how melancholy a spectacle! The At the commencement of these solitary stream of the Eurotasrun- steps, and above the theatre, I saw ning beneath the remains of the a small edifice of a circular form, bridge Babyx; ruins on every side, three-fourths of which were desand not a living being to be seen troyed: the nitches within it seem among them. I stood motionless, equally well adapted for the recepin a kind of stupor, at the contem- tion of statues or of uins. Is it a plation of this scene. A mixture tomb ? Is it the temple of the armof admiration and grief checked ed Venus? The latter must have the current of my thoughts, and stood nearly on this spot, and befixed me to the spot : profound si- longed to the quarter of the lence reigned around me. Deter- Egides. Caesar, who boasted of mined, at least, to make echo being descended from Venus, had speak in a spot where the human the figure of the armed Venus envoice is no longer heard, I shouted graved on his ring: it was in fact, with all my might: “ Leonidas! the two-fold emblem of the weak Leonidas !" No ruin repeated this ness and glory of that great man. great naine : Sparta herself seemed If the reader will place himself to have forgotten her hero. with me upon the bill of the cita

When my agitation had subsided, del, he will then see the following I began to study the ruins around objects around him; me. The summit of the hill was To the east, that is, towards the platform encompassed, especially Eurotas, a hill, oblong and levelto the north-west, by thick walls. led at the top, as if for the purpose I went twice round it, and counted of a race course or hippodrome : one thousand five hundred and two other hills, one on each side of sixty, and one thousand five hun- that just mentioned, form with it dred and sixty-six ordinary paces; two hollows, in which you perceive or nearly seven hundred and eighty the ruins of the bridge Babyx, and geometrical paces; but it should the current of the Eurotas. Bebe remarked, that in this circuit I yond the river, the view is boundcomprehend the whole summit of ed by a chain of reddish hills the hill, including the curve formed which conipose Mount Menelaion by the excavation of the theatre. Beyond ihese bills, the hig! This was the theatre that Leroi mountains which border the gulf o examined.

Argos, tower in the distance. 5. Some ruins partly buried in the In this space, seen to the east ground, and partly rising above ward, between the citadel and the the surface, indicate, nearly in the Eurotas, looking north and sout centre of this platform, the founda- by. cast, in a parallel direction t tions of the temple of Minerva the course of the river, we niust plac Chalciæcos, . where Pausanias in the quarter of the Linmates, thetem vain sought refuge and lost his life. ple of Lycurgus, the palace of th A sort of flight of steps, seventy king Demaratus, the quarters of th feet wide, and of an extremely Egides and the Messoates, one gentle descent, leads from the the Leschi, the monument of Cad south-side of the hill down to the mus, the temples of Hercules an plain. This was perhaps the way Helen, and the Platanistæ. I that conducted to the citadel, this extensive space, I counte which was not a place of any great seven ruins standing, above ground strength till the time of the tyrants but absolutely shapeless and dilap of Lacedæmon.

dated, As I was at liberty



choose, I gave to one of these by the bases of walls that have ruins the name of Helen's Temple, been razed to the ground. The and another I called the Tomb of stones of which they were composAlcman. In two others I fancied I ed, must have been removed, for beheld the heroic monuments of they are not to be discovered any Ægeus and Cadmus; I thus deter- where round about. In this part mned in favour of fable, and assign- stood the residence of Menelaus ; ed nothing to history but the and beyond it, on the road towards temple of Lycurgus. I prefer, I Amyclæ, rose the temple of the must confess, to black broth and Dioscuri and the Graces. This barley bread, the memory of the description will be rendered more only poet that Lacedæmon has intelligible, if the reader will turn produced, and the garland of to Pausanias, or even to the Traflowers gathered by the Spartan vels of Anacharsis. maidens for Helen in the isle of The whole of the territory round Platanista:

Lacedæmon is uncultivated : the O ubi campi sun parches it in silence, and is Sperchiusque ; et virginibus bacchata La. incessantly consuming the marble cænis

of the tombs. When I beheld this Taygeta !

desert, not a plant adorned the Now looking towards the north, ruins, not a bird, not an insect, as you still stand on the site of the not a creature enlivened them, citadel, you see a hill of considera- save millions of lizards, which ble beight, commanding even that crawled without noise up and down on which the citadel was erected, the sides of the scorching walls. though this contradicts the text of A dozen half-wild horses were Pausanias. The valley formed by feeding here and there upon the these two hills must have been the withered grass; a shepherd was site of the public place and the cultivating a few water-melons in a structures that adorn it, as the corner of the theatre; and at buildings appropriated to the meet. Magoula, which gives its - dismal ings of the Gerontes and Ephori, name to Lacedæmon, I observed a the portico of the Persice and small grove of cypresses. But this other edifices. On this side there Magoula, formerly a considerable are so ruins. To the north-west Turkish village, has also perished extended the quarter of the Cyno- in this scene of desolation: its sori, by which I had entered Spar- buildings are overthrown, and the ta, and where I observed the long index of ruins is itself but a ruin. wall and some other remains.

