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ander general Maffena, to take ad- fent round by Buonaparte, appeared vantage of the night, and gain the on their left and rear. Unable to rear of the Austrian army.
withstand this shock, the Austrian General Beaulieu, having rein- army was thrown into confusion, forced his army, began the attack and, being completely routed, was at break of day. The success was pursued by the French to Cairo. various, and the victory remained Their loss amounted to three thouundecided, until the division un- fand five hundred men, of whom der general Massena, who had been two thousand were prisoners.
« In the winter of 1796, general Buonaparte was united to Madame Beauharnois, a beautiful French woman, who had experienced a variety of persecutions during the time of Robespierre. Her former husband had attained the rank of general in the service of the sepublic, and had always conducted himself as a friend of liberty. On that memorable day, when Louis XVI. and his family repaired to Paris, M. de Beauharnois fat as prendent of the national assembly, and exhibited great dignity of demeanour; notwithstanding this, he fell a victim to the terrorists, who, joining the narrow ideas of sectariste to the ferocious character peculiar to themselves, persecuted all whose opinions were not exadly conformable to their own standard. M. Barras, at lengib, luckily for her, cxtended his protection to the widow, who is now the wife of his friend,
a The campaign of 1797 opened under the inoft auspicious circumstances for France, as well as Spain, who was now in alliance with her; Sardinia acted a subordinate part under her controul; Tuscany obeyed ber requisitions ; Naples had concluded a separate peace, and Rome was at her mercy. In this situation, the eyes of the court of Vienna, and indeed of all Europe, were turned to the archduke Charles, who was said to inherit the military talents of the house of Lorraine. It was accordingly determined that this young prince should be appointed commander in chici, and that the hero of Kehl should oppore the hero of Italy. The contest, however, was not long between birth and genius; between a young man of illustrious extracion, surrounded by fatterers, and educated in the corrupting circle of a court, and a hardy Corlican, brought up amidit perils, breathing the spirit of the ancient republics; acquainted with all the machinery of modern warfare, diređing every thing under his own eye, -- whose mifiress was the commonwealth, and whose companion Fas Plutarch!
“ The war on the continent may at length be said to be at an end. An emperor and a pope humbled; the imperial crown reduced to nearly an empty name, and the pontifical ene held at the will of the conqueror;- two kings subjected -- one to bumiliation, and the other to unconditional submiffion ;-Corfica rettored to France without an effort--and a new and formidable republic erected in that country, which has beheld the overthrow of Ave armies appertaining to its ancient master; such is the tuinmary of the political efforts and martial achievements of a general, who has as yet scarcely atiained the thirtieth year of his age.
" As to his person, Buonaparte is of small stature, but adınirably proportioned. He is of a spare habit of body, yet'robuft, and calculated to undergo tbc greatch fatigues. His complexion, like that of all the males of fouthern climates, is olive; his eyes blue, lis chin prominent, the lower part of his face thirand his forehead square and projecting. The large whole length Italian print, published in London by Setlolini, exhibits a good likeneis; but the best portrait ever takyn of him was at Verona, in consequence of the solicitations of an English artist, who applied to hịın for this purpose, by incans of a letter from a relation, now in London.
« In respect to his mind, hc poffefses uncommon attainments. He converses freely, and without pedantry, on all fùbjects, and writes and speaks with fluency and eloquence. Above all things, he has attempted, and in a great incafure obtained, the mastery over his paflions. He is abfiemious at his meals, and was never seen, in the flightest degree, intox. icated; he possesses many friends, but has no ininions; and preserves an inviolable secrecy, by means of a rigorous filence, far better than other men do by a loquacious hypocrisy.
" His mother, the beactiful Letitia Buonaparte, is ftillalive, as are also his twofifiers. They were lately taken prifoners by an Englith armed veffel, during their pasage from France to Curica; but by this time they are updoubtedly rcftored to their country and their friends."
