May 4th.– A Hirundo nu

tica) were observed here this day, MR experiments of the election of

Monthly Memoranda in Natural Memoirs of the Progress of ManuHistory.

factures, Chemistry, Science, and

the Fine Arts.
FEW swallows

R BRODIE has made addition

al effects for the first time this season. On the various poisons on different animals. 9th May they became numerous, It appears that the slight inflammathis being the first mild summer tion which occurs in the stomach, day, and the wind changing from after taking poison into it, is not easterly to west. It may here be sufficient to occasion death;. but mentioned that the same species of that it is the palsying power of the swallow arrived in the neighbour drugs on the nervous system and hood of Edinburgh, in 1810, on on the blood which destroys life. the 230 April, and in 1811 on the Among the causes which have an 7th and 10th April.

influence upon the quality of wines, 16. The rapid progress of M. Chapral enumerates:-1. The vegetation during the past week has different species of the cultivated been striking in proportion to the vines,-2. The variety of climates lateness of the season. The first where they grow.-3. The different grass cut for sale in the Edinburgh nature of the soils.-4. Their more market was mown in the meadow or less favourable exposure to the of Salisbury Craig on the 13th ult. sun.-5. The seasons being more or This meadow is generally cut for less propitiouş:46. The culture bethe first time about the middle of ing more or less attended to. April, and consists chiefly of Poa The bell, or winter pear, accordtrivialis.

ing to an American Journal, may 18. A return of the chilling be brought to great perfection, and easterly haar, as it is here styled, grow to sixteen inches in circumferhas again impeded vegetation. ence, by wrapping up the fruit and

20. The foliation of trees is branch in cloth, so as to protect on an average fully a month later them from the early frosts of Octothan usual. The leaves on the ber and November. lower spray of elm tress are just Messrs Subolewsky and Ilorner, beginning to expand. The buds of St Petersburgh, have announced of the beech are in general only the discovery of the process of the gwelling, many trees and hedges French engineer Bon, and of Messrs still retaining the shrivelled leaves Murdoch and Windsor, for extractof last year. The ash is not gener. ing gas from wood or coal, and apally in flower, and the leaf-buds of plying it to the purpose of illuminathat very late forest tree are only tion. Their greatest difficulty conbeginning to swell

. A few syca- sisted in absorbing the smoke which mores are nearly in leaf, but many exhaled from the gas, and in givare still naked.

ing brightness and purity to the 27. Mild weather has again fame; for, in all experiments made set in; and affords the prospect; at in foreign countries, or in Russia, Jeast, of a plentiful, though proba- the fame was always weak and bly of a late harvest, both to the bluish, not very luminous, and athusbandman and the horticultur: tended by a mephitic smell. After

N. many ineffectual experiments, they Canonmills, 2

at length succeeded in obtaining a 27th May 1812. S

cleaning &c.


clear light from the gas, without The experiments of Professor any smell, and unaccompanied by Leslie, to produce ice by evaporaany sooty evaporation. They tion in the air pump, have been vahave undertaken to light public na ried and extended in France by tional establishments, manufactures, Messrs Clement and Desormes:

they have proposed to apply the A late Number of the Journal evaporation, in vacuo, on a large, des Mines contains an account of a scale, to the drying of gun-powder; submarine forest recently discover which, being done without fire, will ed near Morlaix, by M. de la Frug. be attended with no danger. The laye. One day, after a tempest, French chemists are engaged in enhe saw the appearance changed, deavouring to apply the evaporation the fine and level sánd having dis- in vacuo (before stated) to the drying appeared ; and in its place, was a and preserving fruit and vegetables. black mould, ploughed in long fur. It may be easily conceived of what

The mould was composed of advantage this process may be, par. a heap of decayed vegetable sub- ticularly in the army and navy, by, stances, among which he distin- preserving, unchanged, alimentary guished many aquatic plants, and substances, and also by diminishsome branches of forest' trees ; be- ing their weight and bulk, when neath this bed, there were reeds, they are to be sent to distant parts bullrushes, asparagus, fern, and o- of the world. ther meadow plants, of which many were extremely well preserved. M.

Mr Bullock has re-opened his de la Fruglaye dug down to the Museum in Piccadilly, for the adsubmarine forest, and drew out; ral History, under the title of tho

vancement of the 'science of Natuamong other things, a beautiful trunk of a yew, which was of a fine nificence which has added an orna

London Museum, in a style of magred colour, and very soft, but, ment to the metropolis. In most when exposed to the air, lost its co- departments, the subjects have been lour, and acquired consistency. doubled in number; the specimens Having prosecuted these researches for a space of seven leagues along are choice, in the highest possible the strand, he every where found preservation, and are arranged acthe remains of the ancient buried cording to the Linnean system. forest.

