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him that it was the woad that oc- soon as the weather will permit, casioned his bad blues, and that I and in deep furrows or ridges, had from the same defect purchased to expose and ameliorate it by such other woad as would do, and the vegetative salts that exist in informed him where he could get the atmosphere, and by frost and it, he succeeded as usual. His snow. This, in some seasons, has own he disposed of to a drysalter, partly the effect of a change of who sold it again somewhere in the produce; but if intended for country: and it occasioned such a wheat, the last gathering should cause of complaint, as I believe not be later than September. rendered the claim of payment to The land, after woad, is always be given up, or partly so: of this clean, and the nature of the soil I am not certain, having it only appears to be greatly changed in from report. I mention this in favour of the wheat crop ; for I order to give those who wish to have always experienced abundant become growers of woad, such in increase of produce after woad, formation as may properly direct and observed that it held on for them."

some time, if proper changes were The leaves of woad on good land attended to, and good husbandry. in a good season grow very large Keeping land clean from weeds, , and long, and when they are ripe, certainly produces an increase of show near their end a brownish corn ; but in the hoeing and spot, inclining to a purple towards gathering woad (for hoeing and its centre, while other parts of the earthing up the plants often renleaves appear green, but just be- ders them abundantly more proginning to turn of a more yellowishlific, even if there are no weeds), shade; and then they must be many nests of animalculæ are gathered, or they will be injured. destroyed, as well as grubs and

Woad is to be gathered from insects, which are destructive to twice to four and even five times vegetation. All this is favourable in the season, as I once expe- to corn; but I am disposed to berienced (it was an early and a late lieve that woad in itself furnishes season), and for the next spring I such a principle of change in fasaved an acre for seed, of which I vour of corn (and wheat in parhad a fair crop. I picked the ticular), as in a high degree to young seedlingsprouts off the rest, merit the attention of that Society and mixed with my first gathering who are so honourably united to of what was newly sown; this was promote and encourage the first very good. During one season I interests of the British empire. let these shoots grow too long; Having said all I conceive ne. the consequence was, that the cessary on the cultivation of woad, fibrous parts became like so many I now proceed to say something sticks, and afforded no saponaceous on its preparation for the use of juices. When you design to plant the dyer. woad on the same land ihe second Woad, when gathered, is carried season, it should be as soon as your to the mill, and ground. I need last gathering (before winter is not describe this mill, because they finished) be ploughed; that is, as are to be seen in open sheds in several parts of England, only that is gathered in, ground, and balled, I conceive some improvement and often until the hot weather might be made in their construc- of summer is past, to render the tion, so as not so much to press offensive operation of turniog it out and waste the

sap,
which con-

less disagreeable, and not so apt tains the very essence of the dye. to overheat; and though tempeing principle. These mills grind rature herein is necessary, yet a or cut the leaves small, and then certain degree of heat must be atthey are cast into heaps, where tained, before it is in proper conthey ferment, and gain an adhesive dition for the dyer's use. This is consistence;* they are then formed easily distinguished by a change into balls, as compact as possible, of smell—from that which is most and placed on hurdles lying putrid and offensive, to one which horizontally in a shed one over the is more agreeable and sweet (if I other, with room for air between, may be allowed the term), for few to receive from the atmospheric people at first either can approve air a principle which is said to im- of the smell of woad, or of a woad prove them as a dye, as well as to vat ; though, when in condition, dry them to a degree proper for they become quite agreeable to being fermented; but in summer those whose business it is to attend these balls are apt to crack in them. Woad is in this state of drying, and become fly-blown, fermentation more or less time, when thousands of a peculiar according to the season and the maggot generate, and eat or de- degree of heat it is suffered to atstroy all that is useful to the dyer. tain, whether at an early period, Therefore they require attention or according to the opinion of as soon as any are observed to those who attend the process; but crack, to look them all over well, the best woad is produced from a close them again, so as to render beat temperately brought forward them as compact and solid as in the couch until at maturity, and possible ; and if the maggot or turned (on every occasion neces. worm has already generated, some sary), which a proper degree of fine flour-lime strewed over it will attention will soon discover. destroy them, and be of much ser- These balls, when dry, are very vice in the fermentation. These hard and compact, and require to balls, if properly preserved, will be broken to pieces with a mallet, be very heavy; but if worm-eaten, and put into a heap, and watered they will be very light, and of to a due degree, only sufficient to little value. They are then to promote fermentation, but not by be replaced on the hurdles, and too much moisture, which would turned, not being suffered to retard it; and here is a crisis netouch each other, until a month cessary to be attended to. When or more after the whole that is the couch has attained its due intended for one fermenting couch point, it is opened, spread, and