The vi&ory at Monte-Notte vas wing of the Austrian army; and; iminediately followed by ove yet while the division under generai more fignal and decisive, at the Cervoni marched directly towards village of Millesimo. Buonaparte the centre, general Bover, with a taking advantage of the disorder third division, threw himself in their of the Austrians, puled forward rear, to endeavour to cut off their and gained poffeffion of Cairo, a retreat. The Austrians lost uppoft on the Bormida, which com- wards of ten thousand men in this manded the roads leading to Turin, action, of whom eight thousand and into Lombardy. The Auftri- were prisoners, with thirty-two ans retreating along the mountains pieces of cannon, and fifteen pair to the left of this river, halted at Mil. of colours ; and general Provera, lesimo; the defiles leading to which with his garrison, surrendered themvillage were forced by general An- selves prisoners of war. gereau on the oth of April, whosur. On the following day, whilst the roundeda diviłon of fifteen hundred French were indulging themselves grenadiers, commanded by the Au- in security after the fatigues of the Itrian general Provera; but this offi- battle, they were surprised at the cer, inftead of surrendering, threw village of Dego by general Beaulieu, himself into the ruins of an old castle at the head of seven thousand men, on the summit of mount Coffaria, whom he had rallied. The Auwhere he threw up intrenchments. ftrians diflodged the French from
After a severe cannonade of se- this poft, and repulsed them three veral hours, a general attack was several times, with general Massena made in four columns on this post, at their head, in their attempt to in which the French were repulsed, retake it. General Cauffe, whilft with the loss of two of the generals rallying his division, was mortally who commanded the allault: and wounded. The day had far ad, Provera keeping firm in his posi- vanced before its fate was decided. tion, stopped the progress of the The Austrians maintained their po. French army for five days, and fitions with obstinate valour; but, gave time for the Austrians to re- pressed by the French troops who cover their disorder, and recruit had been rallied by Buonaparte, their forces. On the fifth day, the they were at length compelled to two armies prepared for a general retreat, after losing two thousand action. Angereau, who command- men, of whom fourteen hundred ed the left wing of the French were made prisoners. army, still held Provera blockaded After the victory at Dego, the in the ruins of the castle. The Piedmontese army evacuated the Austrians and Piedimontese, at poft of Montefimo: in consequence tempting to force the centre, were of which Angereau was enabled to repulsed with great loss; and their effect a junction with the division left wing, which was Aanked by that had penetrated across the the village of Dego, where they mountains from Oneglia, and afterwere strongly entrenched, was wards marched on to attack the turned by general Massena. Ge- enemy's intrenched camp before neral Laharpe, in the mean time, Ceva, of which, after a slight repafling the Bormida with his divi- fistance, he gained poffesfion, as fion in close columns, succeeded well as of the town. The Piedin turning the right flank of the left montese, in retreating towards Turin, had taken advantageous po, retreating army. Thus situated, fitions at the confluence of the with no prospect of effective derivers Cunaglia and Tanaro, on fence for the capital, count Colli, the banks of which they had placed on the 23d of April, proposed a batteries, so as to render their flank suspension of arms, while his Sar. unaffailable; and, assembling the dinian majesty thould fend his mi. weight of their forces on the right, nister to Genoa to treat for peace had forced the left of the French with the ambassador of the repubarmy to retreat; when, general lic. The conditions of the surMalena having crossed the Tanaro pension of arms were dictated by near Ceva during the night of Buonaparte; and the march of the the zoth of April, and marched French troops to the walls of along its banks to the village of Turin was prevented only by this Lozengo, and Buonaparte having timely submission. made difpofitions to march forward's Having put the French înto pofto Mondovi, the Piedmontese gene- session of the fortresses ftipulated ral, count Colli, apprehending the by the armistice*, his Sardinian mailue of a contest where he inight jesty sent his ministers to Paris, who exlily be surrounded, and his re- concluded a treaty of peace with treai cut off, withdrew during the the republic on the 17th of May. night to that place. At break of As Piedmont lay altogether at the day, the French attacked him at the mercy of the conquerors, the king entrance of the vilage of Vico; was compelled to submit to whatthe redoubt which covered the ever conditions were proposed. By centre of the Piedmontese army this treaty, he agreed to withdraw was taken, and Mondovi itself on himself in the most unequivocal the same day, upon the further re- manner from every alliance, offentreat of the Piedmontese, fell into five or defenfive, formed with any the hands of the French. The of the powers in the coalition against Sardinian troops passed the Stura, the French republic; to renounce, between Coni and Cherasco, ex- both for himself and his fucceffors tending theiz line to each of those for ever, ail title to Savoy, Nice, towns; whila the Piedmontese ge- and the country now forming the Aeral established his head-quarters department of the maritime Alps; at Fossano, a small town lying be- to determine the limits of the retween both. The attack was ge- spective countries by new demarneral along the riveç Cherasco, cations advantageous to the repubstrong by its position, and rendered lic; and to grant a full and entire ftill more so by its works, was eva- amnesty to all those of his subjects cuated. Fofano surrendered, and who had been or were prosecuted general Angereau took posleflion of for their political opinions. In adthe town of Alba.
dition to the places stipulated in the The Piedmontese finding it now armistice, which were to be put into impoflible to withstand the force the pofletion of the French, his of the republicans, retreated fur- Sardinian majesty confirmed to them ther towards Turin, from whence by this treaty the poffeffion of other the French were now distant but fortrelles both on the frontiers of twenty-four miles; general Ange. France and Lombardy; the fortifireau was also about to pass the cations of two of which on the Tanaro on the right Hank of the frontiers of France, Susa and Bru* Coni, Alessandria, and Tortona.
netta, were to be demolished at his of the enemy's country, and in poown expence, under the direction fitions which were judged impregof commissaries appointed by the nable, was executed with equal indirectory; binding himself neither telligence and intrepidity. In this to establish nor repair any fortifi- arduous enterprize, Buonaparte was cation on this part of the frontier. ably seconded by the teal of his By this article the French ensured generals, each of whom led on bis what they claimed by another arti- respective division with that address cle of the treaty, the free passage of and precision which could alone their troops at all times into Italy. have ensured success in a war among To fill up the measure of his hu- the Alps. The battles of Montemiliation, the king engaged to apo. Notte, and Millesimo, - the previ. logize by his minifter, for the con- ous movements and skirmillies, duct observed towards the late amn. the detail of the various manæuvres bassador of France, and to disavow of the army, -- the junction of the insult which was thus offered distant columm, - and the good to the republic.
