« 前へ次へ »
The military advantages of this position were obvious. and the marshal were sent to reconnoitre with a body
And soon the great host have they seen,
Where shields shining were so sbeen, it. Again, the English could not pass the Scottish
And bacinets burnished brigbt, army, and move towardo Stirling, without exposing
That gave against the sun great light. their flank to be attacked while in march,
They saw so felo' brawdyne? baners,
Standards, pendons, and spears,
And so fole knights upon steeds,
All flaming in their weeds, as affirmed by Buchanan, and adopted by Mr Nimmo,
And so fcla bataills. and so broad, the author of the history of Stirlingshire, there appears
And 100 so great room as they rode,
That the maist host, and the stoutest nothing to have prevented the English from approaching
or Christendom, and the greatest, upon the carse, or level ground, from Falkirk, either
Should be abaysit for to see from turning the Scottish left flank, or from passing
Their foes unto such quantity.
Barbour's Bruce, vol. II, p. 111.
Note 12. Stanza xi.
With these the valiant of the Isles
Bencath their chieftains rank'd their files.
The men of Argyle, the Islanders, and the Highlanders battle, in placing temporary bridges of doors and spars been numerous, for Bruce had reconciled himself with
in general, were ranked in the rear. They must have over the pools of water in the carse, to enable them to advance to the charge.' 2dly, Had this not been the almost all their chieftains, excepting the obnoxious case, the strength of the garrison was probably not Mac-Dougals of Lorn. The following deed, containing sufficient to excite apprehension. 3dly, The adverse the submission of the potent Earl of Ross to the king, hypothesis leaves the rear of the Scottish army as much
was never before published. It is dated in the third exposed to the Stirling garrison, as the left flank would year of Robert's reign, that is, 1309. be in the case supposed,
OBLIGACIO COMITIS RossensIS PER HOMAGIUM It only remains to notice the nature of the ground
FIDELITATEM ET SCRIPTUM. in front of Bruce's line of battle. Being part of a park,
Universis Christi fidelibus ad quorum noticiam preor chase, it was considerably interrupted with trees, and an extensive marsh, still visible, in some places rendered salutem in domino sempiternam. Quia magnificus
sentes literze peruenerint Willielmus Comes de Ross it inaccessible, and in all of difficult approach. More princeps Dominus Robertus Dei gracia Rex Scottorum to the northward, where the natural impediments were
Dominus meus ex innata sibi bonitate, inspirataque fewer, Bruce fortified his position against cavalry, by clemencia, et gracia speciali remisit michi pure randigging a number of pits so close together, says Bar
corem animi sui, et relaxauit ac condonauit michi bour, as to resemble the cells in a honey-comb. They were a foot in breadth, and between two and three
omnimodas transgressiones seu offensas contra ipsum
et suos per me et meos vsque ad confeccionem literafeet deep, many rows of them being placed one behind the other. They were slightly covered with brushwood
rum presencium perpetratas: Et terras meas et teneand
Et me nichilogreen sods, so as not to be obvious to an impetuous minus de terra de Dingwal et Ferncroskry infra
menta mea omnia graciose concessit.
comitatum de Suthyrland de benigna liberalitate sua lect body of cavalry stationed with Edward Bruce on beneuolenciam efficaciter attendens, et pro tot graciis
heriditarie infeodare curauit. Ego tantam principis the right wing, under the immediate command of Sir Robert Keith, the Marshal of Scotland, who were des- michi factis, vicem sibi gratitudinis meis pro viribus tined for the important service of charging and dis
de cetero digne- --vite cupiens exhibere, persing the English archers.
subiicio et obligo me et heredes meos et homines meos Thus judiciously posted, in a situation fortified both
vniuersos dicto Domino meo Regi per omnia---by art and nature, Bruce awaited the attack of the
----erga suam regiam dignitatem, quod English
erimus de cetero fideles sibi et heredibus suis et fidele
sibi seruicium auxilium et concilium---Note 11. Stanza x.
contra omnes homines et feminas qui vivere poterint Beyond, the southern host appears.
aut mori, et super h--Ego Willielmus pro me-Upon the 230 June, 1314, the alarm reached the
--hominibus meis vniuersis dicto Scottish army of the approach of the enemy. Douglas domino meo Regi--
sponte feci et super Dei ewangelia sacramentum prestiti "An assistance which, by the way, could not have been rendered, -----In quorum omnium testimonium sigillum bad not the English approached from the south-east; since had their march been due north, the whole Scottish army must have been
· Displayed. between them and the garrison.
