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THE

FARMER'S AND PLANTER'S

ENCYCLOPEDIA

OF

RURAL AFFAIRS;

EMBRACING

ALL THE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES

IN

SUITED TO THE COMPREHENSION OF UNSCIENTIFIC READERS.

BY

CTJTHBERT W. JOHNSON, Esq., F.R.S.

*ITH EXTENSIVE ADDITIONS ADAPTING THE WORK TO THE UNITED STATES,
AND NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS OF ANIMALS, IMPLEMENTS, AND OTHER
SUBJECTS CONNECTED WITH AGRICULTURE.

BY

GOUVERNEUR EMERSON, M.D.,

MEKfin OP THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OP NATURAL SCIENCES;
UK I TO STATES AORICULTUUAL SOCIETY, ETC., ETC

iedsiid (Edition o$ 1868. j J1 l'11 A K 1

i UNIVERSITY o!

i

CALIFO!! Nia.

PHILADELPHIA: V
J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by OOUVERNEUR EMERSON, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 'x: N I V K US IT Y <>K

PREFACE

TO

THE REVISED EDITION OF 1868.

M. F. Lb Plat,—one of the closest observers of the age, distinguished by his capacity to lay aside all prejudice and pride of opinion, and found bis conclusions upon evidence derived only from the most exact and reliable data, — one whose active and well adjusted mind has long been devoted to investigations connected with the conditions and developments of all the great branches of industry, — the imperial counsellor and commissioner-general, charged with the organization and direction of the several Universal Expositions held in Paris from 1855 to 1867,—thus expresses his views of the important position to which Agriculture is entitled among the diversified branches of industry*

The agricultural product superior to all others is wheat, which, next to milk, contains most of the indispensable elements required to sustain the human body. Wheat takes from the earth a large amount of phosphorus, the essential element for the formation of bones, although in most soils hardly a trace of it is perceptible. This wonderful concentration in wheat of the materials of the human body, — the mysteries of which science has only begun to reveal, — evidently furnishes the primary foundation for the grandest developments of population and the highest achievements of civilization.

Agriculture holds out to families the most permanent prospect of employment and subsistence. It adapts itself with admirable pliancy to all the relations of industry, whether on a limited or extensive scale. It organizes itself spontaneously in accordance with the intellectual or moral condition of families and the diverse circumstances under which these may exist. It establishes between the family, the soil, the plants, and

* La ReTorme Sociale en France —Deduite de l'observation comparee des peuples Europe's. Par M. F. Le Play, Auteur des Ouvriers Europeans, Commissaire General aux Expositions Universelle de 1855, de 1862, et de 1867.

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