« 前へ次へ »
he grotto has lost (I am informed), through the smoke unless his inveterate resentment against the insurgents, of torches, something of that vivid silver tint which who so frequently broke the Englishı yoke when lic
After the battles of was originally one of its chief distinctions. But enough deemed it most firmly riveted. of beauty remains to compensate for all that may be Falkirk and Methven, and the dreadful examples which lost,»— Mr Mac-Allister of Strathaird has, with great he had made of Wallace and other champions of napropriety, built up the exterior entrance to this cave, tionalindependence, he probably concluded every chance in order that strangers may enter properly attended by of insurrection was completely annihilated. This was a guide, to prevent any repetition of the wanton and in 1306, when Bruce, as we have seen, was utterly exselfish injury which this singular scene has already pelled from Scotland: yet,-in the conclusion of the sustained.
same year, Bruce was again in arms and formidable; and in 1307, Edward, though exhausted by a long and
wasting malady, put himself at the head of the army
destined to destroy him utterly. This was, perhaps, CANTO IV.
partly in consequenee of a vow which he had taken upon him, with all the pomp of chivalry, upon the day
in which lie dubbed his son a knight, for which see a Note 1. Stanza iv.
subsequent note. But even his spirit of vengeance was . Yet to no sense of sellish wrongs,
unable to restore his exhausted strength. He reached Bear witness with me, Heaven, belongs
Burgh-upon-Sands, a petty village of Cumberland, on My joy o'er Edward's bier.»
the shores of the Solway Frith, and there, 6th July, The generosity which does justice to the character 1307, expired, in sight of the detested and devoted of an enemy, often marks Bruce's sentiments, as recorded country of Scotland. His dying injunctions to his son by the faithful Barbour. He seldom mentions a fallen required bim to continue the Scottish war, and never enemy without praising such good qualities as he might to recal Gaveston. Edward II. disobeyed both charges. possess. I will only take one instance. Shortly after Yet more to mark his animosity, the dying monarch Bruce landed in Carrick, in 1306, Sir Ingram Bell, the ordered his bones to be carried with the invading army. English governor of Ayr, engaged a wealthy yeoman, Froissart, who probably had the authority of eye-witwho had hitherto been a follower of Bruce, to under- nesses, has given us the following account of this take the task of assassinating him. The king learned remarkable charge:this treachery, as he is said to have done other secrets «In the said forest, the old King Robert of Scotland of the enemy, by means of a female with whom he had dyd kepe hymselfe, whan Kyng Edward the Fyrst conan intrigue. Shortly after he was possessed of this quered nygh all Scotland; for he was so often chased, information, Bruce, resorting to a small thicket at a that none durst loge him in castell, nor fortresse, for distance from his men, with only a single page to attend feare of the sayd kyng. him, met the traitor, accompanied by two of his sons. « And ever whan the king was returned into Ingland, They approached hiin with their wonted familiarity, than he would gather together agayn his people, and but Bruce, taking his page's bow and arrow, com- conquere lownes, castells, and fortresses, iuste to Bermanded them to keep at a distance. As they still wick, some by battle and some by fair speech and love: pressed forward with professions of zeal for his person and when the said King Edward heard thereof, than and service, he, after a second warning, shot the father would be assemble his power, and wyn the realme of with the arrow; and being assaulted successively by Scotland again; thus the chance went between these the two sons, dispatched first one, who was armed with two forsaid kings. It was shewed me, how that this an axe, then as the other charged him with a spear, King Robert wan and lost his realme v times. So this avoided the thrust, struck the head from the spear, and continued till the said King Edward died at Berwick : cleft the skull of the assassin with a blow of his two- and when he saw that he should die, he called before handed sword.
him his eldest son, who was king after him, and there, He rushed down of blood all red,
before all the barones, he caused him to swear, that as And when the king saw they were dead,
soon as he were dead, that he should take his body, All three lying, he wiped his brand.
and boyle it in a cauldron, till the flesh departed clean With that his hoy came fast running,
from the bones, and then to bury the flesh, and keep And said, - Our Lord might lowyt' be, That granteth you might and poweste?