Our left-wari flank?
meum, et sigilla Hugonis filii et heredis el Johannis The Scottish leaders remonstrated with the king filii mei vna cum sigillis venerabilium patrum Domi- upon his temerity. He only answered, « I have broken norum Dauid et Thome Moraviensis et Rossensis Dei my good battle-axe.»— The English van-guard retreated gracia cpiscoporum presentibus literis sunt appensa. after witnessing this single combat. Probably their Acta scripta et data apud Aldern in Morauia vltimo die generals did not think it advisable to hazard an attack, mensis Octobris, Anno Regni dicti domini nostri Regis while ils unfavourable issue remained upon their Roberti Tertio. Testibus venerabilibus patribus supra- minds. dictis, Domino Bernardo Cancellario Regis, Dominis Willielmo de Haya, Johanne de Striuelyn, Willielmo
Note 14. Stanza xviii. Wysman, Johanne de Ffenton, Dauid de Berkeley, et
- What train of dust, with trumpet-sound Waltro de Berkeley militibus, magistro Waltero leror,
And glimmering spears, is wheeling round Decano ecclesie Morauie, magistro Willielmo de Creswel eiusdem ecclesie precentore et multis aliis nobilibus
While the van of the English army advanced, a declericis et laicis dictis die et loco congregatis.
tached body attempted to relieve Stirling. Lord Hailes The copy of this curious document was supplied by gives the following account of this manæuvre, and the my friend, Mr Thomson, Deputy Register of Scotland, result
, which is accompanied by circumstances highly whose researches into our ancient records are dairy characteristic of the chivalrous manners of the age, throwing new and important light upon the history of and displays that generosity which reconciles us even the country.
to their ferocity upon other occasions.
Bruce had enjoined Randolph, who commanded the Note 13. Stanza xiii.
left wing of liis army, to be vigilant in preventing any The monarch rode along the van.
advanced parties of the English from throwing succours The English van-guard, commanded by the Earls into the castle of Stirling. of Gloucester and Hereford, came in sight of the Scot Eight hundred horsemen, commanded by Sir Robert tish army upon the evening of the 23d of June. Bruce Clifford, were detached from the English army; they was then riding upon a little palfrey, in front of his made a circuit by the low grounds to the east, and foremost line, putting his host in order. It was then approached the castle. The king perceived their mothat the personal encounter took place betwixt him and tions, and, coming up to Randolphi, angrily exclaimed, Sir Henry de Bohun, a gallant English knight, the issue “Thoughtless man! you have suffered the enemy to of which had a great effect upon the spirits of both pass.' Randolph hasted to repair his fault, or perish. armies. It is thus recorded by Barbour :
As he advanced, the English cavalry wheeled to attack
him. Randolph drew up his troops in a circular form, And wben Glosyter and Ilertfurd were
with their spears resting on the ground, and protended With their battle approaching near, Before them all their came riding,
on every side.
At the first onset, Sir William DayneWith helm on head, and spear in hand,
court, an Engdish commander of distinguished note, Sir Henry the Boune, the worthy,
was slain. The enemy, far superior in numbers to That was a wicht knight, and a hardy;
Randolph, environed him, and pressed hard on liis little
band. Douglas saw his jeopardy, and requested the Come on a steed, a bow-shot nere,
king's permission to go and succour him. "You shall Before all other that there were.
not move from your ground, cried the king; let And knew the king, for that he saw
Randolph extricate himself as he best may. I will not
alter my order of bauile, and lose the advantage of my Also upon bis bassenet,
position.' 'In truth,' replied Douglas, 'I cannot stand And towards him he went on haste.
by and see Randolplı perish; and, therefore, with your Áud the king so apertly
leave, I musi aid him.' The king unwillingly consented, Saw him come, forth all his feres! In hy? till him the horse be steers.
and Douglas flew to the assistance of liis friend. While And when Sir Henry saw the king
approaching, he perceived that the English were falling Come on, forouting abaysing.'
