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benefit the rest by a moderate and was offered to be purchased, at the convenient shelter, even suppos. rate of L. 14 per acre per annum ing the lands to be, what rarely since the time of planting !--and, can happen, solely appropriated to perhaps, this same land would not, tillage ; for, surely, under good at an average, have rented at 30s. management, in many cases the per acre per annum! Other inarable farmer must occasionally be- stances might be adduced, where come a feeder, and then he must the profits of planting have been necessarily be sensible of the good remarkably conspicuous. . These effects of planting, in common with profits, however, must vary, in the breeder and grazier, as in the every county and district of the cases adverted to above.

kingdom, according to the quality It is very generally known, that of the soil, local circumstances, and such estates as have a quantity of the like. Every proprietor whe well arranged, healthy timber upon has ever cut an acre of timber, or them, when brought to sale, bring of underwood, and who has rightly an extra price, according to the considered the value, for a given quality and value of the wood, not time, of an adjoining acre of the only at the time of sale, but, count. same quality, which has been eming forward on its value, to a dis- ployed in agriculture, and has extant period. Thus, supposing the perienced an ordinary management, half-grown timber on an estate to must, in some measure, be satisbe valued at ten thousand pounds fied of the relative value of a crop at the time of the sale, instances of trees. are to be found where thirty thou. sand pounds have been given, over and above the valuation of the List of Scottish Trees of remarkable lands.

magnitude. The purchasers of such estates

(From the same.) wisely foresee the increase of value which will arise from healthy timber

The Oak. A Monke treeat cherished till of full maturity, but in Stirlingshire, in 1795, where, probably, it can then be measured in circumference 12 @ turned to the best advantage, by Another at Cockwood, in reason of its local situation. But, Annandale, in the month of besides the real value of growing April 1773, measured, at six timber, there is most generally an feet from the ground, in cirideal value attached to it, namely, cumference

14 O that of its ornamental appearance. This tree was about 60

The actual profits arising from feet high, and supposed planted timber, we have known, to be about 230 years in several instances, to be very old. great ; and, probably, in none At Blairquosh, in the pawould it sink, in eighty or an hun rish of Strathblane, Stirling. dred years, below what could bave shire, an oak measured, in been procured from the land in 1796, in circumference · 15 O name of rent, provided the trees be The remains of a decayed well managed." One instance lately. oak, upon the road between came nder our observation, where Inverness and Strontian in à plantation of an acre and a half Argyleshire, were measured of sycamores, of 60 years standing, in October 1764, and found

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rence

to be in girth, at a foot above Morton's, near Aberdour, in the ground

17 3 Fifeshire, measured in March Wallace's oak, so named 1812, extended in length of for ages, must have been a bole 50 feet, and in girth, at large tree 500 years ago. It

four feet high

10 3 was situated in a wet clay

An ash at Newbottle, in soil, in the Tor-wood, near Mid-Lothian, standing east Falkirk, and in 1771 was from the house, near the supposed to be in girth, at

river, in the month of July four feet above the groand 22 O 1789, measured in circumfeNo trace of thiis venerable

11 4 tree now remains.

An ash in the island of The largest oak which we

Loch Leven, in Fifeshire, in have noticed in Scotland is in the old oak wood on the

September 1706, measured, north side of Loch Arkeg,

in circumference, at four

feet from the ground - 12 0 in Lochaber. When measured, it was found to be in

An ash at Yair, in Selgirth, at four feet above the kirkshire, measures, at the

24 6 ground

12 9

surface, in circumference In a moss in the parish of

An ash near the church Auchterderran in Fifeshire, of Logierait, in Perthshire, the remains of an oak which measured, at four feet from has its root several feet the ground, in 1770 ; -- 160 above the bottom of the

An ash tree at Wemyss moss, measures in diameter Castle, in Fifeshire, growat the root

60 ing about 100 yards from the The Larch.- This is but a gate, measured, on the 13th newly introduced tree; none March 1812, 35 feet bole ; of them are above 60 years

and in circumference, at old; the oldest are to be four feet from the ground - 15 9 found at Duokeld. The

An ash in the church-yard finest of these is 100 feet of Bonhill, in Dumbartonhigh, and in circumference shire, in September 1784, at the ground

100 measured in circumference In Monzie garden there at the surface

33 0 are four larch trees, said to

The Glammis Ashtree at be the largest in the island. Castle Huntly in Perthshire, They are not yet 60 years

measured in circumferenee old; yet the largest one is at the ground

27 9 80 feet high, and its girth at

And at a yard high 17 O the ground is

16 0 At the river Blackburn, Other two are about the in the parish of Castletown same height, but the cir in Roxburghshire, the trunk cumference of the one at the of an old ash measures in eirground is 15 0 cumference

