cation at Edinburgh having compre- from follies and errors. But the hended them all. The London Re- tenor of my life has been temperate, view, the Agricultural Magazine, the laborious, humble, quiet, and to the the Anti-Jacobin Review, the Monthly utmost of my power beneficent. I Magazine, the Universal Magazine, can prove the general tenor of my the Public Characters, the Annual writings to have been candid, and ever Necrology, with several other periodi- adapted to exhibit the most favourable cal works, contain many of my views of the abilities, dispositions, and communications. In such of those exertions of others. publications as have been reviewed, “ For these last ten months I have I can shew, that my anonymous been brought to the very extremity of pieces have been distinguished with bodily and pecuniary distress. very high praise. I have written also a “ I shudder at the thought of pershort system of Chemistry, in one vo- ishing in a gaol." lume 8vo. and I published a few weeks 92 Chancery Lane, since, a small work called “ Comforts Feb. 2. 1807.

(In confinement.) of Life *" of which the first edition was sold in one week, and the second

The physicians reported, “ that edition is now in rapid sale.

Robert Heron's health was such, as “ In the Newspapers--the Oracle, rendered him totally incapable of exthe Porcupine when it existed, the tricating himself from the difficulties

in which he was involved, by the inPost , the British Press

, the Courier, discreet exertion of his mind, in pro&c. I have published many Reports

tracted and incessant literary labours. of Debates in Parliament ; and I be

About three months after, Heron lieve, a greater variety of light fugi: sunk under a fever, and perished tive pieces, than I know to have been written by any one other person.

are disgusted with this horrid state of “I have written also a variety of pauperism ; we are indignant at becompositions in the Latin and French holding an author, not a contemptible Languages, in favour of which I have one, in this last stage of human wretbeen honoured with the testimonies of chedness! after early and late studies, liberal approbation.

after having read and written from

twelve to sixteen hours a day!-0 ye " I have invariably written to serve the cause of religion, morality, pious populace of scribblers! before ye are Christian education, and good order, filled with constant tears, pause-re

are in the most direct manner. I have considered what I have written as

collect that not one of you possesses mere trifles; and have incessantly

the learning or the abilities of Heron, studied to qualify myself for some

shudder at all this secret agony and thing better. I can prove that I

silent perdition! have, for many years, read and writ- John MACDIARMID was one of those ten, one day with another, from Scotch students, whom the golden twelve to sixteen hours a day. As a fame of Hume and Robertson attracts human being, I have not been free to the metropolis. He mounted the

first steps of literary adventure with * The Comforts of Life” were written credit ; and passed through the probain prison ; “ The Miseries” necessarily in tion of Editor and Reviewer, till he a drawing-room.

strove for more heroic adventures, The works of authors are often in contrast with themselves ; melancholy authors

He published some volumes, whose are the most jocular, and the most humour. subjects display the aspirings of his eus the most melancholy !

genius : “ An Enquiry into the na



ture of Civil and Military Subordina- While in France, a gentleman is a tion,” another into “ the System of nobleman's highest appellation, an Military Defence.” It was during English nobleman, both in law and these labours I beheld this Enquirer, public opinion, holds a splendid preof a tender frame, emaciated, and eminence over the English gentle. study-worn, with hollow eyes, where the mind dimly shone like a lamp in a This is principally owing to the tomb.-— With keen ardour he opened distinction which, about the reign of a new plan of biographical politics.- Henry the Third, took place in EngWhen, by one v ho wished the author land, between the great and small and his style were in better condition, barons. the dangers of excess in study were In all countries where the feudal brought to his recollection--he smil. polity has been established, a national ed, and, with something of a mysteri- council, under the name of States-Geous air, talked of unalterable confidence neral, Cortez, the Grand Assize, or in the powers of his mind-of the in- the Parliament, has been introduced. definite improvement in our faculties; It generally consisted of three states, and, although his frame was not athle- the Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temtic, he considered himself capabie of poral, and the Third Estate, or the trying it to the extremity-his whole Communalty. In almost every counlife, indeed, was one melancholy trial try, except England, the Third Estate -often the day cheerfully passed was originally distinguished from the without its meal, but never without nobility, and consisted of the Comits page. The new system of politi- monalty alone. In England all the cal biography was advancing, when Barons, or the Lords of Manors, held our young author felt a paralytic immediately of the King, were entistroke. He afterwards resumed his tled to a seat in the National Council. pen, and a second one proved fatal. In the course of time they became He lived just to pass through the numerous, and the estates of many of press his " Lives of British States- them became very small. This intromen,” a splendid quarto, whose pub- duced a difference in their personal lication he owed to the generous tem- importance.- In consequence of it, per of a friend, who, when the Author the great Barons were personally sumcould not readily procure a publisher, moned to parliament by the King, would not see even the dying author's but the small Barons were summoned last hopes disappointed. Some re- to it, in the aggregate, by the Sheriff. search and reflection are combined in They assembled in distinct chambers. this literary and civil history of the The King met the great Barons in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries~ person, but, except when he summonbut it was written with the blood of ed their personal attendance, left the the author, for Macdiarmid died of latter to their own deliberations.-over-study, and exhaustion.

