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tu the throne of this realm ; con- by the students with a very ill trary to that which is wont to grace. But this letter was so befall at the natural sun's rising, unacceptable at court, that he found this our bright star, among others, it expedient to make an apology and above many others, began now for the share he had in it. to shine forth and discover its In April, 1567, he was advanced lustre. Notice whereof being to the Mastership of Pembroke taken, as in the University so at Hall, and a few months after to Court, he received advancement that of Trinity College, appointed unto eminent places from either."* regius professor of divinity on the

Dr. Cox, Bishop of Ely, pro- resignation of Hutton (now made moted him to a stall in his cathedral, Dean of York) being himself sucappointed him bis chaplain, and ceeded in the Margaret professorgave him the benefice of Tever- ship by Thomas Cartwright, fellow sham in Cambridgeshire. He of Trinity, and moreover nominated proceeded bachelor of divinity in one of the royal Chaplains. It was 1562, and the next year was in the same year that he was chosen Lady Margaret's professor admitted Doctor in Divinity, and of divinity, which office he dis- on his appointment to keep the charged with so much acceptance, public act at the commencement, that the salary was augmented for chose for his thesis, The Pope is: bis sake from twenty marks to as Antichrist. many pounds, and the public schools At his entrance he found much were thronged with students of all division among the members of his ages, while he lectured on the book College, on subjects connected with of Revelations and the Epistle to the government and rites of the the Hebrews. He now joined church, and especially on the habits Hutton, Regius professor of divinity, required to be worn by the clergy. and several heads of houses, in a In Cambridge considerable oppopetition to Sir William Cecil, their sition had been made to orders sent Chancellor, for an order to regulate out by Queen Elizabeth enjoining the election of public officers, the the use of particular vestments, want of which had caused much which a great majority of discreet academical disturbance. From the and reflecting characters among the report of his extraordinary ability fathers of the church and sages as a preacher, Sir Nicholas Bacon, of the law deemed it expedient Lord-keeper, sent for him to preach should be worn by ecclesiastical before her Majesty, who was so and academical persons, while o hers much gratified, that she observed, regarded them as too nearly allied after the punning humour of the to those meritricious ornaments time, that he was a white-gift which formed so culpable a portion indeed, and resolved on his prefer- of that superstition which the nament. In 1565, hearing that some tion had generally disowned. In statutes were preparing to enjoin the disputes that were held, the an uniformity of habits, particularly sermons that were preached, and to order the wearing of surplices in the books that were written, there the University, he promoted the was much that a devout and humble writing of a joint letter to Cecil, Christian would buth pity and rewho was principal Secretary of gret, when he saw men of godliState as well as Chancellor of the ness, erudition, and talent, on both University, requesting bim to "sides, wasting their energies, and oppose that measure, from a per- yielding to unholy tempers, and suasion that it would be received degrading their high profession by

unworthy recriminations. To enter • Abel redivivus. p. 459. into the detail of such controversies would at the present day be irksome Queen's name, with breaking cerand unprofitable ; nevertheless, as tain ordinances, omitting particular they occupy no inconsiderable share forms in prayer, and administraof the history of the time, to pass tion of the sacraments, and permitthem over in silence would be to ting similar practices in others. occasion a partial and superficial He confessed his fault, promising judgment both of measures and his endeavour to bring back the individuals.

college to conform to her Majesty's In St. John's College, about the injunctions. This submission sabeginning of December, 1565, tisfied the Secretary for the present, many of the fellows and scholars but he did not fail to write to the threw off the surplice with one Bishop of Ely as visitor of St. consent, which they had been ac- John's, in terms, which indicate that customed to wear in chapel, and the mind of this great statesman some members of Trinity College, was not without a presentiment besides others, were disposed to of the mischiefs which lurked in follow their example. Longworth, those germs of dissent. Notwiththe master of the former Society standing however this interference absenting himself on the celebra- of persons in authority, the malcontion of a particular festival, they tents of the University drew up a began the custom of attending letter to the Queen, and another to prayers without surplices and hoods, their Chancellor, which some of the and made also some difference in more moderate objected to subthe mode of administering the holy scribe, and a third was composed communion. Intelligence of this in less violent language, signed disorder reaching Cecil and the among others, by Dr. Beaumont, Bishop of Ely, the former wrote in Master of Trinity College. Its displeasure both to the college and substance was a petition for modethe Vice-chancellor. He recom- ration and liberty of conscience on mended that those who had openly these subjects, but Beaumont exrailed against the orders of govern- cused himself to the Chancellor by ment should be silenced for a cer writing, “that for himself he weektain interval, and that such as had ly wore the surplice; and for other been ring-leaders in private colleges appointed apparel, he not only lived should be allowed a reasonable in order himself, but procured it in time for reformation, on pain of others as much as he could, and expulsion. He hinted that some saw offenders punished, as far as might be convicted of perjury, for local statutes permitted : that that breaking the peculiar statutes of letter was subscribed not by them their foundations ; but advised, that that sought to subvert civil order, such as had offended rather out of but by humble scholars to their frivolity or ill-example, should be Head and Chancellor, for avoiding treated with more lenity. And as of greater inconvenience; which for St. John's, he required the then, as it seemed, could not otherVice-chancellor to warn the presi- wise be superseded. But the thing dent, that obstinate recusants being disliked, he professed his sorshould be severely punished. He row for it, and that he was bent to sent for the Master of St. John's continue in order without change ; to come up to him, summoning and also that he would see to others also Mr. Fulke, a fellow of the which he had to do with as he same college, who had distinguished might.”* himself in the opposition, by a Meanwhile, many of the London special order.

