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rence; and therefore a great stress debt had been stated at 6,000,000!. had been laid on the increased di-. and not at 11,000,000l. because vidend in 1784: but if the increase provision had lately been made by had not rested on the folid ground parliament for funding 5,000,000l. of increasing prosperity, it would, of what was then due. It would, in the end, have only depressed in his lordship contended, be strange ftead of raising the stock. As to to say that the produce of the finkthe increase of the exports and ing fund was not disposable by par. imports having not occasioned a liament. Leaving this, however, proportionate increase of revenue, it would be found on inspection the net produce of our revenue that the statement had asserted was no criterion of the extent of that the annual million, fet apart our foreign trade : but it was an in 1786, was to be inviolably apimportant fact, that, in 1783, the plied to the reduction of the debt value of British manufactures ex- till the accumulation shall amount ported was. 10,409,00ol. and in to 4,000,000l. a year, when there 1795, it had risen to 16,326,000l. will revert to the disposal of parliaThe statement of the noble earlment, taxes equal to whatever part made the importation of cotton of the national debt may be rewool for the use of our manufac- purchased by the application of tures to be four times as great as 4,000,000l. a year. Respecting the in the first years of the peace. "As peace establiment, his lord slip a general proof of his statement said, the statement would prove that of the finances being exact, lord he had observed it might eventually Auckland observed that it was in exceed the supposed amount: but the recollection of the house, that that the return of peace is likely to the annual amount of the perma: increase the reveme, and at any rates
, nent taxes, on a three years'average, that the computation of a furto the 5th of June, 1796, accordé plus revenue of 3,400,000l. would ing to the papers before parliament, give near 1,000,000l. a year. In had been 13,729,000l." and with the details of the peace establimthe addition of one-fixth of a 53d ment which the house had just week, which was 31,000l. amounted heard, sums were included, to the to 13,761,000l. Deducting for the amount of several millions, which taxes imposed from 1784 to 1792, did not come within any descrip and for other changes and improve- tion of a regular peace establishments in the revenue during that ment. The data on which the calperiod, 1,400,000l. the remainderculation for the 3,400,000l.had beeri was 12,561,000l. With respect to doubted by the noble earl, to the navy debt being giver from think that the revenue ought to be May and not from December, it estimated, not on an average of was the express purpose of the com- years, but from the third year of a parative view to exhibit our actual - war, was a fufficient refutation of its fituation, and to thew our resources validity. Taking the taxes to an. fuch as enabled us, in rhis advanc. frer the charge created by the war, ed period of the war, to provide for according to their estimate, which 8,000,000l. of navy debt, and to was 4,500,000l. of that sum about reduce it as low as in a time of 750,000l. was applicable for repeace. In the fame manner the bank deeming the principal
, and formed 1796.
what might be called the second were also included. Subje&t to thefa linking fund. The annual profit explanations, the statement in quelof the lottery, and the payment tion had been formed as follows. from the East - India company, Net produce of permanent taxes to Jan. 5; 1794, $.13,941,000
Jan. 5, 1795,
13,802,000 Jan. 5, 1796,
In stating the last year's account, an addition had been made beyond the amount, which appeared in the accounts laid before parliament, of about 300,000l. for bounties to seamen, for the fifty-third week; for the produce of repealed taxes; and for some smaller particulars. The average of the sum above stated will be about 4.13,730,000 The land and malt
2,558,000 Annual profit by lottery
250,000 East-India payment
500,000 Accumulated profit of the first sinking fund
800,000 Amount of the second linking fund
Deducting from the above, of Lauderdale; and observed, that 15,000,000l. as a fupposed peace if he was accurate, the expences expenditure, there would remain a of the country certainly exceeded higher sum than had been given in the revenne. It was not, his lord. the statement of the ad of May, of ship said, his intention to present a which, as has been already explain- gloomy pi&ture of our resources : ed, above 2,800,0ool. was confi- he knew them to be folid and subdered as applicable to the discharge ftantial; but every thing depended of the debt. Had the account been upon economy and prudent ma. laken, as it might, on a peace nagement. average, the amount would have
