the top, and small projections for of the King's sons, but who had the convenience of ascending in it. been deprived by his father of the This pole is for the purpose of horse succession, because the Georgian exercises, and shooting at the mark. slave who bore him was of an exClose under the room in which the traction less noble than that of the Shah was seated, was a basin of mothers of the younger Princes. water, on the other side of which His present accorded with the chawere erected the poles and ropes of racter which is assigned to him; it a rope-dancer. In a circle round consisted of pistols and spears, a these, were fire-works placed in string of one hundred camels, and various forms and quantities. Four as many mules. After this came figures of paper and linen dressed the present from the Prince of like Europeans were erected on Yezd, another of the King's sons, high, and surrounded with fire- which consisted of shawls and the works. At a distance were ele- silken stuffs, the manufacture of his phants of

paper, stuck all over with own town. Then followed that of rockets; on all the walls were rock- the Prince of Mesched; and last of ets; and, in short, fire-works were all, and the most valuable, was that placed in every direction. Oppo- from Hajee Mohamed Hossein site to the Shah in two lines ere Khan, Ameen-ed-Doulah.

It conthe new raised troops, with drum- sisted of fifty mutes, each covered mers standing in a row at the fur- with a fine Cashmire shawl, and thermost extremity. In the centre each carrying a load of one thouof these was the Nasakchee Bashee, sånd tomauns. who appeared as the director of the The other offerings had been entertainment. He had a stick in lodged in the Sandeck Khona, (lihis hand, and wore on his head a terally, Trunk Office). This was gika, a distinguishing ornament conveyed in a different direction to borne by particular people only, to the Treasury. Each present, like whom the King grants the liberty. the first, contained a portion of su

The first ceremony was the in- gar and sweetmeats. When all the troduction of the presents from the train had passed in procession, one different provinces. That from by one before the King, the amusePrince Hossein Ali Mirza, Gover- ments commenced. nor of Shiraz, came first. The First came the rope-dancer; a Master of the Ceremonies walked boy about twelve years old, ascendup, having with him the conductor ed the rope, and paced it backof the present, and an attendant, wards and forwards. The same who, wb name and titles of rope was continued to the roof of the donor had been proclaimed, the room in which the King was read aloud from a paper the list of seated, making first an angle of the articles. The present from forty degrees, and then, in a sePrince Hossein Ali Mirza, consist- cond flight, an angle of fifty deed of a very long train of large grees, with its horizontal extension. trays placed on men's heads, on the boy balancing himself with his which were shawls, stuffs of all pole, walked up the first steadily, sorts, pearis, &c.; then many trays and with very little more difficulty filled with sugar, and sweetmeats ; ascended the second, while the muafter that many mules laden with sic below animated him in his profruit, &c. &c. &c. The next pre- gress. He then, with the same sent was from Mahomed Ali Khan, steadiness descended, walking backPripce of Hamadar, the eldest bora wards, and safely reached the hori


zontal rope. After this a man in a nah, that is his trumpets and drums, kind of petticoat began a dance of played as usual. At this moment the most extravagant attitudes. A the Envoy retired, happy to escape large elephant which had been in the noise and smoke of the fire waiting amid the crowd, was next works, which were to close the enbrought forward, was made to give tertainment. a shriek, and then to kneel down, 25th. The King held the races, paying as it were his selaam to the at which also the Envoy was deKing. A company of wrestlers sired to be present. From the Cassucceeded; and every one, who vin gate, at which we left the city, threw his antagonist on his back, we proceeded about half a mile to ran before the King and received a a fine even part of the country, tomaun, When ten such feats had where a tent was pitched for the been successively performed, a man King. All his new raised troops leå in a bear, with which in his were arranged on the right and in turn he wrestled. But the bear al- front of it. On the left, facing the ways had the advantage; and when tent, we stood in a line, near the his antagonist attempted to throw Ministers, Mirza Sheffeea, and the him into the basin of water, the Ameen-ed-Doulah. Directly oppobear got so much out of humour, site his Majesty were eight of his that if he had not been deprived of sons, richly dressed in velvet and his teeth, he would probably have gold-brocade coats, all glittering demolished the unlucky assailant. with gold and jewels. One of these Then rams were brought into the carried by his side his father's bow arena, and in several couples fought and his quiver thickly set with prefor some time with much obstinacy, cious stones. The Master of the A poor ox was next introduced, and Ceremonies, in the field, was a after him a youg

lion. The scene, young Persian who carried an orwhich we had witnessed at Shiraz, namented and gilded spear. One was here repeated. The ox was or two of the Princes, were mountscarcely suffered to walk, before ed on white horses, the legs, belly, the lion was let loose upon him; and lower parts of the buttock of twice was the lion dragged off, and which were dyed a rich drange cotwice permitted to return to the lour, terminated at the top by little charge, which he always made in flowers. The Persians much adthe rear, and of which the success mire this species of disfigurement, was secure and easy. A less bloody nor in the East is their taste singudisplay succeeded ; a bear was lar. At about fifty paces distance brought forwards by a company of from the Princes, stood the King's Looties or mountebanks, and danced band of music with a troop of looties for some time to the rude noise and and their monkies. The state elemusic of its leaders. Then came phants were on the ground, on the a man who, on his bare head ba- largest of which the King, seated lanced, among other things, two in a very elegant howdar, rode forth high vases full

of water, which ano- from the city. ther was to break with his cane. When he alighted he was saluted

