caps sent out of the country. Even in a manner so elegant, that they now, should one-third remain, it actually appear to be made of rich is no small source of wealth de- velvet. rived from one branch of manu- It is an erroneous opinion that facture, to a state like Tunis.

the caps of Tunis are knit double, The manner of making these like a double cone, or a double caps, is as follows: The wool is night.cap. They are entirely sinfirst combed and spun into a coarse gle, and it is only in the milling soft thread, which is twined, and that the edge of the cap assumes knit into caps of a conical form, the appearance of being double. like a night.cap. These are next After having gone through all soaked in oil; and, on a form put the operations described, the cap upon the knee of the manufac- is carefully examined by the turer, are milled down, by turning master of the shop or factory, and and rubbing the sides together. all its faulty parts are corrected. By this process, they are reduced A neat tassel of mazarine blue silk to about one-third of their original thread is then sewed to the top, size. When the cap begins to be- and it is considered as finished. come thick, great care is taken to The manufacture of caps in bring out the nap. This is done Tunis, is upon an establishment by brushing it down with a curious which would do no discredit to an long bur, which nature seems to European country, and is much have made for the purpose.

A superior to what could have been pair of large sheers is used to clip expected, under such a governoff the parts of the wool which ment, and in such a state of somay be too long for the beauty of ciety, as that of Tunis. the manufacture. The caps thus The Bey fixes annually the price reduced, brushed, and clipped, be- of Spanish wool for this manufaccome of the form of a semi-globe. ture ; in which he is naturally In this state they are sent to guided by the advice of the manuZawan, about thirty miles distant facturer, as well as by his own from Tunis, where they are dyed, private observation. By this means, for the most part, of a deep crim- the speculator in Spain or other son colour. It is worthy of obser- parts, knows what price he may vation, that the water at Zawan is obtain in Tunis. No buyer is althe only water in the whole re- lowed to give more than the estagency which can be used for this blished price, and many regulapurpose. It has the quality of giv- tions are laid down to prevent moing a particular richness to the nopoly. For instance, no person dye; and it is even disputed whether can buy a whole parcel of wool, any other water can give a colour if it exceed five bales ; and the so beautiful and so well fixed, for whole must be examined by the the colour never fades. The Amina, or chief of the trade. caps thus dyed, are returned to Every branch of trade in the rethe manufacturer ; are milled gency is also adjusted by a comagain somewhat thicker, combed, mittee of the traders themselves, and clipped with still greater care from which an Amina is elected, than before ; and finally, dressed All disputes are decided by him ; and the disputants, if they are not which are perfect in their several satisfied with his determination, sorts, there is a kind called Bascan have recourse to the Bey. tardi; which are such as for the

The Amina judges of the qua- character of the manufacture, are lity of the wool in the market, and separated from the rest, and sold makes such divisions of it, as to

as faulty. prevent all kinds of monopoly, The woollen stuffs manufactured and to keep every manufacturer in the regency, principally at employed. But any cap-maker or Jerba, are of a thin texture, reholder, who pleases to speculate sembling in some degree a soft in Europe, and import wool into serge. They are made from the Tunis, can manufacture, if he finest wool produced in the counchooses, the whole extent of his try, and are really of good workspeculation for his own account. manship. All classes of Moors,

Another regulation is, that all who have any covering, are caps, when finished, must be ex. dressed, more or less, in this maamined by the Amina, before they nufacture. Thousands have no are put into paper ; otherwise they other dress than a scull-cap, and are liable to confiscation. By this a blanket thrown round the body means, the character of the caps and shoulders in several turns. of Tunis is sustained.

