in gratifying a favourite passion, and mon Sanscrit ; Rajâ is Rex, pita is I am now happy in being able to father, and so on in innumerable identify the languages of the Edda instances. If such similarities were and the Vedas. It will amuse you properly arranged, it would be easy to hear that Oeda in Islandic and to retain the meaning of words, and Veda in Sanskrit, are not only in the if the similarities in grammar were main the same word, but that they joined to these, a leash of languages, are actually the same as our own as it is called in Hudibras, might be term Wit, or wita, which, as you learned at once. know, in old times signified knowledge. "I coincide entirely with you in By means of the Sanskrit I have de. thinking that the arrival of MSS. tected the ancient form of many from India is likely to continue, and Persic words, and the history of the to produce much benefit. Britain several parts of the verb. I have now possesses, either publicly or priascertained the identity of the Sar- vately, a large stock of Persic and matee and Slavi, and traced their Arabic, and a considerable number affinity with the Medes ; of course, I of Sanscrit works. But I fear the have made the tour of Asia and Eu- oldset and best Sanscrit books are rope, and I hope with some advantage still left to moulder in the recesses to a study which is rather too much of the decayed seats of Indian learndespised, but which occupies a con- ing, at Methella, Varanasi (Benares,) siderable portion of the time of every and elsewhere. The Bramins are man who reads foreign or ancient ignorant, suspicious, and idle. We books.

are not very forward in exciting their “ As all the European and Indian industry. languages are of one race, it were to “ You recollect how nearly the be wished that these properties of book of the law had perished in the similarity in words and structure, Jewish temple, and I am informed that are common to them all, could that hardly a Bramin can be found be collected and arranged, with a who knows any thing of the Vedas. view to facilitate the study of them. At present, the curious in Oriental I recollect to have discerned the literature ought to unite their efforts affinity between the Greek and Teu- towards obtaining a Sanskrita dictonic in 1797, while at college ; and tionary, for, until that be procured, in 1805 I was quite delighted with all must be dark on the European the discovery that the Greek middle side. There are many good native and passive voices' resembled the Vi- vocabularies already in this country, sigothic verb, and that they were in in the possession of individuals. fact reflective verbs like the French, “ The Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Je me leve, tu te leve, il se perd, hé Arabic, and Abyssinian, form an inloses himself, or he is lost; so tupt- teresting knot of dialects which are om-ai, tupt-es-ai, tupt-et-ai, I, thou, far too little studied in this part of he, strikes self ; ai is self. The pro- the island. I have a distant intention nouns om, es, et, are 1, thou, he, as of investigating their properties at in leg-am, as,-at, in Latin. Would some future period, especially if the you believe it, that Ganga, the name work now in hand meet with any of a river in Sanskrit, is the very kind of success. I do not expect same word as our Scotish gang, å

that it will be popular among any going, a race, run of water ; null-race, except those who prosecute classical, mill-lade, and mill-gang, are nearly Oriental, or Northern Literature. If the same in Scotish. Gā, go, and it gain a suitable reputation among gati, a gate, a movement, are com- these, it will compensate for the July 1812.


trouble of the author, and the expense to our times, was spoken in the days of publication,

of Abraham ; or if the authority of I should like to perform for religion Moses be disputed, as to former ages, and morality, those important guides at least in his own times. Moou-si of life, the same services, however is water-drawn, that is, drawn from feeble, in which I have been engaged the river: The town which the Hefor the literature of the West." brew slaves built for their tyrant

sovereign, was Pi-thóm the fortificaNo. IX.

tion; the district where they lived Sheet of Rev. Alex. Murray's Work*, was Enjé sem, or, as it is written by now in the Press.

the LXX., Gesēm “ the grass," or The chronology of the world, so

land of grass, the region where the far as it is to be ascertained by history,

king's cattle pastured. depends on the writings of Moses, by of all the Arabian tribes in that pe

The language of the Cuslites, and descent a Chaldean, born and edu. cated in Egypt, a man destined to be ninsula, was what has been called the legislator of his race, and the in- Hebrew, Assyrian, Arabian, or Abysstrument of Providence in promoting dialects by nations so called. It is

sinjan, from being used in different the greatest and best interests of mankind. His birth must be placed reader who aims at precision in these

not related to the Egyptian. The 1611 years before Christ; he lived

ancient matters, must distinguish 120 years. The chronology found in his writings has been corrupted by the Red Sea, or in the countries adja

several races of men on the coasts of those who copied or translated the

cent to it. text. He was intimately acquainted

1. The Assyrians, Chaldeans, Jews, with Egypt; and his notices of that country remount three or four cen

Phænicians, including all the Ca

naanitish tribes, the Arab tribes of turies beyond his own time. He was no stranger to the solar year of 12 of Ishmael, and Lot, and the descen

the north, including the descendants months of thirty days ; and though dants of Cush and Joctan, partly in he does not mention the Egyptian addition of five days to each of three the north and chiefly in the south years, and of six to each fourth year, of Arabs, from Hamyar or Sheba,

near the Indian Ocean. The colony it seems to be implied. The era of

who settled about Axum; were of the Egyptian astronomy, in so far as

Beni Joctan; the Geez dialect, or relates to the solar year, is therefore

written Abyssinian, is their tongue. very ancient. Moses reckons the

All these nations now enumerated period of the deluge according to the

were one race. Their colour was Egyptian solar year. By his own

red and swarthy; their features reappointment, the Jews used lunar months and years, and deserted the guilar; and their hair not woolly, but

black and lank. Egyptian accuracy. He relates that the king of Egypt was called Pharaoh