To all these different performers, by a discharge of zombooreks; the the King threw different sums, as salute indeed is always fired when he was severally pleased with their the King alights from his horse or tricks and feats. At sanset his mounts. In one of the courts of Majesty retired to say his Namaz, the palace at Shiraz we had pre(prayers) when his Nokara Kha: viously noticed this artillery. The


zomboorek is a small gun mounted miles. For this reason, the King on the back of a camel. The con. always keeps himself well supplied ductor from his seat behind guides with a stud of this description, as a the animal by a long bridle, and resource in the event of an accident. loads and fires the little cannon with. When, on the death of his uncle out difficulty. He wears a coat of Aga Mahomed Khan, he was sumorange-coloured cloth, and a cap moned (by Hajee Ibrahim, the miwith a brass front; and his camel nister of the late King) to assume, carries a triangular green and red as the heir, the sovereignty, he flag. Of these there were one hun. thus travelled from Shiraz to Tedred on the field; and, when their heran, a distance of five hundred salute was fired, they retreated in a miles in six days. body behind the King's tent, where In the interval of the race, the the camels were made to kneel down. King sent the Master of the CereCollectively, they make a fine mili- monies to desire the Envoy and his tary appearance. This species of suite to come before him. We disarmament is common to many Asi- mounted from our borses, and proatic states, yet the effect at best is ceeded with the Prime Minister and very trifling. The Persians, bow- the Ameen-ed-Doulah, before the ever, place great confidence in their King's presence, making low bows execution; and Mirza Sheffeea, in as we advanced. When we were speaking of them to the Envoy, about twenty steps from his Majes. said, “ These are what the Russians ty, we stopped and made our final dread.”

low bow. The King was seated on a No exhibition could be more mi- high chair under a canopy, the sides serable than the races, the immedi- of which were formed of gold cloth, ate object of our excursion. They and of looking-glasses. The chair are intended to try rather the bot- itself was beautifully embroidered tom than the speed of the horses. with enamelled flowers and other The prize is what the King may be ornaments; on one of the arnis was pleased to give to the first jockies. a pot of flowers, and on the other On this occasion, there were two a vase of rose-water. On one side sets, that came severally from'a dis was spread a velvet and gold cloth tance of twelve and twenty-one miles. carpet with the pearl pillow. The Each consisted of about twelve ill- King was in his riding-dress, a close looking horses, mounted by boys of coat of purple velvet embroidered ten or twelve years old, who were in pearl, the sheep-skin cap, and a wretchedly dressed in a shirt and pair of Bulgar boots. As he was pair of breeches, boots and cap. placed in a good light, we had an. In each race, the King's horses won excellent view of him. His manners of course. Horses are trained in are perfectly easy and unconstrained, this manner for a reason sufficiently with much' dignity and affability. obvious, in a country where the for- He first inquired after the Envoy's tunes of the state and of every in- health, of whose good qualities the dividual are exposed to such sudden two Ministers then entered into an changes. Every one likes to be pre- immense eulogium, praising him in pared with some mode of escape, in terms the most extravagant. Then case of pursuit. Now, horses thus the names of all the party were meninured to running, will continue on tioped to the King, and each was the gallop for a day together, whilst asked how he did. All the convera high conditioned and well fed ani- sation was complimentary; and when mal would drop at the end of ten the comparison was made between


us and the French, the King said, instantly wrote out a corresponding “ they were hairans, beasts, wild form of treaty, to which (rather than men, savages. These are gentle start a difficulty about indifferent men."

words) he assented. They were then so anxious that he should immedi

ately attend them to the King's sumPersian Diplomacy,

mer Palace to sign, that they would

not give him time to translate it in(From the same.)

to English ; he, however, refused to

sign a Persian treaty till the English 1

REGRET the omission of my notes. copy was ready. They so little ex

They would have characterized, pēcted this refusal, that they had alI believe with fidelity, the habits and ready, by the King's desire, sent modes of thinking of a Persian states- thirty mule loads of fruits, sherbets, man, and added an amusing docu- and sweetmeats, to celebrate the ment to the annals of diplomacy. event at the new palace; and were The conferences of the plenipoten- of course displeased and disappointtiaries were carried on at tiries with ed. At another time, in the middle the warmest contentions, at other of a very serious conversation, the times interrupted by the loudest Prime Minister stopped short, and laughter on the most indifferent sub- asked the Envoy very coolly, to ject