• In a dry place, if these leaves remain a fortnight, being occasionally turned, they will become more adhesive, and have less juices to squeeze out in balling. The balls must be compact.

turned, until regularly cooled, and increases too rapidly, turning is then it is considered in condition indispensably necessary, and the for sale; but the immediate use of application of very fine flour-lime woad new from the couch is not regularly strewed over every laying advised by dyers who are expe- of them; or, if the couch is getting rienced ; for new woad is not 80 Loo dry, lime-water instead of comregular in its fermentation in the mon water, applied by a gardener's blue vat. This is the common pro. watering-pot, may have an equal cess. Woad oftentimes is spoiled effect, * without loading the woad herein, by people who know no- with the gross matter of the lime; thing of the principles of its dye, though I conceive that the gross following only their accustomed dry flour-lime, and the oxygen process of preparing it; and hence in the air, will furnish more the difference in its quality is as carbonic acid gas to the woad, often seen as it is in the real rich- and retain such principles as are ness or poverty of the leaves, from essential, to a better effect. For I the quality of the land. The pro- have experienced, that woad which cess for preparing woad which I requires the most lime to preserve have followed, and which I con- a temperate degree of fermentasider beyond all comparison best, tion, and takes most time, is best, is as follows:

so that at length it comes to that Gather the leaves, put them to heat which is indispensable to the dry, and turn them, so as not to production of good woad. let them heat, and so be reduced In this couch it is always partito a paste; which, in fine weather, cularly necessary to secure the surchildren can do. In wet weather, face as soon as the leaves begin to my method was to carry them to be reduced to a paste, by rendering my stove, and when I had got a it as smooth as possible, and free quantity sufficiently dry, I pro- from cracks : this prevents the ceeded to the couch, and there put escape of much carbonic acid gas them in a large heap, where, if (which is furnished by the lime not too dry, they would soon be- and the fermentation), and also gin to ferment and heat : if too preserves it from the fly, maggots, wet, they would rot, but not pro- and worms, which often are seen perly ferment, nor readily become in those parts where the heat is in condition for the dyer. These not so great, or the lime in suffileaves not having been ground, cient quantity to destroy them; it nor placed in balls on the hurdles, is surprising to observe what a detheir fermenting quality was more gree of heat they will bear. This active, and required more atten- attention to rendering the surface tion ; and also the application of of the couch even and compact is lime occasionally to regulate the equally necessary in either proprocess with the same kind of cess, and to turning the woad judgment as used in the blue exactly as a dung-heap, digging dying woad vat. When the heat perpendicularly to the bottom.

There is in lime-water so little of its salt, that its effect is proportionably small, and water will take up but a certain quantity,

The couching-house should have ish green. The fibres only serve an even floor of stone or brick, to show that it has not suffered by and the walls the same ; and putrefaction. every part of the couch of woad Considerable fortunes have been should be beaten with the shovel, acquired by the culture of woad and trodden, to render it as com

in the North of England, and pact as possible.

those who have not in possession The grower of woad should land sufficient of proper staple, erect a long shed in the centre of will give an extrą rent for leave to his land, facing the south, the break pasturage ; and such as is ground lying on a descent, so as old, and its sod worn out and full to admit the sun to the back part; of ant-hills from long feeding, is and here the woad should be put equally good, when lime is applied down as gathered, and spread thin to destroy these and other insects, at one end, keeping children to which here exist more than in turn it towards the other end. In such as is in full proof to bear the course of a week, every day's grass ; for here they generate and gathering will be dry for the couch, become destructive, so as often to which should be at the other end; render it very necessary to plough therefore it will be necessary to such land, corn it, and form a calculate how long the shed new turf; and though this is so should be; but this can be erected often prohibited, yet it is often as you gather, and then it will consistent with the best principles soon be known.