into disorder, and that the perseverance of Randolpha Till him he rode in full great hy.
had prevailed over their impetuous courage.--'Halt, He thought that he should well lightly Win him, and bave him at his will,
cried Douglas, 'those brave men have repulsed the
enemy; let us not diminish their glory by sharing it.'» Sprent they same intill a lings
- DALRYMPLE's Annals of Scotland, 410, Edinburghi, Sir Benry mised the noble king. And he, that in his stirrups slood,
1779, pp. 41, 15. With the ase, that was hard and good,
Two large stones erected at the north end of the With so great mayn reached him a dint,
village of Newhouse, about a quarter of a mile from That neither hat nor helm might styot,
the south part of Stirling, ascertain the place of this The hewy duche,' that he him gave,
memorable skirmish. The circumstance tends, were That nere the head till the harness clave. The hand-ase shaft fruschyt' in iwo;
confirmation necessary, to support the opinion of Lord And he down to the yird gan go
Hailes, that the Scottish' line had Stirling on its left All flatlynya, "' for him failed might.
tlank. It will be remembered that Randolph commanded This was the first stroke of the tight. BARBOUR's Bruce, vol. II, p. 122.
infantry, Daynecourt cavalry. Supposing, therefore,
according to the volgar hypothesis, that the Scottish ! Comrades.
· Without sbrinking.
line was drawn up, facing to the south, in the line of * Spurred.
the brook of Bannock, and consequently that Randolph # Clash. 9 Broken.
was stationed with his left flank resting upon Milntown bog, it is morally impossible that his infantry, moving
Since he him horsed saw so ill.
1 lleary, 10 flat.
from that position with whatever celerity, could cut
That they were in, to bide fighting; off from Stirling a body of cavalry who had already
Or that it was for abaysing;'
I wete pot. But in a schllirum passed St Ninians,' or, in other words, were already
It seemed they were all and some; between them and the town. Whereas, supposing
Out ta'en the vaward anerly Randolph's left to have approached Sc Ninians, the
That right with a great company, short movement to Newhouse could easily be executed,
Be them selwyn arrayed were.
Who had been by, might have seen there so as to intercept the English in the manner described.
That folk ourtake a meikill feild
On breadth, where many a shining shield,
And many a burnished bright armour,
And many a man of great valour,
Might in that great scbiltrum be seen :
And many a bright banner and sheen.
Bandoua's Bruce, vol. II, p. 137. tish tune of « Hey, tutti, taitti,» was Bruce's march at the battle of Bannockburn. The late Mr Ritson, no
Note 17. Stanza xxi. granter of propositions, doubts whether the Scots had
See where yon bare-foot abbot stands, any martial music, and quotes Froissart's account of each
And blesses them with lifted hands. soldier in the host bearing a little horn, on which, at « Maurice, Abbot of Inchaffray, placing himself on the onset, they would make such a horrible noise, as if an eminence, celebrated mass in sight of the Scottish all the devils of hell had been among them. He ob-army. He then passed along the front, bare-footed, serves, that these borns are the only music mentioned and bearing a crucifix in his hands, and exhorting the by Barbour, and concludes, that it must remain a moot Scots, in few and forcible words, to combat for their point whether Bruce's army were cheered by the sound rights and their liberty. The Scots knceled down. They even of a solitary bagpipe.—Historical Essay prefixed yield,' cried Edward ; *see, they implore mercy.' 'They to Ritson's Scottish Songs
do,' answered Ingelram de Umfraville, but not ours. It may be observed in passing, that the Scottish of On that field they will be victorious or die.' »— Annals this period certainly observed some musical cadence, of Scotland, vol II, p. 47.. even in winding their horns, since Bruce was at once recognized by his followers from his mode of blowing.
Note 18. Stanza xxii. See Note 10. on Canto IV.
« Forth, marshal, on the peasant foe!