They consist of about 15,000 species Bonaparte has enjoined his mi. of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, fishes,

Bonaparte has enjoined his mi- insects, corals, &c. &c, collected nister to order the Prefects of Departments to enforce the cultivation during twenty years unwearied apof beet root. Each department is

plication, and at an expence exto cultivate a number of acres of

ceeding L.30,000. this plant under a penalty ; the dis- By the assiduity of the Danish tribution to each farmer is vested government, the Vaccine Inocula-in the prefect, whose neglect is to tion has been so thoroughly introbe punished with a fine and depri- duced among the population, that, vation of office; the total number during the course of the year 1811, of the hectares to be planted is there has not been a single case of 100,000.

small pox in Copenhagen.


Biographical Account of the late his opinions ; not the result of rash

Generat Mackinnon, who fell at and confident temper, but of acute Cinulad Rodrigo

perceptions, and a mind uncommon

ly sagacious and reflecting. His MAJAR:Generne Hennes sont AJOR-GENERAL HENRY Mac- progress in those studies to which

KINNON, the youngest son his attention was directed, and parof William Mackinnon, * of Mac- ticularly in the mathematical scienkinnon, was born in the month of ces, was, at this period, the admiraAugust, in the year 1773, at his fa- tion of his masters, and, to the eyes ther's residence, then called Long- of his most discerning friends, prewood, now Rose-hill, the seat of sented a fair prospect of the greatthe Earl of Northesk, in the vicini. est eminence in his profession. ty of Winchester. His mother was Thus qualified, he entered the the daughter of James Vernun, the army in the fitteenth year of his younger son of Henry Vernon, of age, and served during three years Hilton, in Staffordshire.

as a subaltern in the 43d regiment, His academical education com- then stationed in Ireland. At the menced when he was about twelve commencement of the late war he years old, at the Military College returned to England, and was emof Tournay, in Languedoc; and it is ployed in raising an independant a remarkable circumstance, that, company at home, with which he during his vacations, he had an op- returned to Ireland, but shortly afportunity of forming an early ac- terwards exchanged from the line quaintance with the present ruler into the Coldstream Guards. of France, who was a frequent visi- The earliest developement of his tor at the house of his family, resid- military talents, and the demonstraing at that time, for the health of tion that his theoretic attainments his eldest brother, in the adjoining were combined with that practical province of Dauphiny. At this early ability, which alone constitutes a age he became tinctured with those valuable officer, did not take place fascinating manners and accomplish- till the period of the unfortunate ments, by which the higher orders disturbances in Ireland, where he in France were peculiarly charac. was attached to the Staff

, as Major terized, and inbbed their chival- of Brigade to Sir George Nugent, rous love of military glory, à cir- then commanding the northern cumstance which, as might be ex. district of that kingdom. During pected, afforded a bias to his taste, the arduous moment of the rebela and a permanent incentive to his lion, his conduct was particularly professional ambition. Even in those noticed in the public dispatches. tender years he was distinguished He was present at the battles of by an ardent and persevering spirit, Antrim and Ballynahinch, and sergreat perspicuity of judgment, vices of some note, considering the coolness of deliberation, prompti- scale on which they were performtude of decision, and steadiness in ed, displayed in his military charac

ter that fine assemblage of qualities,

which constitute true heroism, unThe grandfather of William Mackin. daunted courage united with judgnon was a younger son of the hereditary ment, and chastened by the tenchief of the Mackinnons, a numerous clan in the western islands of Scotland. The Irish lady of distinction, in London,

derest feelings of our nature.

An bis death, by the extinction of the elder when speaking of him at this period branch.

of his lite, observed," Major MacMay 1812,


kinnon is, indeed, admired in Ire- an opportunity of visiting many in land for his person and courage, teresting scenes of action, and of but he is adored for his humanity." surveying all those monuments of His person was then so remarkable ancient grandeur and genius which as to be a theme of admiration, e that country offers to the gratificaven in a country, which, on the tion of a literary taste and love of score of manly comeliness, is uni. the fine arts. During the short versally allowed to stand unrivalled peace which ensued, he was anxious amongst the nations of Europe. But to increase still further his extensive those who best knew him were sen- acquaintance with the Continent of sible, that, although not unconscious Europe, and spent the greater part of the influence of a fine person, of his time in Germany. He ataccompanied by graceful manners, tended the reviews at Capel, Dreshe attached but little consequence den, and Potsdam, in the autumn of to these possessions, whilst he con- 1802, and his reception at Berlin signed all his leisure hours to liter- was particularly distinguished by ary pursuits, and devoted himself, the flattering notice which he rewhenever' he could be useful, with ceived from the Royal Family, whilst the most ardent zeal and activity, he was generally considered as one to the service of his country. of the most accomplished English

