ページの画像
PDF
ePub

formation is given in the course of Gotfell Jokul, the country again as it respecting the domestic and rural sumed the character of desolation, economy of Iceland. We were much though not so entire as that observed pleased with the extracts from a re. in their former journey. The surgister kept by the clergyman of a face was covered with lava, and many village called Saurbar, and with the little hills formed by that substance ; minute and beneficent inspection clearly proving that this region is which it exhibits into all the con- also volcanic. Caves were also oba cers and interests of his parishioners, served, exhibiting columnar appear We are then conducted to Indreholm; ances on a great scale. Two of the the residence of Mr Stephenson, party ascended nearly to the summit chief justice, and apparently the most of the mountain, higher than any of important personage in the island. the natives had ever ventured; and a Here, therefore, our travellers had an very interesting account is given by opportunity of observing the highest Mr Bright of the obstacles which style of society, free from any fo- they here met and surmounted. reign mixture. It certainly differs The most remarkable object which considerably from our standard, par. they observed on their return to ticularly in one respect. The ladies Reikiavik, consisted in the hot of the family, instead of sitting down springs in the valley of Reikholt. to dinner, waited and acted as sér. The third excursion embraced obvants ; the mistress of the house, in- jects the most celebrated and most deed, did not join in the executive interesting of all; the Great Geyser part, but merely stood and observed. and Mount Hekla. On their way, In other respects, however, they our travellers visited Thingvalla, a seem to have behaved on a footing place celebrated in the ancient history of equality. There is no mention of Iceland. On the shores of its of any hired servants kepe in the lake was held the Allthing, or general house of Mr Stephenson, though a assembly of Iceland ; and Thingvalla man of considerable property.

continued, till within these ten years, Mr Stephenson appears to be the to be the seat of the courts of justice. most zealous in the cultivation of lin At that time, they were transferred terature of any person now in Ice. to Reikiavik, and scarcely any thing land. He has a library of 700 or now remains to mark the former 800 volumes ; he is at the head of greatness of Thingvalla. Our travel. the first literary society, and has the lers next proceeded to Skalholt, management of the only printing which has been erroneously supposed press in the island. Unfortunately, to be the capital of Iceland. It is however, for the benefits to be de beautifully situated, but not of such rived from this latter circumstance, magnitude as to deserve to be called. he is himself an author, and very vo- a town. luminous ; he entertains, moreover, About sixteen miles from Skalholt, a higher opinion of his own works lie the Geysers, whither Sir George than of those produced by any other immediately proceeded.

He soon of his countrymen. The consequence witnessed an eruption of the Great is, that the latter can with great dif- Geyser,a description of which our readficulty find access to this only chan- ers will no doubt be anxious to peruse. nel by which their writings could “ I returned to the Geyser in ore become known.

der to collect specimens of the incrusAs our travellers approached the tations on the mount. I selected a Age mass close to the water on the the whole structure of the external brink of the bason, and had not part of this wonderful apparatus.com struck many blowo with my bammer, ''The perpendicular depth of the ba. when I heard a sound like the distant son is three feet ; that of the pipe bedischarge of a piece of ordnance, and ing somewhat more than sixty feet, the ground shook under me. The though there may be some inaccessound was repeated irregularly and sible hollows which extend to a much rapidly; and I had just given the a- greater depth." larm to my companions, when the Sir George saw another eruption ; water, after hearing several times, and several of the New Geyser, which . suddenly rose in a large column, ac threw its waters to the height even of companied by clouds of steam, from 70 feet. Scarcely less wonderful than the middle of the bason, to the height the action of these springsare the effects of ten or twelve feet. The column produced by their petrifying power, scemed as if it burst, and sinking some of which are thus described. down, it produced a wave which * We were occupied this morning caused the water to overlow the ba. ia examining the covirons of the soa in considerable quantity. The Geysers; and at every step received water having reached my feet, I was some new gratification. Following uader the necessity of retreating, but the channel which has been formed I kept my eye dixed on what was go- by the water escaping from the great ing on. After the first propulsion, bason during the eruptions, we found the water was thrown up again to the some beautiful and delicate petriface height of about fifteen feet. There rions. The leaves of birch and wilwas now a succession of jets to the low were seen converted into white sumber of eighteen, none of which stone, and in the most perfect state appeared to me to exceed fifty feet of preservation ; every minute fibre in height; they lasted about five being entire. Grass and rushes were minutes. Though the wind blew in the same state, and also masses of strongly, yet the clouds of vapour peat. In order to preserve specimens were so dense, that after the first two so rare and elegant, we brougkt away jets, I could only see the highest large masses, and broke them af part of the spray, and some of it that ter