These, and some concurrent circumstances, which it is needless to mention, elevated the great to a distinct

order from the small Barons, and conGeneral View of the History of Mo- founded the latter with the general dern Nobility.

body of freeholders. (Concluded from p. 425.)

In the mean time, a considerable

revolution took place in the right to 4. * FROM what has been mentioned, peerage. From being Territorial it

the difference between French become Personal ;-in other words, and ENGLISH NOBILITY is obvious. instead of conferring on a favoured


subject a territory, which being held maternal ancestors for a given number of the King, made him a Baron, and, of descents, or, in the language of of course a peer of Parliament, it of. heraldry, that he should produce his ten happened that the King conferred Coat-armour, with a certain number on him the

peerage, with reference to of paternal and maternal Quarterings, a territory, but without conferring on On ordinary occasions a Coat-armour him any interest in it-The same re of four Quarterings sufficed ; sixteen volution took place in respect to the were sometimes required: the greathigh offices of Dukes, Marquises, est number ever required in France, Earls, and Viscounts. They were was thirty-two ; in Germany, sixtyoriginally territorial offices, which four. were exerciseable within certain dis To establish his title to Sixteen tricts, and entitled the possessors of Quarters the Postulant must show, them to a seat in the national council. 1. The nobility of his father and By degrees, these also became mere paternal grandfather, and of his personal honours, the Kings frequent paternal grandfather's father, ly granting them to a person and his and paternal grandfather's paterheirs, with a nominal reference to a nal grandfather ; this entitles district, but without the slightest him to one quartering: authority within it: and, whenever 2. The nobility of his mother, and they were granted in this manner,

if maternal grandfather, and of his the party had not a Baronial Dignity, maternal grandfather's father, the King conferred it on him, and and maternal grandfather's pathus entitled him to a seat in the ternal grandfather; this entitles higher house :—but, where the dig him to a second quartering : nity was hereditary, if he had more 3. The nobility of his paternal grandthan one male descendant, his eldest mother, and of her father and son only took his seat in the house : paternal grandfather; this enand the brothers and sisters of that titles him to a third quarterson were commoners.

Thus a sepa

ing : rate rank of nobility, and of personal 4. The nobility of his maternal and legislative nobility, unknown to grandmother, and of her father foreigners, was introduced into Eng and paternal grandfather; this land; and thus, in opposition to a

entitles him to a fourth quarterfundamental principle of French law, ing : that every gentleman in France is a 5. The nobility of his paternál nobleman-it became a principle of grandfather's mother, and her our law, that no English gentleman father ; this entitles him to a is a nobleman, unless he is a Peer fifth quartering : of Parliament. In Doctor Moore's 6. The nobility of his paternal View of the Causes and Consequences grandmother's mother, and her of the French Revolution, vol. i. c. 6, father ; this entitles him to a the reader will see the difference be

sixth quartering : tween French and English nobility 7. The nobility of his maternal clearly pointed out.

grandfather's mother, and her 5. On the Continent, several ec father; this entitles him to a clesiastical, civil, and military prefer seventh quartering: ments, were open only to the nobility, 8. The nobility of his maternal and it was therefore required of the grandmother's mother, and her Postulant of them, that he should father; this entitles him to an prove the nobility of his paternal and eighth quartering : July 1812.


9. The nobility of his paternal XIV. their grandson, had its window.

grandfather's paternal grandmo. But the provinces abounded with ther; this entitles him to a ninth families from whom Knights of Malta, quartering :

and even canons of Strasburgh might 10. The nobility of his paternal be chosen.

grandfather's maternal grandmo Most of the sovereign families of ther ; this entitles him to a tenth Europe affect to trace their origin to a quartering :

very ancient period : but probably 11. The nobility of his paternal the families of Venice, who elected

grandmother's paternal grandmo- the Doge in 697, and, from that cirther; this entitles him to an cumstance are called the electoral eleventh quartering :

families, produce a pedigree supported 12. The nobility of his paternal by certain and positive evidence, of

grandmother's maternal grand- more remote antiquity than any sovemother ; this entitles him to a reign, or, perhaps any private family. twelfth quartering;