He quitted his staff appointment gentlemen who had visited that in Ireland to proceed with his regi- court. His mind, however, was uniment in the memorable expedition, formly intent upon such objects under the Duke of York, to the only as were most conducive to his Helder ; and was present in the professional advancement, and a actions which took place on the 19th proportion of his time was uniformof September, and on the 2d, 3d, ly devoted to military studies. and 6th October, 1799. In that On the recommencement of hos.' short campaign, on the retreat of tilities, he successively accompanied the British army, a favourable op- the Coldstream Guards to Bremen, portunity was afforded him of dis- in the year 1805, and on the expe-playing some traits of courage and dition to Copenhagen, in 1807. In skilful conduct, with a detachment 1809, he proceeded to Portugal, of the Coldstream Guards, in check was with Lord Wellington at the ing the advance of a much superior brilliant passage of the Douro, and body of the enemy. Anxious to in the subsequent pursuit of Soult's seize every occasion of signalizing army, and was in the midst of the himself in the career of honour, sanguinary contest of Talavera, in with the rank of a field officer, he which he had two horses killed unshortly afterwards volunteered his der him, and received several balls services to Egypt, and took the com- through his cloak. Upon the evamand for some time in the lines be- cuation of that town by the British fore Alexandria, of the 1st battalion army, Lord Wellington committed of his regiment : but unfortunately to his charge the care of the sick was soon compelled, under the ma- and wounded, amounting, after the lignant influence of that climate, action, to about 5000 men. His from a violent disorder, with which situation, however, a day or two he was suddenly seized whilst upon afterwards, became peculiarly em. duty in the field, to return to Malta.barrassing, and required the utmost Being somewhat restored to health, exercise of judgment to extricate he proceeded to Sicily, and, on his this disabled part of our army from way home through Italy, embraced the unprotected state in which it


was suddenly left, by the unexpect- won and delighted with the whole ed retreat of Cuesta. On this try- of his behaviour, as to petition Lord ing occasion, in which little honour Wellington to continue him in the could be acquired, though much command of the British garrison, difficulty was to be surmounted, when his Lordship deemed it expeColonel Mackinnon executed his dient to remove him to a more usearduous task in the most effectual ful and brilliant scene of action. manner which the circumstances Shortly afterwards he quitted would admit, It became absolutely Elvas, in the year 1809, and was necessary to abandon to the mercy appointed to the command of a of the enemy such of the sick and brigade attached to the light diviwounded as were incapable of pro- sion, under General Craufurd, with ceeding on foot; for, on applica- whom he continued upon terms of tion to the Spanish General, he was the most perfect harmony and muunable to furnish more than nine tual esteem, till he was removed, cars for their removal, and it was and placed, with his brigade, under required to march near a hundred' General Picton, in the third divi. miles to Elvas,- over a mountain- sion of Lord Wellington's army. ous and inhospitable district of His friends, and those who were Spain, exposed to a scorching sun conscious of his qualifications to act by day, and heavy dews by night. in a higher sphere, for which he The only office, therefore, which it was so well prepared, now became was possible for the Colonel to ren- naturally solicitous that some fader this devoted part of his charge, vourable opportunity might present was by an application to the com. itself for a more conspicuous devemiseration and generosity of the lopement of his talents than had

His correspondence with hitherto been afforded him, when the commanding officer, to whose the action with Massena occurred power near 2000 British soldiers on the heights of Busaco. In this were to be committed upon that distinguished victory, as will best occasion, evinced an intiinate ac- appear from the dispatches of Lord quaintance with the French charac- Wellington, he performed a very ter; and the singular humanity with prominent part on one of the great which, as it is well known, they points of attack. British soldiers were afterwards treated, may, in a are such admirable instruments in great measure, be attributed to the hands of every officer who com. the adroitness with which they were mands them, that, to repel an enemy consigned and recommended by upon any thing like equal terms, him to the attention of the enemy. will scarcely be considered as His fortunate and unexpected pre- act of conspicuous ability in the servation of those who were capa- person who directs them; but, upble of being removed, his feeling on this occasion, his measures were and judicious conduct through the taken with so much skill, promptiwhole of a distressing march, and tude, and presence of mind, as to in the subsequent superintendence have entitled him to the admiration of his charge at Elvas, of which of those who witnessed, and were place he was appointed Comman- most competent to appreciate his dant, will be long felt and remem, merits in command. Lord Wellingbered by those who derived an im- ton, immediately after the battle, mediate benefit from his care and waited on him, to return him thanks exertions; and the Portuguese go. in person; and General MackinFernor of the town pas so much non's conduct, on that most bril


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