We'll tame the terrors of their bow, But the tradition, true or false, has been the means
And cut the bow-string loose! of securing to Scotland one of the finest lyrics in the language, the celebrated war-song of Bruce,
The English archers commenced the attack with their
usual bravery and dexterity. But against a force, whose Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled.
importance he had learned by fatal experience, Bruce Note 16. Stanza XXI.
was provided. A small but select body of cavalry were
detached from the right, under command of Sir Robert
Keith. They rounded, as I conceive, the marsh called
Milntown bog, and, keeping the firm ground, charged to the attack. The narrowness of the Scottish front, bowmen had no spears nor long weapons, fit to defend and the nature of the ground, did not permit them to have the full advantage of their numbers, nor is it very into disorder, and spread through the whole English
themselves against horse, they were instantly thrown easy to find out what was their proposed order of batte. The van-guard, however, appeared a distinct body; army a confusion, from which they never fairly reco
vered. consisting of archers and spearmen on foot, and commanded, as already said, by the Earls of Gloucester and
The English archers shot so fast, Hereford. Rarbour, in one place, mentions that they
That might their shot have any last, formed nine Battles, or divisions; but, from the fol
It had been hard to Scottis men. lowing passage, it appears that there was no room or
But King Robert, that well gan ken,
That their shot right bard and grievous, space for them to extend themselves, so that, except the
Ordained, forouth * the assembly, van-guard, the whole army appeared to form one solid
His marschall, with a great menzie, and compact body:
Fire hundred armed into steel,
That on light horse were horsed well,
For to pryk among the archers,
And to assail them with tbeir spears,
That they no leisure hare till shoot.
This marischell, that I of mute,
Tbat Sir Robert of Keith was called,
As I befor here has you told,
I Barbour says expressly, they avoided the New Park (wbore quarter they might be charged. But it does not appear bow, or
have arrayed themselves in a circular forin. It seems more pro2 Together.
hablo that, by schiltrum, in the present case, Barbour means to • Schiltrum. - This word bas been variously limited or extended erpress an irregular mass into which the English army was comin its signification. In general, it scerns 10 imply a large body of pressed by the nnwieldiness of its numbers, and the carelessness or men drawn up very closely together. But it has been limited to ignorance of its leaders. imply a round or circular body of men so drawn up. I cannot un Frightening.
I know. Jerstand it with this limitation in the present case. The Schiltrom • Disjointed from their malo body. of the Scottish army at Falkirk was undoubtedly of a circular form, • That I speak of. in order to resist the attacks of the English cavalry, on whatever
It was my
When he saw the battles so
I prepared for them. Barbour does not mention this Assembled, and 10gether go,
circumstance. According to his account; Randolph, And saw the arebers shoot stoutly, With all them of his company,
seeing the slaughter made by the cavalry on the right In baste upon them gan be ride,
wing among the archers, advanced courageously against And overlooke them at a side;'
the main body of the English, and entered into close And rushed among them so rudely,
combat with them. Douglas and Stuart, who comSticking them so dispiteously, And in such fasion bearing down
manded the Scottish centre, led their division also to And slaying them, foroutin ransoun:
the charge, and the battle becoming general along the That they them scalyt. euerilkane,
whole line, was obstinately maintained on both sides And from that time forth there was na
for a long space of time; the Scottisha archers doing That assembled shot to ma. When Scotts archers say that they sua
grcat execution among the English men-at-arms, after Wore rebutyt,' they wax bardy,
the bowmen of England were dispersed.
Note 21. Stanza xxiv.
And steeds that shriek in agony.
I have been told that this line requires an explanatory Although the success of this manæuvre was evident, note; and, indeed, those who witness the silent patience
with which horses submit to the most cruel usage may it is very remarkable that the Scottish generals do not appear to have profited by the lesson. Almost every intolerable anguish, they utter a most melancholy cry.
be permitted to doubt that, in poments of sudden or subsequent battle which they lost against England was Lord Erskine, in a speech made in the House of Lords, decided by the archers, to whom the close and compact array of the Scottish phalanx afforded an exposed and upon a bill for enforcing humanity towards animals,
noticed this remarkable fact, in language which I will unresisting mark. The bloody battle of Halidon-hill,
not mutilate by attempting to repeat it. fought scarce twenty years afterward, was so completely fortune, upon one occasion, to hear a horse, in a mogained by the archers, that the English are said to have lost only one knight, one esquire, and a few foot-soldiers consider the most melancholy sound I ever heard.
agony, utter a thrilling scream, which I still At the battle of Neville's Cross, in 1346, where David II. was defeated and made prisoner, John de Graham, ob
Note 22. Stanza xxvii. serving the loss which the Scots sustained from the
Lord of the Isles, my trust in theo English bowmen, offered to charge and disperse them,
Is firm as Ailsa-rock; if a hundred men-at-arms were put under his command.