our return to Britain ; by which was occasionally chrown out sideways. means we have formed very rich colAfter the last jet, which was the most lections; though many tine specifarious, the water suddenly left the mens were destroyed in carrying them bason, and sunk into a pipe in the to Reikiavik. On the outside of the centre. The heat of the bottom of the mount of the Geyser, the depositions, basoa soon made it dry, and the wind owing to the splashing of the water, Hiew aside the vapour almost imme. are rough, and have been justly comdiately after the spouting ceasca.-- pared to the heads of cauliflowers. We lost no time in entering the ba- They are of a yellowish brown coson to examine the pipe, into which lour, and are arranged round the the water had sunk about ten feet, mount somewhat like a circular flight and appeared to be rising slowly. The of steps. The inside of the bason is diameter of the pipe, or rather pit, is comparatively smooth; and the mate ten feet, but near the top it widens ter forming it is more compact and to sixteen feet. The section, which dense than the exterior crust ; and is taken across the longest diameter when polished, is not devoid of beauthe bason, gives a distincs idea of ty, being of a grey colour, mottled

up

with black and white spots and streaks. a region, the desolation of which can The white incrustation formed by the scarcely be paralleled. Fantastic water of the beautiful cavity before groups of hills, craters, and lava, lead. described, had taken a very curious ing the eye to distant snow.crowned form at the edge of the water, very Jokuls ; the mist rising from a wamuch resembling the capital of a Go- terfall; lakes embosomed among bare thic column. We were so rapacious bleak mountains ; an awful profound here, that I believe we did not leaye silence ; lowering clouds; marks all, a single specimen which we could around of the furious action of the reach ; and even scalded our fingers most destructive of elements ; all in our eagerness to obtain them. We combined to impreşs the soul with found the process of petrifaction in sensations of dread and wonder.-all its stages ; and procured some spe- The longer we contemplated this cimens in which the grass was yet scene, horrible as it was, the more alive and fresh, while the deposition unable we were to turn our eyes from of the silicious matter was going it ; and a considerable time elapsed oa around it. These were found before we could bring ourselves to in places at a little distance from attend to the business which tempted the cavity, where the water running us to enter so frightful a district of from it had become cold."

the country. Our discovery of obOne object only now remained to sidian afforded us very great pleasure, be explored ; but that the most cele. which can only be understood by brated which Iceland presented. From zealous geologists; and we traversed the Geysers, our travellers proceeded an immense and rugged mass of that towards Mount Hekla, and ascended curious substance, with a high degree its highest pinnacle. The phenome- of satisfaction ; though various cirna, however, which presented them- cumstances prevented our tracing it selves, were not of so striking a na so fully as we wished.” ture as we might have been led to The volcanic celebrity of Mount expect. The most important occur- Hekla seems to have considerably ex. rence was, the discovery of a large cceded its just pretensions. The emass of obsidian, in a situation throw- ruptions, which have desolated Ice. ing great light upon the origin of land, are not confined to any one spot. that substance. This discovery was Bencath its whole surface, subterramost grateful; for it had been neous fire seems to rage, and to break one of the chief objects which indu- out at every opening. The great ced Sir George to undertake bis pre. number of apertures which' this elesent journey. There is something ment has forined for itself, prevents very striking in the description of the the discharge at any one point from scenery which surrounds this spot. being very considerable. The fol

“On ascending one of the abrupt lowing is a list given of the number pinnacles which rose out of this ex and local situation of the recorded etraordinary mass of rock, we beheld ruptions. From Hekla, since the year 1004, inclusive .

22
From Kattlagiau Jokul 900,

7
From Krabla
1724,

4
In different parts of the
Guldbringe Syssel 1000,

3
1583,

2 From the lake Grimsvatn, in 1716,

1 From

At sea

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

After descending from Hekla, our however, to which this article has travellers returned to Reikiavik, and reached, our limits merely allow us to soon sailed for Scotland.

indicate the valuable information conThe narrative of the journey being tained in these chapters. The apthus finished, several chapters' treat pendix is also valuable, and presents in succession on the character and oc a view of thediseases of Iceland ; the cupations of the inhabitants ; their li. Flora of that island ; a list of its miterature, their government, laws, and perals ; a meteorological journal; and constitution, the botany and zoology several other miscellaneous articles of of Iceland, and at considerable length, information. on its mineralogy. After the extent,

New Works Published in Edinburgh. A so

BREEFE Memoriall of the fac simile of Lekpreuik's edition, Spottiswood, Bishop of Clogher in is known. Ireland, and of the Labyrinth of Troubles he fell into in that kingdom,

Some account of an ancient Maand the manner of the unhappy acci- nuscript of Martial's Epigrams ; ildent which brought such troubles lustrated by an engraving and oc

casional anecdotes of the Manners upon him. Published from a manuscript in the Auchinleck Library. Dalyell, Esq. Octavo, price 158.

of the Romans. By John Graham Very neatly printed, in small quarto, boards. price 1(s. 6d. sewed. of this interesting historical have been printed, of which six are

w of this tract only 30 copies memoir a very limited number of

in vellum. copies have been printed.