Others have turbans and girdles Many different kinds are made, of woollen ; and almost all have a both for the use of Tunis, and the cloak, or Bernous, as it is called. different states of Barbary ; and Thefáir sex have a robe of woollen also for the Levant, where their gauze thrown round them, some chief market lies. The caps made with silk stripes ; and many of for the Levant, are of three dif. them wear shawls, both long and ferent qualities. The first are square, of the same species of macalled Stambol caps, which are nufacture. This kind of woollen those used by a part of the soldiery stuff is also used for blankets, of the Grand Seignior, and are which are soft light and warm. very large. A bale of wool of twó But besides the immense quancantars, will render only twenty- tities which are used in the counfive dozen of this description. The try in these various ways, a great second are called Sakis, or Sciots, portion is exported both to Europe from the island of Scio. They are and the Levant. The shawls are worn by all the Turks, Greeks, dyed of different brilliant colours, Armenians, and Jews, wearing the and are to be seen in every part long dress, and even by the sol- and city of Turkey. diers, under those which are large. It is impossible to give a true One hundred dozen of these are idea of the extent of this manuproduced from a bale of wool. facture. Thousands are employed The third are called Haram, from in it, in different parts of the state; being worn by the fair sex and and it consumes annually, thouchildren. These are still smaller sands of cantars of wool. than the last mentioned ; a bale The manufacture of Morocco of wool will render two hundred leather is also considerable. Great dozen of this kind. Besides, these, quantities of dyed skins are an

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nually exported from the country, to be of more modern date, bear and as almost all the Moors wear the name of the celebrated Snorro red leather slippers, or boots, the Sturleson, to whom it is ascribed. consumption of this article in the It must be remarked, however, regency, is by no means trifling. that these titles were given at a

period much later than the com

position of either of the works ; ACCOUNT_OF The Edda. By and that their accuracy has been Dr. Holland.

disputed, inasmuch as regards the

names of the authors affixed to From Sir George Mackenzie's them.* Travels in Iceland.

The ancient Edda consists of Poetry having so entirely the various odes; which, as some alcharacter of an art among the an- lege, are the fragments only of cient Icelanders, we might expect a much larger work, now lost to to find them possessing some com- the world. These writings, supe mon means of education and in- pressed during a long period by struction in this favourite pursuit. the mistaken zeal of the catholic The Edda, one of the most valua- clergy, were brought to light bleremnants of northern antiquity, about the year 1630, by Brynjolis a work designed expressly for fus Suenonius, Bishop of Skalholt. these purposes. Much controversy The most important of the poems has existed respecting this singulur are the Völuspa, and the Háráand celebrated performance; the mal. The Völuspa, or Prophetess period at which it was written, of Vola, is a digest of the ancient and the writers, being made equal. Scandinavian mythology, short ly the subjects of question. Though and extremely obscure; the Hácertain points of the discussion vámal, a singular collection of have never been completely de- moral precepts, professing to be cided, yet we may now consider derived from the god Odin him. ourselves as possessing all those self. These poems have generally facts respecting the work, which been attributed to Sæmund Sigare of any material importance. It fuson, an eminent Icelander, seems to be well ascertained, that born A. D. 1056 ; who, from his the Edda is not entirely the com- knowledge, writings, and various position of one person, or of one acquirements, has been called by age, but that it derives its present succeeding authors, Frode, or the form from several distinct sources. learned. This opinion, however, The name has been assigned to as before mentioned, has had its two different works; one of which opponents ; and strong reasons is called the ancient Edda, or Edda have been urged for believing that of Sæmund; the other, supposed Sæmund did not compose, perhaps not even compile, the Edda which may be admitted into poetical is ascribed to him.*

* Different derivations have been given of the name Edda : some have derived it from Edde, a grandmother, thus making it to signify the parent of poetry; or from Atta, u father, with the same use of the prosopopeia. Others have referred it to Odde, the residence of Sæmund Sigfuson. Arnas Magnæus considers the name as a feminine of the old word Odr, signifying wisdom, or reason.

writing. The origin of this extraThe second work, bearing this ordinary work, like that of the name, has come to us under a ancient Edda, is still a matter of more perfect form, and though it- dispute. Most authors concur in self losing the garb of poetry, is ascribing it to Soorro Sturleson, much better adapted to the object admitting, however, that certain of instructing others in the poetic additions were afterwards made to art. It is distributed into two the Skalda, either by Gunnlaug, principal parts. The first contains a monk who lived about the bean extensive view of the mytholo- ginning of the thirteenth century, gy of Odin, under the form of or more probably, by a poet called dialogue; in which are explained Olaf Huitaskald, the nephew of the attributes of the deities, their Sturleson. The learned Arnas several actions, and the other re- Magnæus, and some other writers, markable events of the mytholo- have contradicted this opinion, and gy. This was a code from which suppose it more probable that the the Skalds, or bards of the age, Edda was greatly altered, if not might derive incidents and allu- composed, in the fourteenth censions for the ornament of their tury: an idea which is the less