still the bones; and that as often as the Scotts should To fell i he felony and the pride,
rebell against him, he should assemble the people
against them, and cary with him the bones of his The king said, - So our Lord mo see, They had been worthy men all three,
father; for he believed verily, that if they had his bones Had they not been full of treason :
with them, that the Scotts should never attain any But that made their confusion.
victory against them. The which thing was not acBandoua's Bruce, Book V, p. 153. complished, for when the king died, his son carried him Note 2. Stanza iv.
to London »-BERNERS' FROISSABT's Chronicle, London, • Such hate was his on Solway's strand,
1812, pp. 39, 40. When vengeance clench'd his palsied hand,
Edward's commands were not obeyed, for he was That pointed yet to Scotland's land..
interred in Westminster Abbey, with the appropriate To establish his dominion in Scotland had been a inscription :
«« EDWARDUS PRIMUS, ScotorUM MALLEUS, favourite object of Edward's ambition, and nothing HIC EST. Pactum Serva.» Yet some steps seem to have could exceed the pertinacily with which he pursued it, been taken towards rendering his body capable of oc
casional transportation, for it was exquisitely embalmed, • Power
as was ascertained when his tomb was opened some
Of three in so little tide..
years ago. Edward II. judged wisely in not carrying traversed by a remarkably high and barren ridge, the dead body of his father into Scotland, since he called Scoor-Eige, has, in point of soil, a much more would not obey his living counsels.
promising appearance. Southward of both lies the It ought to be observed, that though the order of the Isle of Muich, or Muck, a low and fertile island, and incidents is reversed in the poem, yet, in point of histo- though the least, yet probably the most valuable of the rical accuracy, Bruce had landed in Scotland, and three. We manned the boat, and rowed along the obtained some successes of consequence, before the shore of Egg in quest of a cavern, which had been the death of Edward J.
memorable scene of a horrid feudal vengeance.
had rounded more than half the island, admiring the Note 3. Stanza viji.
entrance of many a bold natural cave, which its rocks Canna's tower, that, sleep Like falcon-nest o'erhangs the bay.
exhibited, without finding that which we sought, until The little island of Cmna, or Cannay, adjoins to those that it should have escaped the search of strangers, as
we procured a guide. Nor, indeed, was it surprising of Rum and Muick, with which it forms one parish. In a pretty bay opening towards the east, there is a lofty distinguish the entrance of a fox-carth. This noted
there are no outward indications more than might and slender rock detached from the shore. Upon the summit are the ruins of a very small tower, scarcely
cave has a very narrow opening, through which one accessible by a steep and precipitous path. Here it is and lofty within, and runs into the bowels of the rock
can hardly creep on his knees and hands. It rises steep said one of the kings, or lords of the Isles, confined a
to the depth of 255 measured feet; the height at the beautiful lady, of whom he was jealous. The ruins are of course haunted by her restless spirit, and many cighteen or twenty, and the breadth may vary in the
entrance may be about three feet, but rises within to romantic stories are told by the aged people of the island concerning her fate in life, and her appearances cave is strewed with the bones of men, women, and
same proportion. The rude and stoney bottom of this after death.
children, the sad reliques of the ancient inhabitants of Note 4. Stanza ix.
the island, 200 in number, who were slain on the folAnd Ronin's mountains dark have sent
lowing occasion :- The Mac-Donalds of the Isle of Ece, Their hunters to the shore.
