names ; they need little else than suitable examples of illustration to make them clearly understood ; and their initials furnish the best annotations.

The orotund is derived from the phrase, "ore rotundo," with a round mouth ; or with a full, clear and distinct articulation. Pectoral is from pectus the chest: in the utterance of deep emotion, we draw or heave the voice from the bottom of the chest. Guttural is from guttur, the throat : aspirated is from aspiro, to breathe forcibly ; and tremor is the same in Latin as in English, and means a trembling or shaking. For using all these modifications of the voice properly, no certain reliance can be placed upon any thing but the proper feeling and good sense of the scholar. Some of them belong almost exclusively to the drama ; and the employment of them any where else, except in a faint degree, would be thought rather theatrical.

Let any one read the following words of Joseph to his brethren, in tones as soft and tender as the scene was affecting, and he will give a good illustration of plaintiveness. “I am Joseph : does my father yet live ? " Or let him read, with the true touch of nature, Eve's lament in Milton's Paradise Lost:

“O unexpected stroke, worse than of death!

Must I then leave thee, Paradise ?” Or the last line from the Sailor Boy's Dream, carrying up the three first divisions high and soft with increasing movement, and bringing down the three last low and soft with decreasing, and he will give a tolerably good illustration of plaintiveness, increase and decrease :

“O | sailor boy, sailor boy ! peace / to thy' soul.” Or the lines from Wordsworth’s Shepherd Girl, with a shake, or tremulous movement on lovely and pair, and he will somewhat illustrate the tremor ; the rest will afford a fair example of short quantity : “'Twas little Barbary Lethwaite, a child of beauty rare ; I watched them with delight : they were a (t)lovely

(t)pair.” Or the following line from Marullus's speech, with a shake, and full swell of voice, and he will illustrate the tremor and long quantity : (t)0, you (t)hard (t)hearts, you (t)cruel men of

Rome !" Or let him read the stanza from the Destruction of Sennacherib’s Host, with voice depressed almost to a whisper, and nearly guttural and monotonous, but full, and heaved up from the lowest part of the chest, and he will illustrate in some degree the aspirate : “For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast, And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed ; And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill, And their hearts but once heaved, and forever grew still."

Speak the two lines from “ Marmion taking leave of Douglas,” high and loud, with short, quick, percussive force, much like the exploding of crackers, or the crack of a pistol, and you will show a very good example of explosive force, and high and loud :

“Up drawbridge, grooms !-what, warder, ho!

Let the portcullis fall.”

The short quick utterance of an order, as, Up, Out !Away ! illustrates explosive force : so does the first syllable of a long word when the accent is on the first ; as dés-picable, éx-piatory, lég-islature.

The manner of reading all the preceding examples will be better understood by turning to the pieces whence they are extracted.



The sense, in every instance, is to be taken as the only guide to expression; and that mode which brings out the sense the most clearly and forcibly, and affords at the same time the highest gratification to the ear, must be decidedly the best.

To this settled rule, poetry forms no exception. All the appliances therefore of pause, “division," inflection, emphasis and quantity, which would naturally be employed to exhibit the meaning in prose, must, with some slight modifications, be used to express the same in poetry. And this can generally be done with all needful regard to the metre and the rhyme. Even in cases where the meaning so closely unites different lines, as not to suffer a point between them, and the grouped division is formed of words taken from each ; the ending of the line can be sufficiently indicated by dwelling a little upon the last syllable of it, as denoted by the half bar, without stopping the stream of sound, and so without detriment to the sense.

Still when lines occur so in harmonious in structure as to make it impossible to preserve the sense without neglect of the melody, it is ever the part of good taste to look well to the demands of sense, and never suffer it to be sacrificed to mere sound. Though a finished reader will oftentimes impart a metrical smoothness to lines which their author has left rough and imperfect; and so, in some degree, remedy the fault of their construction, without any apparent injury to the meaning: yet he is not permitted to go so far to effect this, as to alter the sound of a vowel, or to change the seat of an accent.

But some words, by common consent, are privileged to have a pronunciation different in poetry from what they have in prose. Wind, when it signifies air put in motion, and is made to rhyme with mind, is one ; and wound, a hurt, made to rhyme with sound, is another; and there may be more.

Comic humor and satire may also justify other changes.

In regard to the final pause ; that is, a pause at the end of every poetic line, authors differ in opinion : some insisting that it should always be made ; others that it should not, unless the sense require it. And some readers adopting the latter opinion, are careful never to suffer the slightest suspension of the voice at the end of a line, unless they see a point there; and, in their hurry to reach the next, they not unfrequently form a distinct rhythmus, or division of speech, from the parts of two lines ; to the complete destruction of all that is musical either in the metre or the rhyme.

From previous remarks, it is clear that neither of these modes is to be exclusively followed. The true one lies between ; and aims, by a judicious compromise, to secure the advantages of both. It guards, on the one hand, against the too general tendency to a distinct final pause ; and on the other, against the vulgar, childish movement of scanning.

Sometimes the poetic feet, and the divisions of sense are nearly the same ; e. g.

I have found out å gift' for my fair ;
I have found ' where the wood 'pigeons breed ;
But let' me that plun'der forbear !

She will say, ' 'twas a barbarous deed. If the two first lines of this anapæstic stanza be read just as they are divided into metrical feet, the injury done to the sense will be but slightly perceptible ; but if the same measured steps be continued through the last two, it becomes glaringly so. Now let the stanza be uttered in divisions such as the sense demands.

I have found out a gift ' for my fair ;
I have found ' where the wood pigeons breèd ;
But I let me that plunder forbedr !

She will say, 'twas a bàrbarous ' deed. When so read, the meaning and the melody are both preserved.

The following beautiful iambic lines are expressed in the proper

divisions of sense.
Truth, crushed to earth, will rise again;
The eternal years of God are hers;

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