Rush on with flighland sword ard targe;
I, with my Carrick spearmen, charge. « But, to confess the truth,» says Fordun, « he could not procure a single horseman for the service proposed.» When the engagement between the main bodies had Of such little use is experience in war, where its results lasted some time, Bruce made a decisive movement, by are opposed by habit or prejudice.
bringing up the Scottish reserve. It is traditionally
said, that at this crisis he addressed the Lord of the Note 19. Stanza xxiv.
Isles in a phrase used as a motto by some of his deEach braggart churl could boast before,
scendants, My trust is constant in thee.» Barbour Twelve Scottish lives his baldric bore !
intimates, tbat the reserve « assembled on one field,» Roger Ascham quotes a similar Scottish proverb,
that is, in the same line with the Scottish forces already whereby they give the whole praise of shooting lio- engaged, which leads Lord Hailes to conjecture, that nestly to Englishmen, saying thus, that every English the Scottish ranks must have been much thinned by archer beareth under his girdle twenty-four Scoltes.'
slaughter, since, in that circumscribed ground, there Indeed, Toxophilus says before, and truly of the Scot
was room for the reserve to fall into the line. But the tish nation, the Scoiles surely be good men of warre advance of the Scottish cavalry must have contributed in theyre owne feates as can be; but as for shootinge, a good deal to form tke vacancy occupied by the rethey can peither use it to any prolite, nor yet challenge it for any praise.'»-Works of Ascham, edited by Bennet, 410. p. 110.
Note 23. Stanza xxx. It is said, I trust incorrectly, by an ancient English
To arms they flow,-axe, club, or spear, -historian, that the « good Lord James of Dougias»
And mimic ensigos high they rear. dreaded the superiority of the English archers so much, The followers of the Scottish camp observed, from that when he made any of them prisoner, he gave him the Gillies' bill in the rear, the impression produced the option of losing the fore-finger of his right hand, or upon the English army by the bringing up of the Scothis right cyc, either species of mutilation rendering him tish reserve, and, prompted by the enthusiasm of the incapable to use the bow. I have mislaid the reference moment, or the desire of plunder, assumed, in a tuto this singular passage.
multuary manner, such arms as they found nearest, Note 20. Stanza xxiv.
fastened sheets to tent-poles, and lances, and showed
themselves like a new army advancing to battle.
Yeomen, and swanys,' and pitaill, a
That in the Park yemet victual,
Were left; when they wist but lesing* men-at-arms fell into the luidden snare which Bruce had
That their lords with full fighting Set upon their flank. 2 Numbers.
Ransom. 4 Dispersed.
Rabble. 1 Driven back.
3 kept the provisions.
On their foes assembled were;
army, fled towards Linlithgow, pursued by Douglas One of their selwyn' that were there
with about sixty horse. They were augmented by Sir Captain of them all they made. And sheets, that were somedale? braid,
Lawrence Abernethy with twenty more, whom Douglas They fastened instead of banners
met in the Torwood upon their way to join the English Upon long trees and spears.
army, and whom 'he easily persuaded to desert the deAnd said that they would see the fight,
feated monarch, and to assist in the pursuit. They And help their lords at their might. When hero-till all assented were,
hung upon Edward's flight as far as Dunbar, too few in In a route assembled er,"
number to assail him with effect, but enough to harass Fifteen thousand they were or ma,
liis retreat so constantly, that whoever fell an instant And than in great baste gan they go, With their banners, all in a route,
behind, was instantly slain, or made prisoner. EdAs they had men been styve' and stout.
ward's ignominious flight terminated at Dunbar, where They came with all that assembly,
the Earl of March, who still professed allegiance to liim, Right till they might be battle see;
« received him full gently,» From thence, the inonarch Then all at once they gave a cry. • Slay! Slay! Upon them hastily!