The certain pedigrees of the Houses 13. The nobility of his maternal of Guelph, Savoy, Lorraine, Hohen

grandfather's paternal grandmo- zollern and Baden, reach to the elether; this entitles him to a thir- venth century ; but the pedigree, teenth quartering:

equally certain, of the house of Capet 14. The nobility of his maternal extends to the ninth. The difficulty

grandfather's maternal grandmo- of tracing pedigrees beyond the ther; this entitles him to a four twelfth arises from the want of sur. teenth quartering :

names. Before that time, the greatest 15. The nobility of his maternal princes, in their public acts, men

grandmother's paternal grand- tioned only their Christian names, mother; this entitles him to a and sometimes their dignities; in the fifteenth quartering :

twelfth century, they began to mention 16. The nobility of his maternal the place of their residence. To the

grandmother's maternal grand- same period, in consequence of the mother; this entitles hiin to a Crusades, coat-armour is to be traced. sixteenth quartering,

It originated in the marks, or signs, To be a Knight of Malta, four by which the heads of the crusaders quarterings were required from a distinguished their vassals; these, they French, and eight from a German, or preserved after their return to Europe, Spanish, postulant : for a canonicate and they became general. The Fleursof the cathedral church of Strasburgh, de-lys on the crown and mantle of sixteen were required. It being fre- the kings of France are not traced quently found convenient to repair a beyond Lewis the seventh, or 1146. shattered patrimony, by a mercantile (See Blondel, Genealogie de France, or financial marriage, few French tom. 2, p. 163.) In antiquity and families about the court could produce illustrations, the Irish, Scottish. and

When all the quarter- English families, are, at least, on a ings were perfect, it was said, that level with whatever is most distinthe House was Full; a defective guished on the continent, and their quartering was called a Window. legislative character confers on the On account of the non-noble descent Peers of the Imperial Parliament of of Mary of Medicis, the wife of the United Empire, a dignity peculiar Henry IV. the Escutcheon of Lewis to themselves.


Documents, exhibiting a View of the cation has received from the contri

Proceedings which have taken place butions of this very learned and inge-
relative to the Election of the Rev. nious person.
Alex. MURRAY, as Professor of In consequence of the recent and
HEBREW and ORIENTAL LANGUA- lamented death of the Reverend Dr
GES, in the University of Edinburgh. Moodie, a vacancy took place in the

Hebrew chair of the University. I will readily

be allowed, that no- The duties attached to this office are thing can contribute more to the very important, not only as they miadvantage of this city, as well as to nister to an important branch of clethe general glory of Scotland, than rical instruction, and afford a founany arrangement which tends to sup- dation for the important science of port and extend that high reputation biblical criticism, but also because which its University has attained.- practice has attached to them the iniAmong the very important accessions tiation into the languages of the East, which this seminary has recently made, of those numerous young men of disthe present holds a conspicuous place. tinction, who go out from this counFew institutions, indeed, as is fully try to fill stations in the government proved by the testimonies of the most of our Indian possessions. While the eminent literary men in this country, situation was thus highly creditable bave received into their bosom a more and desirable, the competition for it distinguished, and a more illustrious was narrowed by the very rare qualimember. This consideration, we fications which it demanded. Those trust, will alone justify us in devot- who started on the present occasion ing, for this month, a very large pro- were four in number: the Rev. Alex. portion of our pages to develope the Murray, the Rev. David Dickson, steps which led to so desirable an the Rev. Alex. Brunton, and the Rev. event. Besides its general importance, David Scott, however, there are accompanying de- We shall now present our readers tails which render it peculiarly in- with a copy of the applications for, teresting. Many of the most distin- and recommendations given to each guished characters in this metropolis of these candidates; documents which have found an opportunity of mani. will contain within themselves a comfesting their zeal in the cause of un- plete view of the history of the transfriended science, and the highest ho- action. We shall begin with those nour has been reflected on the Pa- in favour of Mr Murray; and certrons of the University, by the course tainly never were testimonies more which they have followed. They copious and unequivocal delivered in have shewn a fixed determination to support of any candidate. These, prefer the most deserving candidate, too, so far as we can observe, are in opposition to all personal connec- counterbalanced only by one single tion and solicitation, even when se- objection, arising from the opinion conded by no inconsiderable share of so decidedly expressed by Dr Ritchie, merit. The continuance of such a that the Professor of Hebrew ought system cannot fail still farther to en- always to be one of the ministers of large the fame of that seminary which this city. The learned Doctor has they have already rendered so emi- not assigned his reasons for this opinent. Nor can we omit, among the nion ; yet, considering the highly motives which have induced us to be- respectable quarter from which it stow so large a share of our attention comes, we trust it will not be overupon this subject, to mention the looked. Nor can the Magistrates very ample support which our public experience any difficulty in acting


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