a people dependent on Clan-Ronald, had done some Ronin (popularly called Rum, a name which a poet injury to the Laird of Mac-Leod. The tradition of the may be pardoned for avoiding if possible) is a very isle says, that it was by personal attack on the chieftain, rough and mountainous island, adjacent to those of in which his back was broken. But that of the other Eige and Cannay. There is almost no arable ground isles bears, more probably, that the injury was offered upon it, so that, except in the plenty of the deer, which to two or three of the Mac-Leods, who, landing upon of course are now nearly extirpated, it still deserves Eige, and using some freedom with the young women, the description bestowed by the archdean of the Isles. were seized by the islanders, bound hand and foot,
« Ronin, sixteen myle north-wast from the ile of Coll, and turned adrift in a boat, which the winds and waves lyes ane ile callit Ronin lle, of sixteen myle long, and safely conducted to Skye. To avenge the offence given, six in bredthe in the narrowest, ane forest of heigh Mac-Leod sailed with such a body of men, as rendered mountains, and abundance of little deire in it, quhilk resistance hopeless. The natives, fearing his vengeance, deir will never be slane dounewith, but the principal concealed themselves in this cavern, and after a strict saittis man be in the height of the hill, because the search, the Mac-Leods went on board their gallies, deir will be callit upwart ay be the tainchell, or without after doing what mischief they could, concluding the tynchel they will pass upwart perforce. In this ile will inhabitants had left the isle, and betaken themselves be gotten about Britane als many wild nests upon the to the Long Island, or some of Clan-Ronald's other plane mure as men pleasis to gadder, and yet by resson possessions. But next morning they espied from the the fowls hes few to start them except deir. This ile vessels a man upon the island, and immediately landlies from the west to the eist in lenth, and pertains to ing again, they traced luis retreat by the marks of his M*Kenabrey of Colla. Many solan geese are in this footsteps, a light snow being unhappily on the ground. isle.»s-Monro's Description of the Western Isles, p. 18. Mac-Leod then surrounded the cavern, summoned the
subterranean garrison, and demanded that the indiviNote 5. Stanza ix.
duals who had offended him should be delivered up to On Scoor-Eige dert a warning light Summond her warriors to the fight;
him. This was peremptorily refused. The chieftain A numerous race, ere stern Macleod
then caused his people to divert the course of a rill of O'er their bleak shores in vengeance strode.
water, which, falling over the entrance of the cave, These, and the following lines of the stanza, refer to would have prevented his purposed vengeance.
He a dreadful tale of feudal vengeance, of which unfortu- then kindled at the entrance of the cavern a huge fire, nately there are reliques that still attest the truth. composed of turf and fern, and maintained it with unScoor-Eige is a high peak in the centre of the small relenting assiduity, until all within were destroyed by isle of Eigg or Ege. It is well known to mineralogists, suffocation. The date of this dreadful deed must have as affording many interesting specimens, and to others been recent, if one may judge from the fresh
appearance whom chance or curiosity may lead to the island, for of those reliques. I brought off, in spite of the prethe astonishing view of the main-land and neighbouring judice of our sailors, a skull from among the numerous isles, which it commands. I will again avail myself specimens of mortality which the cavern afforded. Beof the Journal I have quoted.
fore reimbarking we visited another cave, opening to « 26th August, 1814.-At seven this morning wc the sca, but of a character entirely different, being a were in the sound wleich divides the isle of Rum from large open vault as high as that of a cathedral, and that of Egg. The latter, although hilly and rocky, and running back a great way into the rock at the same
height. The height and width of the opening gives of many, that these little isthmuses, so frequently styled ample light to the whole. Here, after 1745, when the Tarbat in North Britain, took their name from the catholic priests were scarcely tolerated, the priest of above circumstance; Tarruing signifying to draw, and Eigg used to perform the Roman catholic service, most Bata, a boat. This too might be called, by way of preof the islanders being of that persuasion. A huge ledge eminence, the Tarbat, from a very singular circumof rocks,' rising about half way up one side of the vault, stance related by Torfæus. When Magnus, the bareserved for altar and pulpit; and the appearance of a footed King of Norway, obtained from Donald-Bane of priest and Highland congregation in such an extraor- Scotland the cession of the western isles, or all those dinary place of worship, might have engaged the pen-places that could be surrounded in a boat, he added cil of Salvator.»
to them the peninsula of Cantyre by this fraud: he Note 6. Stanza X
placed himself in the stern of a boat, held the rudder,
was drawn over this narrow track, and by this species the group of islets gay That guard famed Staffa round.
of navigation wrested the country from his brother
monarch.»-PENNANT'S Scotland, Lond. 1790, p. 190. It would be unpardonable to detain the reader upon
But that Bruce also made this passage, although at a a wonder so often described, and yet so incapable of being understood by description. This palace of Nep- period two or three years later than in the poem, aptune is even grander upon a second than the first view. pears from the evidence of Barbour, who mentions also —The stupendous columns which form the sides of the the effect produced upon the minds of the Highlanders, cave, the depth and strength of the tide which rolls its from the prophecies current amongst them: deep and heavy swell up to the extremity of the vault
But to King Robert will we gang, the variety of tints formed by white, crimson, and
That we bave left unspoken of lang.