18 0 The other is

90 An ash at Midstrath, in And the last is 90 feet the parish of Bins, at the high, and at the ground is in ground

20 O girth only

80 An ash near Deskford, in The Ash.--An'ash at Lord the county of Banff, called

St John's

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F. IN. St John's Tree, measures in

Another, at the same girth

24 55 place, is 30 feet of bole, and, A few yards from Cessford at the same height from the Castle, in Roxburghshire, ground, in girth

13 8 there is a venerable ash tree,

Another, at breast high, wbich measures at the base 27 8 at the same place and time, An ash tree near Bonhill

measured in circumference 15 0 House, in Dunbartonshire,

Another, at same height, which is surrounded with a with a trunk 45 feet, was in sloping bank of earth, about girth

10 2 three feet in height, mea.

Another, at same height, sured, in circumference, in with a trunk 60 feet

10 0 September 1784, at four feet

Near the Abbey of Balmeabove the general surface of rino, on the banks of the the ground

34 1 river Tay, a beech tree, An ash tree in the church

measured in 1793, was found yard of Kilmalie, in Locha

to be in girth

127 ber, burnt down during the

A beech at Inverary, troubles in 1746, was long

whose stem was 12 feet in considered as the largest and length, and the diameter of most remarkable tree in its head 90 feet, had a trunk Scotland. Its remains were whose circumference was 14 0 measured in October 1764,

A beech, near the castle and, at the ground, the cir- of Kelly, in the county of cumference was no less than 58 O Fife, was measured in 1793; The Elm._On the estate

its stem

was 30 feet in of Castle-Huntly there are height, and the circumferseveral fine Scots elms,

16 O which measures, at three

The large beech at Newfeet from the ground, about 11 O bottle Abbey, standing on At Lord Morton's, Aber

the lawn behind the house, dour, Fife, there is a Scots was measured in July 1789, elm, which measured, March and the circumference ascer10, 1812, forty feet length tained to be

17 0 of bole, and in girth 11 6 The large beech at Ormis

Two elms at Yair, in Sel- ton-hall, in East-Lothian, kirkshire, measure, each, at measured, in May 1762, in the surface of the ground 13 0 circumference

18 10 An elm tree in the parish

A beech near the house of Roxburgh, in Tiviotdale, Oxenford, in Mid-Lothian, called the Trysting Tree,

easured, in June 1763, was measured in 1796, and and, at three feet high, the its girth, at four feet from circumference was

19 6 the surface of the ground,

(To be corcluded in our next.) found to be

30 O The Beech.-A beech at Leslie House, in Fifeshire,

Observations on the Topaz of Scotmeasured, in March 1812,

land. By Professor Jameson. by estimation, 56 feet to the branches, and was in

T is said that the greater num. girth, at breast high 11 0 ber of the precious stones have

been

ence

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been, at different times, discovered Mr Deuchar, is a pale celandinein the mountainous districts of Scot- green coloured topaz. The Ameland; but hitherto no accurate ac- thyst is the true amethyst of micount of them has been published. neralogists. The Topaz of Cairn

This is owing to a deficiency of mi- gorum, Isle of Arran, and other neralogical skill

, and the interested places, is rock-crystal of various colmotives of the discoverers, who ours,

as yellowish-white, clovehave always endeavoured to con- brown, wine-yellow, and orangeceal the knowledge of the spots yellow. The clove-brown varieties where these stones have been found. are named smoke topaz; the orange According to the jewellers and lap- and wine-yellow varieties are someidaries of Edinburgh, the ruby oc times sold as true topaz. The Gare curs at the Ely in Fifeshire, also net is the precious garnet of Wernear Portsoy in Banffsbire, in In- ner; the Syrian or oriental garnet verbess-shire, and Aberdeenshire: of many jewellers. The emerald at the mountains of It thus appears, that precious Cairngorum in Aberdeenshire: The beryl, topaz, amethyst, and precious aqua marine, or precious beryl, at garnet, are the only true gems bithInvercauld, and in the different Ork erto discovered in Scotland. But ney Islands: The sapphire in differ- the topaz of Scotland has been conent places of the Ilighlands, as at sidered as a variety of sapphire, and Benachie and Invercauld in Aber- its true nature was not understood deenshire, and Portsoy in Banff- until lately, when its characters were shire: The amethyst at Invercauld, fully exhibited in a fine series of and in Strathspey, and other parts topaz-crystals of remarkable size, of Scotland : The garnet abundant. brought from the upper part of Ably in Aberdeenshire, and other erdeenshire to Edinburgh, and now parts of Scotland : and lastly, the in the possession of Mr White, lapitopaz, is said to occur frequently in dary. Strathspey, at Invercauld in Aberdeenshire, Cairngorum, and in the

TOPAZ OF ABERDEENSHIRI. Isle of Arran.

