there is a large quantity on row valley, or break in the mounthe surface, and by searching, tain. The violence with which it there is little doubt that great rushes out is so great, that the stores may be found. The in- noises thus occasioned, may ofconvenience proceeding from the ten be heard at the distance of sesteam issuing on every side, and veral miles, and during the night, from the heat, is certainly consi- while lying in our tent at Krisuderable ; but by proper precau- vik, we more than once listened to tions, neither would be felt so them with mingled awe and astomuch as to render the collection of nishment. Behind the column of the sulphur a matter of any great vapour was a dark coloured rock, difficulty. The chief obstacle to which

gave it its full effect. working these mines is their dis- It is quite beyond my power to tance from a port, whence the offer such a description of this exproduce could be shipped. But traordinary place, as to convey there are so many horses in the adequate ideas of its wonders, or country, whose original price is its terrors. The sensations of a trifling, and whose maintenance person, even of firm nerves, standduring summer costs nothing, that ing on a support which feebly susthe conveyance of sulphur to tains him, over an abyss where, liReikiavik presents no difficulties, terally, fire and brimstone are in

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