When he bad convoyed to the sea yellow stalactites, or petrifactions, which occupy the
His brother Edward, and his menyie, vacancies between the base of the broken pillars that
And other men of great noblay, form the roof, and intersect them with a rich, curious,
To Tarbat they held their way, and variegated chasing, occupying each interstice-the
In galleys ordained for their fare,
But them worth draw their ships there, corresponding variety below water, where the ocean
And a mile was betwixt the seas, rolls over a dark-red or violet-coloured rock, from
And that was lompynt. all with trees. which, as from a base, the basaltic columns arise-the
The king his ships there gert draw; tremendous noise of the swelling tide, mingling with
And for the wind couth stoutly blaw the deep-toned echoes of the vault, -are circumstances
Upon their back, as they would ga,
He gert men rops and masts ta,
And set them in the ships high,
And sails to the tops tye:
And gert men gang thereby drawing.
The wind them help'd that was blowing,
So that, in litle space,
Their feet all over drawn was.
And when they that in the islos word, reference to his course. The variety of their shape con
Heard tell how the king had there, tributes much to the beauty of these effects.
Garts his ships with sails go
Out over betwixt Tarbat two,
They were abaysit so utterly,
For they wist, ibrough old prophecy.
That he that should gar? ships so
Betwixt the seas with sails go,
Should win the isles so till hand,
That none with streugih should him withstand.
Therefore they come all to the king. a tour through the Hebrides about 1801, soon before
Was none withstood his bidding, his fatal departure for India, where, after having made
Owtakyn. Johne of Lorne alane. farther progress in oriental literature than any man
But well soon after was he ta'en; of letters who had embraced these studies, he died a
And present right 10 the king. martyr to his zeal for knowledge, in the island of Java,
And they there were of his leading,
That till the king bad broken fay,' immediately after the landing of our forces near Bata
Were all dead and destroyed away. via, in September, 1811.
BanDoua'. Bruce, vol. III, Book XV, pp. 14, 15.
Note 9. Stanza xiji.
The sun, ere yet he sunk behind
Ben-ghoil, the Mountain of the Wind,
Gave bis grim peaks a greeting kind,
Apd bade Loch Ranza smile. by a very narrow isthmus, formed by the western and castern Loch of Tarbat. These two salt-water lakes, or Loch Ranza is a beautiful bay, on the northern exbays, encroach so far upon the land, and the extremities tremity of Arran, opening towards East Tarbat Loch. come so near to each other, that there is not above a It is well described by Pennant. mile of land to divide them.
« The approach was magnificent: a fine bay in « It is not long,» says Pennant, « since vessels of nine front, about a mile deep, having a ruined castle near or ten tons were drawn by horses out of the west loch into that of the east, to avoid the dangers of the Mull
I Were obliged to. * Supposod entangled. 3 Cansed,
4 Could. of Cantyre, so dreaded and so little known was the
6 Confounded. navigation round that promontory. It is the opinion
5 Caused. 7 Make.
the lower end on a low far-projecting neck of land, sister, par amours, to the neglect of his own lady, sisthat forms another harbour, with a narrow passage; ter to David de Strathbogie, Earl of Athole. This cribut within has three fathom of water, even at the low- minal passion had evil consequences; for, in resentment est ebb. Beyond is a little plain, watered by a stream, of the affront done to his sister, Athole attacked the and inhabited by the people of a small village. The guard which Bruce had left at Cambus-Kenneth, during whole is environed with a theatre of mountains; and the battle of Bannockburn, to protect his magazine of in the back-ground the serrated crags of Grianan-Athol provisions, and slew Sir William Keith, the commander. soar above.»-PENNANT'S Tour to the Western Isles, For which treason he was forfeited. PP. 191,2.