I descended from the citadel, Let us now turn to the west, and and, after walking about a quarter we shall perceive upon level spot of an hour, I reached the Earotas. in the rear and at the foot of the Its appearancé was nearly the same theatre, three ruins, one of which as two leagues higher, where I had is of considerable height, and cir- passed it without knowing what cular, like a tower. In this direc- stream it was. Its breadth before tion must have lain the quarter of Sparta, is about the same as that of the Pitapates, the Theomelis, the the Marne above Charenton. The tombs of Pausanias and Leonidas, bed of the river, nearly dry in the Lesche of the Crotanes, and the summer, is a sand intermixed with temple of Diana Isora.

small pebbles,

overgrown with Lastly, if you turn your eye to reeds and rose-laurels, among the south, you will see an uneven which run a few rills of a cool and pace, intersected here and there limpid water. I deank of it abund


antly, for I was parched with along the Eurotas, is very different thirst. From the beauty of its from that commanded by the hill of reeds, the Eurotas certainly de- the citadel. The river pursues a serves the epithet of rendere's gi. winding course, concealing itself, as ven it by Euripides ; but I know. I have observed, among reeds and not whether it ought to retain that rose-laurels, as large as trees; on of olorifer, for I perceived no the left side, the hills of Mount Meswans upon its surface. I followed nelaion, of a bare and reddish apits current, hoping to meet with pearance, form a contrast with the some of these birds, which, ac- freshness and verdure of the chancording to Plato, have, before nel of the Eurotas. On the right, they expire, a view of Olympus, the Taygetus spreads his magnifion which account their dying notes cent curtain ; the whole space comare so melodious : but I was disap- prehended between this curtain and pointed. Perhaps, like Horace, I the river, is occupied by small hills, am not in the good graces of the and the ruins of Sparta. These hills Tyndarides, and they would not and these ruins have not the same permit me to discover the secrets desolate aspect as when you are of their cradle.

close to them; they seem, on the Famous rivers share the same contrary, to be tinged with purple, fate as famous nations; at first un- violet, and a light gold colour. It known, then celebrated throughout is not verdant meads and foliage of the whole world, they afterwards a cold and uniform green, but the sink into their original obscurity, effects of light, that produce admiThe Eurotas, at first denominated rable landscapes. On this account Himera, now flows forgotten under the rocks and the heaths of the bay the appellation of Iri; as the Tiber, of Naples will ever be superior in more anciently Albula, now rolls beauty to the most fertile vales of to the sea the unknown waters of France and England. the Teverone. I examined the ruins Thus, after ages of oblivion, this of the hridge Babyx, which are in- river, whose banks were trodden by significant. I sought the island of the Lacedæmonians whom Plutarch Platanistæ, and imagine that I dis- has celebrated, this river, I say, percovered it below Magoula ; it is a haps rejoiced, amid this neglect, at piece of ground of a triangular form, the sound of the footsteps of an obone side of which is washed by the scure stranger upon its shores. It Eurotas, while the other two are was on the 13th of August 1806, at bounded by ditches full of rushes, nine in the morning, that I took where in winter flows this river Ma- this lonely walk along the Eurotas, goula, the ancient Cnacion. In the which will never be erased from my island are some mulberry-trees and memory. If I hate the manners of sycamores, but no plantains. I per- the Spartans, I am not blind to the ceived no indication of the Turks greatness of a free people, neither continuing to make this spot sub- was it without emotion that I trampservient to pleasure; I observed led on their noble dust. One single there a few flowers, among others fact is sufficient to proclaim the globlue Milies, some of which I plucked ry of this nation. When, Nero vi. in memory of Helen : the perishable sited Greece, he durst not enter crown of the beauty yet exists on Lacedæmon. What a magnificent the banks of the Eurotas, but the panegyric on that city! beauty herself has disappeared. I began to write down my obserThe view enjoyed, as you walk vations, and to take a view of the different places: this occupied me so that I had beheld him commence two full hours; after which I deter- and finish his course on the ruins of mined to examine the monuments Lacedæmon. It was three thousand to the west of the citadel. I knew five hundred and forty-three years, that in this quarter the tomb of Leo- since he first rose and set over this nidas must be situated. We wan. infant city. dered from ruin to ruin, the Janissary following me, and leading the horses by the bridle. We were the Description of the Dead Sea, in Paenly living human beings among


lestine, such numbers of illustrious dead: both of us were barbarians,

(From the same.) strangers to each other, as well as S we advanced, the aspect of to Greece ; sprung from the forests the mountains still continued of Gaul, and the rocks of Caucasus ; the same, that is white, dusty, withwe had met at the extremity of the out shade, without tree, without Peloponnese, the one to pass over, herbage, without moss. Ac halfthe other to live upon, tombs which past four we descended from the were not those of our forefathers. lofty chain of these mountains to