Lord Hawkesbury objected to been 450,00ol. higher. His lord- taking the last year into a comparidip ended by stating that every fon with the others, on account of existing account of our revenue several circumstances which operate and resources, the flourishing state ed to diminish the annual producof our agriculture, commerce, and tion of the permanent revenue; such manufactures, and every apparent as the distillers and the malt brew: evidence of internal prosperity, ers cealing to work, from the high gave a consolatory and cheerful price of grain, and the distress of picture of the situation and pro- the poorer sort of the community Ipects of the Britifh empire. from the same cause. To these the
The earl of Moira entered into drawback upon sugars might be several calculations, which sup- added : and of all the new taxes of ported the stateisents of the earl 1794 and 1795, few except the tax
#pon wine were immediately pro- to be brought against it. On putductive. The amount of the taxes ting the previous question, which had , and the estimate were, he stated, been moved by lord Hawkesbury, in the first year nearly equal; in the it was carried without a division. fecond, the produce exceeded the e- The subject of the game laws, fimate; and what they might prove which underwent considerable inin the present, could not be ascer- vestigation in both the houses of tained. What would be the peace parliament, was introduced to the establishment at the end of the war, notice of the house of commons, muft entirely depend on the secu- February 16, by Mr. Coke of Norrity and permanency of the treaty; folk, who moved for leave to bring but whatever it was, the sinking in a bill to arnend the game act. fund would still continue to be The principal object of this bill paid, together with the interest of was to defer the commencement of 3,500,00olat four per cent. His the season for thooting partridges lordship drew a very flattering pic- till the 14th of September, in order ture of the revenue and resources to prevent injury to the farmers; of the country; that one per cent. which was carried. Mr. Curwen less was paid for intereft than in brought forward à motion for the former wars; that in 1792 only total repeal of all the game laws; twenty-nine navigation bills were upon which the subject was warm. passed, and last year there were lý agitated in the house of com. forty-seven ; but one hundred and mons, and the motion thrown out nine inclosure bills in 1792, and by a considerable majority. Little haft year two hundred and feventeen. worthy of remark occurred, howOur commerce had gone to an un- ever, in the debate, excepting the paralleled extent, and, though de- extraordinary and truly Jacobinical Itroyed with Holland, had increased observation of the chancellor of the with Germany, and last year a. exchequer, that “ property was the mounted to fix millions.
creature of law." · The resolutions and statements On the 18th of February, Mr. of the earl of Lauderdale were ap- Wilberforce again moved for the proved and enforced by the mar- abolition of the slave trade, and quis of Lansdowne, and opposed by prefaced the motion by a speech of lord Grenville. Lord Lauderdale, great length, and replete with every in reply, commented upon the argument calculated to support the statements which had been made of humave measure he proposed. He the revenue and expenditure, which observed that the ist of January, had materially differed in the con- 1796 was the period allotted by the clufion. He contended, that the ex- house for the abolition of this inpenditure of the lat year of the war, famous traffic ; – that this time had from the papers on the table, was however elapsed, and this demuch greater than ministers al- testable bufiness proceeded with lowed, in the navy, army, and ex- undiminished spirit. Independent traordinary estimates; and parti. of justice and humanity, it was, he cularly considered the arrears and observed, further incumbent upon extraordinaries of the ordnance as the legislature to terminate the a novelty : as the noble duke who trade, on account of the prefer. lately prefided there had left his vation of our Welt-India inands. office without any extraordinaries Had the abolition-act passed sooner,
the enemy, he said, would never the quakers, and moved for leave have obtained such fm hold in to bring in a bill for their relief, as Guadaloupe, Grenada, and St. Vin- to the imprisonment of their per, cent's. The motion was opposed fons for iythes, and for making by general Tarleton, Sir W.Younge, their solemn affirmation evidence in Mr. Dundas, and a very confider-, criminal as well as in civil cases. able number of gentiemen. It