The second part of the probable, since at this period the Edda, which has been called Skal- art of poetry had greatly declined da, is a still more singular in- among the Icelanders, and the stance of the attention which was office and reputation of the Skalds given at this period to poetry, as were now become almost wholly an art. It is a collection of syn

extinct.t onymes, epithets, and prosodiacal rules, carefully arranged, and ad- VERBAL REMARKS. mirably adapted to increase the From Essays Literary and Miscelaccuracy and facility of composition. The different errors of style

laneous, by J. Aikin, M. D. are distinctly pointed out, and a I. On the words REPUBLIC and minute account is given of the va

COMMONWEALTH. rieties of figure and of metre, which The examples are numerous,


* The principal opponent of Sæmund's claim to the first Edda is Arnas Magnæus; whose recondite inquiries into the early literature of Iceland have given him much celebrity. See his Life of Sæmund Frode, prefixed to the Edila Sæmundar, Hafnia 1787.

+ See Vita Sæmund. Mult. Edd. Sæmund. præfix. p. 14; also Sciagraph. Hist. Lit. Island. p. 17. The controversy respecting the origin of the Edda, and the examination of this singular work, have engaged many writers of great eminence. Be. sides thosejust referred to, we find connected with this subject the names of Wormius, Bartholin, Rudbeck, Resinius, Mallet, Suhm, Ihre, Thorkelin, &c. from whose several works the curious reader may obtain ample information on the subject. The principal editions of the Edda are those of Resenius, ( Copenhagen, 1665), and of Mr. Goranson, a Swede, who obtained his text from the Upsal Manuscript of the work. A French translation of the greater part of it has been given by Mr. Mallet in his Introduct. a l’Hist. de Dannemarc; and this has been transferred to'our language by Dr. Percy, in his Northern Antiquities. To the pens of Gray, Herbert, and Cottle, we owe poetical translations of several passages in the ancient Edda.

in various languages, of the devi- to denote the common or public ation of a word from its original concerns of any body of men asso. and etymological signification, in ciated into a community; and they consequence of certain casual as- applied the term ToniTEIC to the sociations, which, differently af- adininistration or form of fecting different minds, have in ment of the modes or state. In troduced ambiguity into the use of Latin, the to xo.voy is exactly rensuch words, and into reasonings dered by respublica ; the monos is founded


the ideas annexed civitas ; and the Toastele is admito them. In these cases it is a nistratio reipublicæ vel civitatis. service, not only to literature, but As all these appellations were frequently to morals, to rectify founded on the idea of a commuthese misconceptions, and to re- nity of right and interest in the call the proper and definite mean- state among all its members, they ing of terms, that they may no were not compatible with monarlonger, either with or without de- chy properly so called, or tyranny sign, be employed so as to de- (in the Greek sense of the word), lude or perplex the unwary. It is because, in that form of governmy intention to take some of these ment, every thing which is comwords into consideration, with the mon and public in other constituhope that, by impartial and tem- tions is appropriated by an indiperate discussion, some prevalent vidual, who is conceived to possess errors of which they are the sub- the property of it, and to admiject may be corrected : and I shall nister it according to his own pleabegin with those placed at the head sure. But the office of king, unof this section.

derstanding by the title only the The notion commonly attached visible head of the state, and the in this country to the terms administrator of its executive powCOMMONWEALTH and REPUBLIC, er, was not at all incompatible is that of a form of constitution with the existence of a respublica ; susceptible, indeed, of many va. and therefore the terms republic rieties, but uniform in its rejec- is, without hesitation, applied to tion of a king; and the appella- Sparta and other Grecian states, tion of republican, as applied to where kings were component parts an individual or a party, is under of the government. stood to imply abhorrence of king- Our English word, commonly government. It is sufficiently wealth, or commonweal, is preobvious from what events in our cisely analogous to respublica, and annals this interpretation is de- has been used in at least as extenrived; but temporary and local sive a signification by accurate circumstances ought not to stamp writers. Thus Locke, in his Trea. a peculiar signification upon words tise on Civil Government, says, common in their use to various “ By commonwealth I must be unages and countries. It will there- derstood all along to mean, not a fore be proper to revert to their democracy, or any form of governorigin and history.

ment, but any independent comThe Greeks made use of the munity, which the Latins signified expression to xquvon, or ta xova, by the word civitas.And this is

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