Colour greenish white, and interBut are all these true precious mediate between mountain green stones? The ruby of the Ely, and and celandine-green. the other places already mentioned, Is slightly opalescent. cannot be referred either to the spi The form of the largest crystal is nelle ruby, or the red sapphire, an oblique eight-sided prism, deeply which is the oriental ruby of jewels bevelled at the extremity; the belers. The mineral found at the Ely velling plans set on the acute lateris not unlike the Cinnamon-stone of al edges; the proper edge of the beWerner, which I consider as a spe. velment truncated, and the angle cies of the garnet family. The E- formed by the meeting of the bevelmerald of Cairngorum and Strath- ling plane and the lateral planes bespey, and the aqua marine of Inver- velled. cauld, are varietes of precious The surface of the crystal is beryl; and the aqua marine of the rough, owing to attrition. Orkney islands, if the specimens in Internal lustre splendent and vitthe late Dr Walker's cabinet be reous. Cross fracture distinctly foltruly from that quarter, is also pre- iated; longitudinal fracture perfect cious beryl. The sapphire of the conchoidal. Is semitransparent, inHighlands, from the examination of clining to translucent. Harder than specimens in the possession of precious beryl; but not so hard as June 1812.

spinelle.

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spinelle. Specific gravity 3,570, veins in primitive mountains, and Thomson.)

probably also in large drusy cavities, This crystal weighs 7 ounces 3 in rocks of a very old formation. pennyweights 184 grains Troy; and About 25 leagues north from à fragment of a crystal, from the Catharinenburgh, in the Uralian same tract of country, now in the Mountains, topaz is found in consid. possession of Mr Farquharson of In- erable quantity, in a kind of granite, vercauld, weighs 1 pound 3 ounces resembling that variety, known un8 drams, and 84 grains Troy weight. der the name of pierre graphique.

These are the largest topazes There it is said to occur in drusy hitherto found. In the National cavities, along with quartz and preMuseum at Paris, which is the most cious beryl. It is also found in the extensive in Europe, the largest opposite extremity of Siberia, in a topaz is one weighing 4 ounces 6 mountain named Odon-Tschelon, gros*

in the province of Dauria, where it The discovery of so valuable a occurs in druses, along with precigein in this country, naturally leads ous beryl. The topazes of Odonus to enquire in what situation it is Tschelon, and, indeed of Siberia in found, and whether or not it is like- general, are generally snow white, ly to occur in considerable quantity. frequently celandine green, and Unfortunately the data for answer. very rarely of a beautiful blue, reing these questions are not complete: sembling the sapphire; and some we must, therefore, at present rest varieties exhibit a kind of opalessatisfied, with a short statement of cence. The Brazilian, and somethe geognostic relations of the top- times also the Saxon topaz, are az of foreign countries, which, when found in alluvial soilt ; and the tocompared with the accounts given paz of Pegu, Ceylon, Hawkesbury of our topaz, will enable us to guess River in New Holland, and Cape at its probable geognostic situation. Barren Island in Basses Straits,

This gem occurs in considerbale has a similar geognostic situationil. quantity in the Electorate of Sax- Such are the geognostic relations ony, in a particular species of of the topazes of foreign countries. mountain-rock, denominated, by The topaz of Scotland has hitherto Werner, Topaz-rock, because topaz been found only in alluvial soil, ais one of its essential constitueut long with uncommonly large rockparts. Besides forming an essential crystals, and middle-sized crystals ingredient of topaz-rock, it also oc- of precious beryl, and in a tract of curs in it in drusy cavities, along with quartz crystals and lithomarge.

+ Topaz has lately been found embedIn Bohemia and Saxony, it occurs ded, in small crystals, in transition rocks. in veins that traverse gneiss and # Dr Monro junior presented me with a mica-slate. These veins are genere rolled piece of topaz, said to be from Hawkally narrow, intimately connected esbury river; and Captain Laskey, with a with the rock they traverse, of very crystal of the same gem, from Cape Barren old formation, and contain, besides

Island, in Basses Straits.

The topaz of Basses Straits, as iny learn. topaz, also tin-stone, arsenic pyrites, ed Friend Mr R. Brown informs me, was sometimes copper pyrites, apatite, first discovered by Mr Humphry junior, fluor-spar, quartz, and steatite. The who was, some years ago, sent out by Gova Siberian topaz appears to occur in

ernment to examine the mineralogy of New Holland and Van Diemen's Island.

|| In the collection of the Museum of It is said that there is a topaz, in the Natural History at Paris, there is a large rich collection of Sir John St Aubyn, the rock crystal, containing reddish coloured, size of a fist.

crystals of topaz from Brazil.

country,

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