. One night the parties had sat tell him the history of the world from so long, and had talked so much the creation. This was intended as without producing conviction on ei- a joke upon one of the Secretather side, that the plenipotentiaries, ries, who was then writing the by a sort of unofficial compact, fell annals of the reign of the preasleep. The Prime Minister and the sent King. On another occasion, Ameen-ed-Doulah snored aloud in in which the same Minister was one place, and the Envoy and I deeply and personally interested, stretched ourselves along in another, and in which he invoked every Though on the very first night of thing sacred to attest his veracity, the discussions, the parties had se- and convince the Envoy, (now," by parated with a full conviction that the head of the King, ;" then, “by every thing was settled ; and though. Mecca ;” then,“ by the salt of the Prime Minister himself

, laying Fath Ali Shah,”), he turned to me, his hand on the Envoy's shoulder, in a pause of his discourse, and askhad said to him, “ You have already ed if I were married, and begun completed what the King of England some absurd story. himself in person could not have These circumstances, howeverchadone;" yet, the very next confer- racteristic of the people, may apence, they came forwards with pre- pear trifling in themselves, or at least tensions alike new and extravagant. indicative of minds, over which an At the close of that meeting, how. European negociator might easily ever, the chief secretary was ap- attain an ascendancy. It is necespointed to bring the treaty, written sary therefore to premise, that the fair, to the Envoy on the following real difficulties of our situation were morning. Instead of this, the Prime never diminished by any deficiency Minister sent a large citron, and in- of address and diplomatic finesse in quired after the Envoy's health. On the Persian plenipotentiaries. Every another occasion, the Persian pleni- fresh dispatch which the French repotentiaries swore that every thing ceived from Europe, while it conshould be as the Envoy wished, and tributed to raise the spirits and ac


tivity of our rivals themselves, en- Nakshi Rustam had still escaped abled the Persians also to assume a their observation; and they had still

, higher tone of decision between our according to the popular belief, subcontending interests; while the only stituted Rustam for Shapour, as the communications from his own coun- hero of those representations. To trymen, which Sir Harford Jones this conversation, supper succeedreceived in Persia, were those which ed; as usual it was short. would have baffled the hopes and The treaties were then brought discouraged the enterprize of almost in, read and approved. The date was any other man. In the alternation still wanting. Sir Harford Jones deof the dispositions of the court of sired tlrem to insert the usual form, Persia, he retained the same firm cominencing, “ In witness whereof,” and unbending policy; and when the &c. This, however, the Persians influence of the French appeared to could not understand, and objected be regaining all its preponderance, strenuously to the word " witnesses,” he made no one concession which who were never introduced except he had not offered in more favour- into a court of justice. At length able circumstances, and finally suc- the Envoy produced the precedent ceeded in concluding a treaty almost of treaties signed at Constantinople, on his own original terms, while the where the form is invariably used. French were signing every demand They acquiesced immediately; but which the Persians made.

another difficulty succeeded;. Should As a more detailed specimen, how- the year of our Lord precede the ever, of the conduct of the negoti- Hejera?' The Secretary proposed, ation, I can reserve a portion of the that in our copy of the treaty, our .concluding scene.

era should stand first, and that the At length a night was fixed, in order should be reversed in that which the treaties

were to be sign- which they were to keep. At last ed. The Envoy and I repaired to the Minister, who suspected that the the house of the Ameen.ed-Doutah, Secretary was inclined to create ditwhere we found him and his Nazir, ficulties, finished every argument by or Superintendant, the Prime Mi- declaring, that was Jesus Christ lis. nisten the Chief Secretary, and the ed before Mahomed, there could be Persian Agent for English affairs at no doubt but that his tarikh should Shiraz. The conversation, after a stand first." The Secretary, who is short time, fixed on learned subjects. esteetned one of the first composers, The Persians are extremely fond of and one of the best penmen in Perhistory and geography, though in sia, resisted the plainness of the langeneral they are profoundly igno- guage, which Sir Harford dictated rant of both. The Prime Minister for the insertion of the date, and prowent through, in a breath, the whole duced something so unlike a diplohistory of Russia. We then enter- matic style, and so full of figurative ed on matters of chronology, which expressions, that it was rejected tointroduced a discussion on the rela- tally on our parts. Mirza Sheffeea tive antiquity of particular remains, then took up the pen, and drew up as Persepolis and" Nakshi Rustam. a simpler formulary, which, with a few The Chief Secretary, who seemned emendations, was admitted. The Se. to have read much Persian history, cretary was then desired to copy it knew that part which related to into the treaty ; but he seemed inShapour, and mentioned that he had dignant to find that a date was only carried his arms into Syria, and had to be plain matter of fact, and beg. taken prisoner a Roman Emperor. ged hard to make it a little finer, Yet the subject of the sculptures at Mirza Sheffeea, however, desired him

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