incumbents published a treatise in When Longworth made his appearance, Cecil charged him in the * Strype's Annals, p. 445.

justification of their refusal to wear sufficiently apparent, by their perthe dress required, entitled, “A severance in an opposition, whose brief discourse against the outward alternatives were compliance or apparel and ministring garments of resignation of benefice. the popish church, &c.” They ar Their declaration was ably angued that the power given by God swered by an anonymous writer, to his church was for edification, supposed to be Archbishop Parker; and not for destruction, and that who advised the non-conforming they dared not admit papal vest- clergy to give their brethren the ments, till they were convinced they same credit for righteousness of were not scandalous and injurious. motive, which they claimed for They allowed that in themselves themselves ; and warned the more they were indifferent, but that violent to beware that their spirit they might be a hindrance to did not lead them into sectarian edification was shown, both as to extremes, detrimental to the vital simple Christians and stubbarn interests of truth itself. He also papists; that the former were addressed the Roman Catholics, grieved to see them attired so con, who rejoiced over these differences trary to their profession, being of opinion among the reformed, in tempted in some cases to doubt the hope that the Queen might conjustice and sincerity of that profes- ceive a disgust against protestantsion; while the latter were only ism, showing that they had little confirmed in erroneous practices, cause for triumph either from the which they saw adopted even by number or weight of the dissidents, their opponents : and that though and that both prince and people the bishops had declared the liberty were too much enlightened by of ministers to protest that they scriptural reading and exhortation, wore them merely for decency's to be easily brought back to idolasake, and out of obedience to their try and superstition. Sovereign, they considered this At Cambridge, controversy behuman policy as stretching beyond came so prevalent, that “good divine wisdom; for it resembled the studies of useful learning were laid reasoning of those who would have aside for wrangling about trifling images in churches, not for adora- matters,” to the internal discomtion, but for impression, while they fort, and external discredit, of that looked above them, abstracting University. Cecil wrote to Dr. their contemplation to celestial Beaumont, his Vice-chancellor, objects : but the wisdom of God “ that in the common opinion of had provided against such fallacy, the best, the lightness and disorder by forbidding their use altogether; of the youth, as well in apparel that we were not to follow our own as other behaviour, was a great inventions in religious worship; hindrance to learning, and a token that we should be very tender in of great negligence in their using any custom which bordered overseers, both public and prion what was culpable; that they vate. It was also a stay at this did not see the necessity of this day of many men's charities; who, outward distinction, while the gar- if these things were more modements themselves were exception- rately used and reformed, would able, as partly Jewish, and partly have dealt much more liberally with Heathenish. These arguments the poorer sort. And so (he said) were overstrained, and concluded in many places sundry did affirm by some uncharitable reflections and pronounce. And therefore he against the authorities in church their Chancellor did require them and state. That the framers how all, not only in their several ever were conscientious men, was houses, but publicly, to assist the Vice-chancellor, to see all such were mixed disputes on the govern. lightness and disordered behaviour ment of the church by Archbishops, repressed presently, and good order Bishops, Deans, Archdeacons, and hereafter continued. That learning other officers. The opposition was being joined with godliness, mo chiefly promoted by Cartwright, desty, and the glad embracing of who had become attached to other good order, they might reap much modes of discipline during a resifruit, and profitably serve to those dence on the continent, supported ends whereunto those godly foun- by Chapman, Soame, and several dations were first erected. And he persons of consideration, who amid added that their diligence and con- much that was excellent and orformities herein should move him thodox, and becoming Christian to be in his doings more careful for divines, gave loose to a coarse and their matters abroad ; although in railing manner in speaking on mind (he said) he could be no church matters, that was higbly more.”