In vain I examined the smallest another less elevated. We proceedstones to discover the spot where ed for fifty minutes over a level the ashes of Leonidas were deposit, plain, and at length arrived at the ed. For a moment I had hopes of last range of hills that form the succeeding. Near the edifice, re- western border of the valley of the sembling a tower, which I have de- Jordan and the Dead Sea. The scribed as standing to the west of sun was near setting, we alighted the citadel, I found fragments of to give a little rest to our horses, sculpture, which I took to be those and I contemplated at leisure the of a lion. We are informed by He. lakç, the valley, and the river. rodotus, that there was a lion of When we hear of a valley, we stone on the tomb of Leonidas; a figure to ourselves a valley either circumstance not recorded by Pau- cultivated or uncultivated; if the sanias. I continued my researches former, it is covered with crops of with increased ardour, but all my various kinds, vineyards, villages, efforts proved fruitless. I know not and cattle ; if the latter, it presents whether this was the spot where the herbage and woods. It is watered Abbé Fourmont discovered three by a river, this river has windings curious monuments. One of them in its course; and the hills which was a cippus, on which was engrav. bound this valley have themselves en the name of Jerusalem ; perhaps undulations which form a prospects a memorial of that alliance between agreeable to the eye. Here nothing the Jews and the Lacedæmonians, of the kind is to be found. Conwhich is mentioned in the Macca- ceive two long chains of mountains bees. The two others were the se- running in a parallel direction from pulchral inscriptions of Lysander north to south, without breaks and and Agesilaus.

without undulacions. The eastern Night drew on apace, when I re- chain, called the mountains of Araluctantly quitted these renowned bia, is the highest; when seen at ruins, the shade of Lycurgus, the the distance of eight or ten leagues recollection of Thermopylæ, and all you would suppose it a prodigithe fictions of fable and history. ous perpendicular wall, pertectly The sun sunk bebind the Taygetus, resembling Jura in its form and 2

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zure colour. Not one summit, not Such is the scene famous for the the smallest peak can be distinguish- benedictions and the curses of heaed; you merely perceive slight in- ven. This river is the Jordan; this flections here and there, as if the lake is the Dead Sea; it appears hand of the painter who drew this brilliant, but the guilty cities enhorizontal line along the sky, had tombed in its bosom seem to have sometimes tiembled.

poisoned its waters. Its solitary The western range belongs to the abysses cannot afford nourishment mountains of Judeu. Less lofty and to any living creature: never did more unequal than the eastern chain, vessel cut its waves ; its shores it differs from the other in its na- are without birds, trees, or verture also : it exhibits heaps of chalk dure; its waters are excessively and sand, whose form bears some bitter, and so heavy, that the most resemblance to piles of arms, wav- impetuous winds can scarcely ruille ing standards, or the tents of a their surface. camp seated on the border of a

When you travel in Judea, the plain. On the Arabian side, on heart is at first filled with profound the contrary, nothing is to be seen disgust; but, when passing from but black perpendicular rocks, solitude to solitude, boundless space which throw their lengthened_sha- opens before you, this disgust wears dows over the waters of the Dead off by degrees, and you feel a seSea. The smallest bird of heaven cret awe, which, so far from depreswould not find among these rocks sing the soul, impar, life, and elea blade of grass for its sustenance; vates the genius. Extraordinary every thing announces the country appearances every where proclaim of a reprobate people, and seems a land teeming with miracles : the to breathe the horror and incest burning sun, the towering eagle, the whence sprung

Ammon and Moab. barren fig-tree, all the poetry, all The valley, bounded by these two the pictures of Scripture, are here. chains of mountains, displays a soil Every name commemorates a mysresembling the bottom of a sea that tery; every grot proclaims the fuhas long retired from its bed, a ture; every hill re-echoes the 'ad

acbeach covered with salt, dry mud, cents of a prophet. God himself and moving sands, furrowed, as it has spoken in these regions: dried were, by the waves. Here and there up rivers, riven rocks, half-open sestunted shrubs with difficulty vege- pulchres, attest the prodigy: the tate upon this inanimate tract; their desert still appears mute with terleaves are covered with salt, which ror, and you would imagine that it has nourished them, and their bark had never presumed to interrupt the Iras a smoky smell and taste. In- silence since it heard the awful stead of villages you perceive the voice of the Eternal. ruins of a few towers. Through the middle of this valley Hows a discoloured river, which reluctantly Account of the Inhabitants of Jerucreeps towards the pestilential lake

salem. by which it is engulphed. Its course

(From the same.) through the sands can be distinguished only by the willows and the THE street of the Bazar is the reeds that border it; and the Arab principal street, and the best lies in ambush among these reeds quarter of Jerusalern. But what to attack the traveller, and to plun- wretchedness, what desolation! We der the pilgrim.

did not meet with a creature, for


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