Heir followeth the Coppie of the
Ressoning which was betwixt the Literary Intelligence.
Abbote of Crosraguell and John
Knox, in Mayboill, concerning the WORK will

very speedily be sand five hundred thre score and at the present moment, to prove two yeires.- Imprinted, at Edin- highly interesting. It is entitled, burgh, by Robert Lekpreiuk, and “ A view of the political state of are to be sold at his house, at the Scotland, at Michaelmas 1811." It Netherbow. Cum priuilegio, 1563. will comprehend the rolls of FreeReprinted, 1812: Black Letter, from holders at that period, with a state types cast on purpose at private of the votes at the last election for expence. Small quarto, price 12s. each county; an abstract of the seved.

setts for the royal burghs; with The above very curious work the names of the delegates from is printed from the orginal copy in the burghs, and a state of the votes the Library at Auchinleck; it is a at the last election for each district.

Țhere

a

There will be prefixed an account tain and Ireland.” Mr Bell is well of the forms of procedure, at elec- known as the author of several elations for the counties and burghs borate and highly esteemed works ; of Scotland.

66 Treatise on forms of Deeds" ; The late Mr Walter Nichol, so “ Dictionary of the Law of Scotadvantageously known by his pub- land,” &c. lications of the Gardeners Kales A new edition of the three vodar" " the Villa Garden Directory,” lumes already published, of Mr &c. has left a posthumous work Jameson's celebrated and extenwhich will speedily make its appear- sive“ System of Mineralogy," will ance. It is entitled the Planter's speedily make its appearance. They Kalender ; or, the Nurseryman and are in octavo, and contain numeForester's Guide, in the operations rous plates, illustrative of the vaof the Nursery, the Forest, and the rious crystallizations that occur Grove. It has been edited and in the mineral kingdom; of the completed by Mr Edward Sang, structure of the earth ; and of the Nurseryman. The Kalendar will form of the organic remains which be preceded by observations on the it contains. proper situations and soils for a Mr Patrick Neill, Secretary to the Nursery; on the situations and soils Wernerian Society, has completed fit for forest and grove plantations; the translation of a valuable Me on situations for woods and copses; moir by J. F. Daubuisson, member on the kinds of trees to be cultivat- of the National Institute, upon the ed in forests, groves, and woods, in Basalt rocks of Saxony, accompanithe park, and in hedge-rows; and ed by observations upon the origin on the value of timber, and the ad- of Basaltic rocks in general. vantages to be derived from plant- · Mr MacNeil will publish early ing. It will then exhibit the man next month a novel, in two volumes, ner of raising all kinds of forest entitled “ the Scottish Adventurtrees and hedge-plants from seeds ; ers.” His object is to illustrate nursing and preparing them for the good and bad effects of two planting out; the preparation of opposite modes of education. the ground in the forest, the grove,

Dr Brewster has in the press, and and the park, intended for plant will speedily publish, in one volume ing; the manner of fencing these 8vo. illustrated by numerous plates, plantations; and the culture of a treatise containing the theory, iences in general; the mehods of description, and method of using planting, pruning, thinning, and a variety of new philosophical inotherwise cultivating your plan- struments, for various purposes in tations ; the manner of thinning the arts and siences, viz. Astronomy, and reclaiming neglected planta- Opties, Chemistry, Mineralogy, tions; and the method of forming Geology, Natural History, Meteoronew, and of cultivating old woods logy, and Surveying, and for vaand copses ; so as to form a com- rious Military and Naval purposesa plete assistant to the operative and The views of France relative to patriotic planter.

England, have lately been developRobert Bell

, Esq. who has been ed in a pamphlet of M. de Montappointed Lecturer on Conveyanc- gaillard, a member of the French ing by the Society of Writers to the government, and published under Signet, will speedily publish a the auspices of the Emperor. A * Commentary on the

election laws, copy has reached London, and a as they relate to the Parliament of translation will appear in a few days. the United Kingdom of Great Bri

Poetry,

« 前へ次へ »