In like manner, when, in a sally from Carrick-fergus, Ben-Ghaoil, « the mountain of the winds,» is gene- Neil Fleming, and the guards whom he commanded, rally known by its English, and less poetical name, of had fallen, after a protracted resistance, which saved Goatfield.
the rest of Edward Bruce's army, he made such moan Note 10. Stanza xviii.
as surprised liis followers:
Sic moan be made men had ferly,'
For he was not customably
Wont for 10 moan men any thing, Bruce, and his being recognized by Douglas and those
Nor would not hear men make moaning. of his followers, who had preceded liim, by the sound Such are the nice traits of character so often lost in of his horn, is in the original singularly simple and af
general history. fecting. The king arrived in Arran with thirty-three
Note 12. Stanza xxvii. small row-boats. He interrogated a female if there had arrived any warlike men of late in that country.
• Thou heard'st a wretched fomale plain,
In agony of travail-pain, « Surely, sir,» she replied, «I can tell you of many who
And thou didst bid thy little band lately came bither, discomfited the English governor,
Upon the instant turn and stand.. and blockaded his castle of Brodick. They maintain This incident, which illustrates so happily the chithemselves in a wood at no great distance.» The king valrous generosity of Bruce's character, is one of the truly conceiving that this must be Douglas and his many simple and natural traits recorded by Barbour. followers, who had lately set forth to try their fortune It occurred during the expedition which Bruce made in Arran, desired the woman to conduct him to the to Ireland, to support the pretensions of his brother wood. She obeyed.
Edward to the throne of that kingdom. Bruce was The king then blew his horn on high :
about to retreat, and his host was arrayed for moving:
The king bas heard a woman cry,
He asked, what that was in liy.
It is the layndar, ' sir, - sai ane,
That her child-ill right now has ta'en :
And must now leave bebind us here.
Therefore she makes an evil cheer. - 5
The king said, « Certes," it were a pity
That sbe in that point left should be,
For certes I trow there is no man
That he no will ruo? a woman than..
His boste all ther arrested he.
And gert a tent soon stintit bo
And gert her gang in hastily,
And other women to be her by,
While she was delivred he bade;
And syne forth on his ways rade.
And how she forth should carried be,
Or be furth fure, ordained be.
This was a full great courtesy,
That swilk a king and so mighty,
Gert bis men dwell on ibis maner,
But for a poor lavender.
Birour's Bruce, Book XVI, pp. 39, 40.
Note 1. Stanza vi. Ross, one of the very few Scottish nobles who fell in
O'er chasms be pass'd, where fractures wide
Craved wary eye and ample stride. that battle, was so dearly beloved by Edward, that he
The interior of the island of Arran abounds with wished the victory had been lost, so Ross had lived.
beautiful highland scenery. The hills, being very rocky Out-laken him, men has not seen
and precipitous, afford some cataracts of great heighit, Where he for any men mode moaning.
though of inconsiderable breadth. There is one pass And here the venerable archdeacon intimates a piece of scandal. Sir Edward Bruce, it seems, loved Ross's I Wonder.
> Laundress. 4 Child-bod,
6 Certainly. • Asked. ? Without lying.
over the river Machrai, renowned for the dilemma of a from which it would seem that the vice of profane poor woman, who, being tempted by the narrowness swearing, afterwards too general among the Scottish of the ravine to step across, succeeded in making the nation, was, at this time, confined to military men. As first movement, but took fright when it became neces- Douglas, after Bruce's return to Scotland, was roving sary.to move the other foot, and remained in a posture about the mountainous country of Tweeddale, near the equally ludicrous and dangerous, until some chance water of Line, he chanced to hear some persons in a passenger assisted her to extricate her f. It is said farm-house say « the devil.» Concluding, from this she remained there some hours.
hardy expression, that the house contained warlike
guests, he immediately assailed it, and had the good Note 2. Stanza vi.
fortune to make prisoners Thomas Randolph, afterHe cross'd his brow beside the stone, Were druids erst heard victims groan,
ward the famous Earl of Moray, and Alexander Stewart, And at the cairns upon the wild,
Lord Bonkill. Both were then in the English interest, O'er many a heathen bero piled.