pofitions chosen' among this chaos This melancholy reverse of for- of mountains by thefe young and tune, in fo fhort a space of time, comparatively inexperienced comexcited the sympathy even of his manders, are worthy of fixing the enemies; and it required the confi- attention of the best instructed mi. deration that he had been the most litary men. But what will not fail pertinacious enemy of the revo- to claim the gratitude of their fel. lution, the most obftinate in refuís low.citizens and the admiration of ing terms of accommodation, - nad pofterity, was the generous manner opposed the strongest barrier to the in which thore generals devoted entrance of the French into Ita- their lives, by marching at the ly during three campaigns, - and head of their columns to almost though in reality a feeble adversary, certain destruction, and thus inhad enjoyed by his position the spiring their foldiers with that conadvantages of an enemy the most tempt of danger and of death, which formidable, and had sued for peace raised them into heroes and carried only when the enemy was under them even beyond the bounds the walls of his capital, and his which thefe generals, whilft living, whole country at their disposal,--in had marked out for their courage. order to reconcile these hard con- The cities ceded to the French ditions with that boasted generosity were Coni, Alessandria, and Torwhich is said to be the characteristic tona, to which marshal Beaulieu, of republics.
after his defeat at Dego, and his The passage of the Alps, by such feparation from the Piedmontere apparently inadequate means in the army, had retreated in order to face of fo forinidable an enemy, cover the Milanese from the further has justly been a subject of afto- incursions of the French Con. nishment and admiration. The ftrained to evacuate these fortresses, plan which Buonaparte had con- he pafled the Po at Valenza, and ceived with all that temerity of laboured with great diligence to genius which belongs to the new defend the passages of that river, as mode of French military tactics, of well as those of the Gogna and the dividing the Austrian and Pied- Teslino, as be judged from the conmontele armies in the very centre vention made by the French gene
ral with the king of Sardinia for the bravery at Monte-Notte, and Milledelivery of Valenza, that the paf- fimo, and who had in 1791 been Sage of the French would be effect- condemned to death as an inhabied by that route. Buonaparte fa- tant of the Pays de Vaud, by the voured this mistake, by making a magistracy of Berne, for his attachvariety of feigned preparations and ment to the French revolution.. military evolutions, and while the General Berthier arrived in the inAustrian general was waiting his at. terval, and pursued the enemy to tack on the left of the Po, passed on Casal, of which he took poslession. to Castel St. Gioamei, on the right The dukes of Parma and Modefide of the river, with a detachment na, on whose territory the French of his army; and had advanced had entered, and who did not exswenty leagues into Lombardy be- peat so speedy an attack, were fore his march was difcovered. compelled to demand a suspension Marshal Beaulieu, on perceiving his of arms, which was granted on cenerror, advanced with rapid marches dition of the payment of ten milalong the Po, in the hope of arriv. lions of livres to replenish the exing in sufficient time to prevent haufted magazines of the army; and the pallage, whenever Buonaparte of coutributing to the national mufould attempt to effect it. But he feum of Paris a certain number of arrived too late. The French general the most celebrated paintings, at the had reached Placentia early in the choice of the general, or coinmislio morning of the 7th of May, the day oners named for that purpose; and after his departure from before Va- finally, sending ambassadors to Paris lenza ; and having feized on the to treat for peace with the directory. boats, barges, and rafts, in the vici- The Austrians, defeated at Fom. nity of the place, the whole of the ar- bio, had made good their retreat to my effected the passage in the course Lodi, on the river Addi, where marof the day. Apprised that a confider- tal Beaulieu had concentrated his able divifion of Austrians were ap- forces. On the approach ofthe French, proaching in order to oppose the they had abandoned the town with lo passage, Buonaparte marched with much precipitation that they had the forces that had already passed not time to destroy the bridge, which the river, and niet them at the vil- was, however, defended by a con. lage of Fombio, where they had fiderable artillery; and the imperial intrenched themselves with twenty troops were drawn upin line of battle pieces of cannon. After a wigo- to prevent the pafrage. (10th May) rous resistance, the. Austrians re- A severe cannonade took place for treated with loss.
some hours: but the New of refifte In the mean while another body ance made by the Austrians appeared of Austrians were advancing to sup- so formidable, that the French gene. port the divilion which had been rals were for some time undecided pofted at Fombio, and had reached with respect to the manner of the the head-quarters of general Laharpe attack. To pass the bridge in the face at Codogno. A Night action took of the Austrian army posted fo ada place, in which the Austrians were vantageously, was incurring certain repulsed; but the French army ex- destruction to numbers; and there, perienced a very severe loss in the fore in the deliberation which took death of their general, who had di- place between the French generals, ftinguished himself with so much the majority were of opinion that