of so great an empire, and the late commander of so Benvour's Bruce, vol. II, Book XIII, PP. 153, 4. gallant and numerous an army, escaped to Bamborough
in a fishing vessel. The unexpected apparition, of what seemed a new Bruce, as will appear from the following document, army, completed the confusion which already prevailed lost no time in directing the thunders of parliamentary among the English, who fled in every direction, and censure against sạch part of his subjects as did not rewere pursued with immense slaughter. The brook of turn to their natural allegiance, after the battle of BauBannock, according to Barbour, was so'choaked with nockburn. the bodies of men and borses, that it might have been passed dry-shod. The followers of the Scottisla camp
APUD MONASTERIUM DE CAMBUSKENNETI, fell upon the disheartened fugitives, and added to the
XVI DIE NOVEMBRIS M.CCC.XIY. confusion and slaughter. Many were driven into the Judicium redditum apud Kambuskinet contra omnes Forth, and perished there, which, by the way,
illos qui tunc fuerunt contra fidem et pacem Domini hardly have happened, had the armies been drawn up
Regis. east and west, since in that case, to get at the river, the English fugitives must have fled through the victorious Anno gracie millesimo tricentesimo quarto decimo army.
About a short mile from the field of battle is a sexto die Novembris tenente parliamentum suum excelplace called the Bloody Folds. llere the Earl of Glou- Jentissimo principe domino Roberto Dei gracia Reye cester is said to have made a stand, and died gallantly Scottorum Illustri in monasterio de Cambuskyneth conat the licad of his own military tenants and vassals. He cordatum fuit finaliter judicatum (ac super) hoc stawas much regretted by both sides; and it is said the tutum de consilio et assensu episcoporum et ceterorum Scottish would gladly have saved his life, but neglecting prelatorum comitum baronum et aliorum nobilium to wear his surcoat with armorial bearings over his regni Scocie nec non et tocius communitatis regni prearmour, he fell unknown, after his horse had been dicti quod omnes qui contra fidem et pacem dicti dostabbed with spears.
mini' regis in bello seu alibi mortui suut (vel qui dic) Sir Marmaduke Twenge, an English knight, contrived to dic ad pacem ejus et fidem non venerant livet sepius to conceal himself during the fury of the pursuit, and vocati et legitime expectati fuissent de terris et tenewhen it was somewhat slackened, approached King mentis et omni alio stalu intra regnum Scocie perpetuo Robert. « Whose prisoner are you, Sir Marmaduke?» sint exheredati et habeantur de cetero tanquam inimici said Bruce, to whom he was personally known. «Yours, regis el-regni ab omni vendicacione juris hereditarii sir,» answered the knight, « I receive you,» answered vel juris alterius cujuscunque in posterum pro se et hethe king; and, treating him with the utmost courtesy, redibus suis in perpetuum privati Ad perpetuam igitur loaded him with gifts, and dismissed him without ran
rei memoriam et evidentem probacionem hujus judicii The other prisoners were well-treated.
There et statuti sigilla episcoporum et aliorum prelatorum might be policy in this, as Bruce would naturally wish
nec non et comitum baronum ac ceterorum nobilium to acquire the good opinion of the English barons, who dicti regni presenti ordinacioni judicio 'et statuto sunt were at this time at great variance with their king. But appensa. it also well accords with his high chivalrous character.
Sigillam Domini Regis.
Sigillum Willelmi Episcopi Sancti Andree
Sigillum Roberti Episcopi Glascuensis Edward II., according to the best authorities, showed,
Sigillum Willelmi Episcopi Dunkeldensis in the fatal field of Bannockburn, personal gallantry not
Episcopi unworthy of his great sire and greater son. He remain
Episcopi ed on the field will forced away by the Earl of Pem
Episcopi broke, when all was lost. He then rode to the castle of
Sigillum Alani Episcopi Sodorensis Stirling, and demanded admittance; but the governor
Sigillum Johannis Episcopi Brechynensis remonstrating upon the imprudence of shutting him
Sigillam Andree Episcopi Ergadiensis self up in that fortress, which must so soon surrender,
Sigillum Frechardi Episcopi Cathanensis he assembled around his person five hundred men-at
Sigillum Abbatis de Scona arms, and, avoiding the field of battle and the victorious
Sigillum Abbatis de Calco
Sigillum Abbatis de Abirbrothok