of husbandry, Here woad is every I never used the thermometer thing, and corn after it to a certo discover or determine the heat tain degree, which experience will which is necessary to produce that determine, according to the kind change of smell which finishes a of land. Those who grow woad couch of woad properly for the in large quantities, have moveable dyer,* but I am convinced it can- huts for their work-people; and not be regularly obtained but by also all their apparatus so easily temperance and time.

put together, as to be of little Good woad, such as the richest expense except in carriage. land produces, if properly prepar

A friend of mine in London ed, will be of a blackish green, and took a large quantity of land where. mouldy; and when small lumps on had been wood just grubbed are pulled asunder the fracture and up. He planted woad on it, and fibres are brown ; and these fibres engaged a person from the north will draw apart like small threads, to manage it; and the produce and the more stringy they are, was so abundant as to afford imand the darker the external ap- mense profit. I believe he only pearance and on the green hue, woaded two years, and then let it. the better the woad ; but poor His tenant's produce did not by land produces it of a light-brown- any means equal his, because the

land began to want change. I know not how he succeeds in corn,

but I presume he did well, as it is * I suppose from 100 to 120 degrees. a fine preparative for it.

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« SIR,

REPORT FROM THE COMMITTEE in the barrack-field, where he

OF FIELD OFFICERS OF AR- cxhibited them in the following
TILLERY, CONTAINING AN Ac. order :
COUNT OF THE EXPERIMENTS “ Ist- A person completely
MADÉ AT WOOLWICH, ON THE equipped with every neces-
18th AND 20th MAY LAST, ON sary apparatus to effect a
CAPTAIN MANBY'S INVENTION communication with a vessel
FOR SAVING THE LIVES OF driven on a lee shore.'

SHIPWRECKED MARINERS. “ A man mounted on horseback Printed by Order of the House

was exhibited, accoutred with a of Commons.

deal frame, containing 200 yards

of log line, ready coiled for service, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, which was slung as a knapsack,

22nd May, 1811. with a brass howitzer of a three5. “ In obedience to the honour- pounder bore on its carriage, and able board's commands, transmit iwo rounds of ammunition, the ted in your letters of the 29th ulti- whole weighing 62 pounds, strapmo and the 3rd instant, I assembled ped on the fore part of the saddle. the committee of colonels and The person thus equipped, is supfield officers of royal, artillery, posed to be enabled to travel with 'named below, * on the 18th and 20th expedition to the aid of ships in instant, to take into consideration, danger of being wrecked, on parts and to give tbeir opinion on, Capt. of the coast intermediate to the Manby's discovery of an instanta. mortar stations : and with this neous mannerofdischarging pieces small apparatus the log line is to of ordnance for the relief of ship- be projected over the vessel in wrecked persons, without the ap- distress, from which a rope should plication of fire; and further, to be attached to it to haul the crew investigate the several subjects on shore. stated in Captain Manby's letter “Captain Manby caused the to the honourable board, of the howitzer to be dismounted from 2nd instant, wherein he requests the horse, and in a very few mithe report to extend to the whole nutes fired it, when the shot was of his various productions, as they thrown, with the line attached, to are now considered by him com- the distance of 143 yards, with 2 plete, and to the fullest of his ounces of powder. In this expewishes.'

riment, Captain Manby used a “ The committee having com- kind of pear shot 14 diameter in municated with Captain Manby on length, and weighing 4lbs. 12oz. the subject of their meeting, he 12dr. by which additional weight submitted to them his arrange- the shot’s momentum and power ment of the proposed experi- over the line is considerably augments; after which they adjourned mented, though the recoil is into the ground for mortar-practice, creased in proportion; which does

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* Present. Lieut. Gen. Lloyd, Major Gen. Ramsay, Col. Borthwick, Lieut. Col. Riou, Lieut. Col. Spicer, Lieut. Col. Colebrooke, Lieut. Col. Beever, Major Gold, Major Buckner.

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