and had come into that country with the purpose of The Isle of Arran, like those of Man and Anglesea, driving out Douglas. They after wards ranked among abounds with many reliques of heathen, and probably Bruce's most zealous adherents. druidical superstition. There are high erect columns
Note 5. Stanza ix. of unhewn stone, the most early of all monuments, the circles of rude stones, commonly entitled druidical,
. For, see! the ruddy signal made,
That Clifford, with his merry-men all, and the cairns, or sepulchral piles, within which are
Guards carelessly our father's hall.usually found urns inclosing ashes. Much doubt ne
The remarkable circumstances by which Bruce was cessarily rests upon the history of such monuments, nor is it possible to consider them as exclusively Celtic, induced to enter Scotland, under the false idea that a or druidical. By much the finest circles of standing signal-fire was lighted upon the shore near his mater
nal castle of Turnberry-the disappointment which he stones, excepting Stonehenge, are those of Stenhouse,
met with, and the train of success which arose out of at Stennis, in the island of Pomona, the principal isle
that very disappointment, are too curious to be passed of the Orcades. These, of course, are neither Celtic
over unnoticed. The following is the narrative of Barnor druidical ; and we are assured that many circles of
bour. The introduction is a favourable specimen of the kind occur both in Sweden-and Norway.
his style, which seems to be in some degree the model Note 3. Stanza vi.
for that of Gawain Douglas :-
Tbis was in ver,' when winter tide,
With his blasts hideous to bide,
Was overdriven ; and birds small,
As turtle and the nightingale, an ancient fortress, near an open roadstead called
Begouth right sariolly' to sing; Brodick-bay, and not distant far from a tolerable har
And for to make in their singing
Swcet notes and sounds ser, ! bour, closed in by the island of Lamlash. This import
And melodies pleasant to hear. ant place had been assailed a short time before Bruce's
And troos began to ma arrival in the island. James Lord Douglas, who ac
Burgeans, and bright blooms alsua, companied Bruce to his retreat in Rachrin, seems, in
To win the helying of their head,
That wicked winter bad them revid, the spring of 1306, to have tired of his abode there,
And all grasses began to spring. and set out accordingly, in the phrase of the times, to
Into that time the nolle king, see what adventure God would send him. Sir Robert
With his fleet, and a few mengye,' Boyd accompanied him; and his knowledge of the lo
Three hundred I trow they might be,
Is to the sea, out of Arane, calities of Arran appears to have directed his course
A little foronth'' even gone. thither. They landed in the island privately, and ap
They rowed fast, with all their might. pear to have laid an ambush for Sir Johu Hastings, the
Till that upon them fell the night, English governor of Prodick, and surprised a consider
That was myrk" upon great maner,
So that they wist not where they were. able supply of arms and provisions, and nearly look
For they no needle bad, na stones the castle itself. Indeed, that they actually did so, has
*But rowed always intill one, been generally averred by historians, although it does
Steering all time upon the fire, not appear from the narrative of Barbour. On thic
That they saw burning light and schyr.!!
It was but anenter 13 them led : contrary, it would seem that they took shelter within
And they in short time so them sped, a fortification of the ancient inhabitants, a rampart
That at the fire arrived they, called Tor an Schian. When they were joined lsy
And went to land but more delay.
And Gothbert, that has seen the fire, Bruce, it seems probable that they had gained Brodiek
Was full of anger, and of ire: Castle. At least tradition says, that from thic batile
For he durst not do it away; ments of the tower he saw the supposed signal-fire on
And was also doubting are Turnberry-nook.
That bis lord should pass to sea, The castle is now much modernized, but has a dini
Therefore their coming waited he:
Aod met them at thuir arriving. fied appearance, being surrounded by flourishing
Ilo was well soon brought to the king,
6 Buds. Oft, too, with unaccustom'd ears,
, Bereaved. A language mucb nomeot be hears.
11 Dark. Barbour, with great simplicity, gives an anecdote, 13 Adventure.