inexpedient in instructors of youth, Whitgift spared no pains in co- and argued the existence of a beam operating with other lovers of order in one of the eyes of the kingdom, to promote academic peace and as the universities have been emimprovement, and succeeding to phatically styled. One Sunday in the mastership of Trinity College, particular, when Dr. Whitgift was on the fourth of July, 1567, on the from home, Cartwright and his demise of Beaumont, quelled all adherents preached so vehemently disturbances in that society by the in favour of their own views on gravity of his example and judi. such subjects, that those of Trinity ciousness of his proceedings. He College at evening prayer cast off lamented the neglect of theological their surplices, with the exception study which was produced by the of three individuals. Whitgift and lay impropriations of church reve- his friends used to reply to their nues, the favour shown to flatterers arguments in the university pulpit, of the great, and the limited encou- and in the college chapels; but at ragement given to true religion length the heads of houses were and sound learning. He rejoiced so much offended at the untherefore when the Queen took seemly attacks which continued measures to induce the members of to be made, that Mr, Cartwright the university to pay more atten- was summoned before the Vicetion to biblical learning and that chancellor and other doctors, and scriptural information, which, un examined on various propositions der the divine blessing, must be the which he had maintained, and main support of the cause of Re. which they affirmed to be contrary formation, already beginning to to the form received and allowed decline in the north of her kingdom, by public authority, demanding In 1570, having first applied to whether he would persist in inculCecil for the purpose, he compiled cating his opinions or revoke them. a new body of statutes for the After some deliberation, he desired university, which proved very bene- permission to set down in writing ficial to its general interests. his judgment on the different points,

But while the care of most re which being granted, he drew up flecting men was directed to hinder six propositions, and delivered them the spreading of papal error, inno- with his signature to the Vicevation in the internal state of pro- chancellor ; who admonished him testantism was gaining ground in to revoke them, and on his refusal certain quarters. In contests about ordered a suspension of his stipend. the Cap and the Surplice, and the The next year, Dr. Whitgift being posture in receiving the Sacrament, himself Vice-chancellor, convened

inhill

him a second time, requiring his exhibited their views of the governabsolute answer, whether he were ment and discipline of the Church. willing to alter the tone of his in- The Dean, being requested by the structions, or continue in the pro Primate to answer this document, mulgation of sentiments, which was desirous of quitting the academust inevitably keep alive the mical precincts for a while, that he flame of discord. Mr. Cartwright, might find leisure requisite for the persisting in the maintenance of important undertaking, but the opinions which he regarded as truths principals of the university, alarmnot to be relinquished, was then ed at his meditated absence at a formally deprived of his professor- time of so much agitation, imme. ship; and as he was known to de- diately applied to the Chancellor to clare that his assertions were rather hinder it by a special injunction. suppressed by authority, than re- He contrived however to send out futed by reason, Whitgift and the his answer before the expiration of other doctors protested against the 1672, in which if his natural warmth justice of this declaration. The of temper be discoverable, it serves ex-professor, being also expelled to give a seasonable force to his his college for repeated violation of eloquence, and may well be allowed statutes, left England, to hold com- in an honest refutation of much munion with foreign divines of that was calumnious on the opposite kindred sentiments, and exercise side. The framers of the “ Admo. his abilities as a preacher, which nition” having called Cathedrals are understood to have been of popish dens, he declared. " That superior order, in the continental he would offer a dozen cathedral churches of the reformed.

churches in England, which he himIn 1571, an order was made by self did know; the worst whereof the Archbishop and Bishops, that in learning should encounter with all those who had obtained faculties all Papists, Anabaptists, and what to preach, should surrender them other Sects soever in England, for before the third of August; and the defence of Religion now prothat upon their subscription to the fessed, either by word or writing. thirty-nine Articles, and other con- And he thought, (without arrogancy stitutions and ordinances agreed be it spoken) there was never time upon, new licences should be grant- wherein these Churches were better ed. This being signified to the furnished with wise, learned, and University, and an order sent, re godly men, than they were at that quiring them to call in all the facul- day. And this he spoke not boastties granted before, Whitgift sur- ingly, but to God's glory, the honour rendered a former licence granted of the prince, the comfort of the in 1566, and received another, godly, and the shame of slanderous wherein he was likewise constituted Papists and disdainful Schismatics.” one of the University preachers. As Dr. Parker had been the prinHe was next promoted on her cipal instrument in persuading him Majesty's nomination to the Dean to undertake this work, he gave ery of Lincoln, and empowered by him his assistance, and the several the Archbishop to hold any other parts of the copy were submitted benefice with his present dignities to his revision, aided by the counsel and preferments.

of some more theologians. In Cartwright, meanwhile, at the so- September, 1572, he sent the first licitation of some particular friends, part to Cox, bishop of Ely, and returned to bis native land, and the Perne, the dean, with several others; non-conformists drew up a religious and afterwards transmitted it to his treatise, entitled “ An Admonition Grace; and so with the second, reto the Parliament,” which distinctly questing him to direct to whom the

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