It The bill was ably supported by was ably supported by the chan. Mr. Adair, by Mr. Wilberforce, cellor of the exchequer, Mr. Smith, Ms. Francis, Mr. Martin, Mr. Pitt, Mr. serjeant Adair, &c, and in a Mr. Lechmere, and Mr. Wigley, very animated and eloquent speech and passed the house of commons, by Mr. Fox. In all its various but was thrown ont by the lords. ftages, the measure called forth the A bill for the relief of curates whole of the talents of the house, met with considerable opposition either in attack or defence; but in the house of commons, from its the arguments adduced have been, being considered as a money bill, fo frequently before the public. which had originated in the upper during the repeated discussions up. house. This objection was, howon this subject, as to render any ever, removed, by recurring to a further detail of them unnecessary. variety of cafes, in which the lords The real friends to humanity will exerçiled the right of introducing learn with concern, that the narrow clauses for payment of money : views of interest and policy pre- and the present bill certainly did vailed over every consideration of 104 attempt to levy any new imreligion and justice. On the con- poft, but merely enacted a new disfideration of the reports, general tribution of fums already applied Tarleton moved to postpone con- by parliament to particular pursidering the Nave-trade abolition poses. The bill therefore passed. bill for four months; and the bill The earl of Moira, in the course was loft by a majority of four. of the sessions, brought in a bill for On reading the flave-carrying bill, mitigating the rigours experienced Mr. Wilberforce attempted to in, by debtors; u hich war. Atrongly troduce a regulation of flaves in opposed by the law lords, and proportion to the tonnage; but, thrown out. 'On the ad of May, upon a division being called for, colonel Cawthorne entered into a and the house being at different very elaborate defence of his contimes counted out, the number of duct, relative to the charges admembers were found inadequate to vanced against him by a late courtcompose a house; and the motion martial. It was then moved by was consequently thrown out, general Smith, that, being found
During this feflion a bill was guilty of several of the charges, he brought into the house for render- thould be expelled the house; ing permanent the Westminster which was feconded by Mr. Piera police establishment; which, after point, jun. Mr. Wigley wilhed much discussion, was negatived; the house to pause, and entered into and an amendment, moved by the a very able vindication of colonel chancellor of the exchequer, to Cawthorne ; who was, however, as continue it for five years, was length, formally expelled. adopted. Mr. serjeant Adair pre- On the 19th of May the feffion iënted to the house a petition from was closed,' as usual, by a speech
from the throne, which the reader contract for the services of their will find in our Public Papers *; and dependants with the precision of a on the following day the parliament Hesian envoy, or å Swiss co
comwas diffolved by proclamation. mandant. Hence the violence,
the precipitation of their measures, Thus terminated a parliament, more analogous to the rafh counconcerning whose condu&t a more se!s of a defpotic state, than to the impartial and a more unanimous temperate determinations, the gra. verdiet may be expected from dual and tardy compliances of a posterity, than from the present deliberating popular assembly. It age. If we look to the advantages would ill becomie us (who, as prie which, in the course of their poli- vate men, can have little communitical existence, they conferred on cation with the individuals who their conftituents, - if we inquire composed this augut body, and by what new and beneficial laws confequently are lefs acquainted they improved the system of British with their private sentiments) to jurisprudence, or ameliorated the insinuate, with Mr. Burke, that condition of their fellow-subjects.-- their votes were sometimes at vawe must confine our applauses to riance with their opinions. We two objects -- the bill introduced are rather disposed to conclude by Mr. Fox, which irrevocably that the majority of them had revested in a jury the whole question ally no opinion of their own, but on trials for libel; and the decision modestly afligned the direction of in the same session (1792) for the their faculties to other men: and abolition of the detestable Nave- the appellation with which they trade in 1796; a decision, which were stigmatized, of a confiding they afterwards wanted the virtue parliament, will perhaps descend to enforce. Perhaps no feature in to posterity as the characteristic dethe character of this parliament scription of this particular body of was so marked and prominent as representatives. "If, however, we its devotion to party; perhaps the should be disposed to acquit their spirit of independence t was never of intentional misconduct and of so little conspicuous in the con. actual corruption, we shall at least duct of any public body. From have long to lament their unfortuits first assembliog, the individual nate mistakes. In the Dort space members were ranked and arranged of four years, they nearly doubled under their respective leaders, with the national burthens, which were an order and discipline almost as already enormous, and left their regular as in a military establin- successors involved in a contest, the ment; and, when a certain nuiti- iflue of which it is impossible clearber of those leaders negotiated ly to foresee, bot which cannot, on with the minister for a change of the whole, be fortunate or happy. principles, they were enabled to
* Page (89) + We mean by independence the spirit of judging and acting individually for themledves, independent of party views.