2. The Copts, said by Moses to be

the sons of Mesraim, which is an (Pha-ouro) “ the king,” (which was pronounced Pha--rô) in the days of Arabic, not a native name, and signiAbraham. Thus the Coptic, or that Lower Egypt

. Lower Egypt was

fies the two Messirs, viz. Upper and language which has been transmitted called by the natives Chemi, low

ground, and Upper Egypt, Ma-rês Composed for his third edition of Bruce's the part of the south, or Pa-tho-rês Travels, and not, as said by mistake in No. 1. for his Philosophical History of the Euro- (Pathros, a name used by. Moses,) pean Languages.

the region of the south, or upper


country. The ancient Egyptians Souaken, and in the south of Atbara, were a short, ill-shaped, thick and and seem to be the people called copper-coloured, or red division of the Taka, or Taka Hallanga. They species ; less beautiful than the Arab have a peculiar language, not of Ararace, more robust and fit for labour; bic descent, nor probably Coptic. their language little resembles any They are not black, but tawny, or that has been transmitted toour times; red. they founded Thebes before the dawn 5. The native black Africans, calof history; they were civilized and led in Abyssinia Shankala, Begla, divided into casts, at least 2000 years and Belowé, at Sennaar Fungi and before Christ; they appear to have Shilook, above Sennaar Nûba, and at had a religion fully formed, and even the head of the White River Ferteet verging into a more corrupted state and Donga. They are jet black, in the days of Joseph. Among their strong masie, woolly-haired and thick tenets were the eternity of the Supreme lipped. They are the aborigines of Spirit, the immortality of the soul, that part of Africa, and possibly the the resurrection of the body, a future parents of all that singular species of state of rewards and punishments, men. This race was called Cushites, along with very accurate sentiments or Ethiopians, by the Hebrews and as to morals. They had a considera- Syrians. These blacks have been bly clear notion of the solar system, driven into the mountains by the and of some other parts of science. Arabs, in many places, especially near Their efforts in the arts, particularly Darfoor, which is an Arab principaliin architecture, were great, and made ty. They have experienced a like at the expense of enslaving the com fate on the Niger, at Tombuctoo and munity. They were at one period in that vicinity, where the Arabic distinguished for military enterprise, tribes have also penetrated. The and founded colonies in Colchos and black nations of the Mandinga and in Ethiopia. But it is a common er Yalofe name, are probably of this ror, to suppose, that the body of Cop- race. The language of the Abystic soldiers that deserted their king sinian and the other negro nations, is at Assouan and removed into Nubia, in a manner totally unknown, so that were the fathers of the Abyssinians. the unity, as a race, of those widely

3. The people called Berber, or in extended tribes, has its probable, but antient times Lybians. These inha- uncertain proof, in their physical apbited the country from Egypt to pearance.

Yet the Hindeos are Morocco, and are still found in Fez- black, though not woolly-haired; and zan, Siwah, and in the habitable parts we are certain that they and the of the great desert between the Niger African negroes are not of the same and Barbary. Their language is not stock. Arabic, nor is it Coptic, though per 6. Around the lake of Dembea, haps it bears some afinity to the lat- and in many parts of Habbesh, there ter. This is the people called Lěhâ- is an original race that are not black, bim by Moses, and Lybians by the but copper-coloured, who are the Greeks. They are the aborigines of aborigines of that district, or at least the north of Africa.

were its inhabitants before it was pos4. The people originally along the sessed by the Axâmite Arabs. They western shores of the Red Sea, called were once independent in Dembea by the Greeks Troglodytes, by the and Samen. They speak a peculiar Hebrews Suchiim. They lived on language, of which a specimen is fish and dwelt in caves. Their po- given in Vol. VIII, of this work.sterity are at present found about They were converted to the Jewish

but are

faith before the time of Christianity, so absurdly taken for certain, that all and most of them refused the latter languages have a radical resemblance religion. They are called by the in terms. Abyssinians Falasha or dissenters, This process, applied to the Coptic persons who have declined to embrace and Arabic, or Hebrew, gives a reChristianity, and have retired from sult which declares, that the Arabs, those who profess it.

or Assyrians, and the Egyptians, are 7. Another original race, as ap

not of the same race. And that the pears by their language, are the ordinary reader, if he choose, may Agows. They were settled in their satisfy himself on a subject which has present territory at the head of the been considered, with far too little Abawi, in the time of the emperor attention, by the most erudite in. Justin. How long they had occupied quirers, I shall subjoin three translathat district before his time is un- tions of a well-known form of prayer, known. Their language is peculiar and make some remarks on the prin. to themselves. They are divided cipal words. The first specimen is into the Agows of Lasta and of Sac- Hebrew, the dialect of Moses and cala. They are not negroes,

Job; the version is modern, but as to of a coarse, tawny, red colour. words it is unexceptionable. The

8. The Galla, who but lately second is Geez, or Axumite, made emerged from the heart of Africa, soon after the year 330, in Habbesh; and came by the coast, or from Adel and as the Arabic of the north is into Abyssinia. They speak a pe- known only by a few poems, not culiar language, are very numerous, much older than 550, this dialect of and are not negroes.

Hamyar and Habesh deserves a preThe above enumeration shews the ference to it. The third is probably extreme impropriety of confounding of the second century; it is in the races naturally different, and allied language of the Pharaolis, which may in nothing except vicinity. Most of be traced in Egypt from the age of these races were nomadic, or in the Abraham. shepherd state; many of them remain

Hebrew, in it, and yet they have no affinity to one another. The sole means of Abinû asher be-shameim, obtaining a rational knowledge of the Father our who in the bearens, approximation of these races, and in- yikkaddesh shmeca ; Tabô deed of the early history of mankind, let be hallowed name thine let come are :


yehî ressônca 1. To obtain adequate specimens kingdom thine, let be pleasure thine of the languages, and particularly ki-be-shameim û bâréss. of those spoken by the tribes in moun- as in heavens also in earth. tainous and insulated regions.

Et lahménû temidénû tén 2. To compare these specimens with The bread our to day our give languages already known, or with one lanû hai-yôm. Wa-azôb lanů et another, and to examine the gram- to us this day and remit to us the matical structure, as well as single mashâôt eynû ca-asher gem nahne terms,


as that also we 3. To fix by these inquiries the ozebeim lannôshéull wa-al proximate or remote affinity, and so remitting to debtors ours and not determine how many races have ex- tebiénû lemassah ki-im tassilénî isted in any continent, how many bring us to trial but also free us varieties appear of each race, and me-raá, whether it be true, which has been from evil.



Not us




save us


Pe-n-oik ente rasdi meïf-nan

The our bread of the day give us Abûna za-be-samaiyat,

em-phô-ou ouoh chanéeteron nan Father our who in heayens

to day and give debts our to us yetakaddasa

semeca; temussé let be sanctified name thy let come

èbol emphredì ho entén-cho-ebol up

in manner as we give up mengesteca ; wa-yecûn fekadeca kingdom thy and let be

will thy

néetouon ente-nerôcu Emperenten

debtors of to them bekema be-samâi kemahu be-midreni.

ahoun è pirasmos, alla nahmen in heaven in earth also,

lead into temptation but free us Sisayane za-leia-eletna hebna

ebolhen pi-pethôou : Meat of each day our

give us

from the evil *. yûme Wa-haduglena abessâna to day And remit to us

sins ours wagégâyâna kema nahnani

Except a slight resemblance in

the and transgressions ours

pronouns, which is not greater we also

between Coptic and Hebrew than nuhdug

le za-abasa,

between Coptic and some other lanWe remit

to who has sinned. i-tabana

the affinity of these two anwasta mensût

guages, Not make come us

into trial

cient tongues is not perceptible. alla aduhenena wa-bâlhena

Their grammar is totally different,

Hebrew and Arabic verbs and nouns but

and deliver us

follow a similar method. The Copem.coulu ecûi. from all ill.

tic pụrsues one which is simple

enough, but peculiar to itself. It The affinity between these dialects uses compounds, which is not the ge

nius of the Arabic or Hebrew. The appears in many of the principal demonstrative articles are phi, phe, words, but particularly in the gram- pi or pha for masculines, and ti, ta, matical structure and the inflections, the or te for feminines singular;

ne In fact the Hebrew, Arabic, and

or ni is prefixed to plurals. The Geez, are one language, which pos

sense of these words is 56 the :" when sesses a great variety of dialects and the sense is partial or restricted to opulence of terms; and these leading dialects bear to one another the very quai one is used. So pha-ourô the

one or to some, on a contraction of same relation which German or Dutch bears to English or Swedish. All king; ni-ourô the kings, but ou-ouro the words belong to the common

a king. As in all original languages, original, but they are varied by pro- ticles, demonstratives, and relatives :

so in Coptic, the same words are arnunciation, and restricted to different Pi-rô mi the man, phai pi-rôni this shades of meaning in each dialect.

Thai is this, feminine : phe is The Coptic.

who, masc. singular, and né is who,

plural. Nouns are often preceded · Peniðt et ben ni-phéới

by The our Father who in the heavens

mareftûbo endge pe-c-ran let it be hallowed that the thy name

Some of the version given above is


bably not so accurate as might be wished, raresi endje te-c metouro

as I have not a dictionary nor other assistlet it come that the thy kingdom; anee at hand. I crave the indulgence that Petehnâc marefshôpi em-phredí is sometimes granted to those who are the will thy let it be done in manner willing to do that service under obvious

disadvantages, which others ought to pernemhi djen pi-câhi.

form that are gurrounded by every oppor. in the heaven also on the earth. tunity.


hen etphê

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