« 前へ次へ »
EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
For AUGUST 1812.
Description of ELIE HOUSE. compaign along with Sir John Moore,
and enjoyed a large share of the conELIE House, the seat of Sir Johnfidence of that officer. He died, not
Anstruther, Bart, is situated im- in the field, but in consequence of mediately north of the village of Elie, fatigues endured in the active perforin the county of Fife. The village
mance of his duty during that disasand grounds compose a neck of land trous retreat. which projects into the Firth of Forth, and, with a corresponding advance on the opposite side, narrows the channel to the breadth of only nine miles, Report of the National Vaccine Estabafter which it rapidly widens, till it lishment : dated 9th March 1812. joins the German Ocean. The house
Ordered by the House of Commons to be is a modern, elegant mansion, built
printed, 9th July 1812. about sixty years ago, and stands in a fine situation. Sir John is proprietor To the Right Hon. Richard Ryder, of the whole parish of Elie. He has
Principal Secretary of State, Home taken very active steps for its iruprove
Department, &c.&&c. ment, and, about thirty years ago,
National Vaccine Establishment, enclosed the whole of it with stone
Leicester-square, March 9th 1812. dykes. He also lets houses and boats SIR, to eight families of fishermen, who THE Board of the National Vac
honour of reporting to you, that, duThe family of Anstruther has, for ma- ring the year 1811, the Surgeons apny centuries, had great estates in Fife- pointed by their authority to the nine shire, and has produced several men of Stations in London, have vaccinated talents, who have distinguished them- 3,148 persons, and have distributed selves both in legal departments and in 23,794 charges of Vaccine Lymph to military command. We may particu- the Public. The number vaccinated larly mention the late lamented Gen. this year rather exceeds that of the Anstruther, who served in the Spanish year 1810, and the demand for
Lymph has been often so great that it ber of deaths from the Small Pox is could not be immediately supplied. uniformly decreasing, in proportion 23
They have great satisfaction in Vaccination becomes more general, stating, that since the commencement and the inoculation of the Small Pox of this Establishment, not a single in- declines. stance of the ecoession of Small Pox, The disappearance of the Small after Vaccination, has occurred to any. Pox from the Island of Ceylon was of the vaccinating Surgeons of the noticed in the Report of last year; and nine stations,
the Board has now the pleasure of The Board report, that they have stating, from sources of authentic and been lately furnished with many satis- satisfactory information, that, in confactory official documents from the sequence of Vaccination, this dreadNaval and Military Departments of ful disease has in no instance lately Government, respecting the progress occurred in the island of Anglesey, in of Vaccination, and have likewise ob- the populous City of Newcastle-upontained some other authentic papers on Tyne, in the Town of Petworth, or the subject, containing much import in the adjoining district. ant information. They think it ex Through the different counties of pedient to lay before you a summary England, the practice of Vaccination of their contents.
is becoming general, and the Small It appears, that in consequence of Pox is gradually declining: and even an order from the Lords Commission in London, where the opposition to ers of the Admiralty, Vaccination has the new Inoculation has been most been practised in the Navy to a' great violent, it is prevailing, and its saluextent; and although it has not been tary effects are becoming daily more universally adopted, the mortality evident. At present, by the best es. from the Small Pox, among seamen, timate we are able to make, it appears is already greatly diminished. that nearly two-thirds of the children - In the Army, the practice of Vac- annually born in the Metropolis, are cination has been long established, by vaccinated, either by charitable insti. an order from the Commander in tutions or private practitioners; and Chief, and its effects have been decid- that the number of deaths by Small edly beneficial; for almost the only Pox has proportionably decreased.persons among the troops who have Previous to the discovery of Vaccilately been affected with Small Pox, nation, the average number of deaths have been either recruits, who had by Small Pox, within the Bills received the infection previous to of Mortality, was 2,000 annually, their enlistment, or soldiers who had whereas in the last year, only 751 not been vaccinated, on the supposi- persons have died of that disease, altion of their having had the variolous though the increase of population disease. Thus, with a few exceptions, within the last ten years has been a disorder formerly so fatal io the 133,139. The increase of population troops, is now considered as nearly throughout Great Britain, in the same extinguished in the Army.
period of time, has been 1,609,000; By information transmitted to the and to these augmentations the pracBoard from their numerous corres tice of Vaccination has probably much pondents in all parts of the country, contributed. it appears that Vaccination is almost
The Reports from the Cow Pock every where gaining ground, through- Institution in Dublin are of the most out the British Dominions, though its favourable nature, and furnish suffiprogress is very different in different cient reason to believe, that since the places; and it is found that the num introduction of the Vaccine preven
tive, the mortality from Small Pox tion, however, is very small, and we has considerably declined in that city. may fairly presume, that in proporThe correspondence of the Institu- tion as improvements are made in the tion affords satisfactory evidence of practice, such occurrences will be still the progressive increase of Vaccigation throughout Ireland. In most The Board have infinite satisfaction of the principal towns of that king, in stating the two following importdom, the poor have the advantage of ant and decisive facts in proof of the gratuitous inoculation with Cow Pox, efficacy and safety of Vaccination, either at the hospitals, or at the viz. that in the cases which have come houses of the Physicians; and it is to their knowledge, the Small Pox, stated, that among the higher ranks after Vaccination, with a very few Vaccination is universally adopted. exceptions, has been a mild disease ;
The accounts from Scotland, par- and that out of the many hundred ticularly those from the Faculty at thousand persons vaccinated, not a Glasgow, which have been transmit- single well-authenticated instance has ted to the Board, furnish evidence of been communicated to them, of the the general and rapid increase of occurrence of a fatal Small Pox after Vaccination in the northern part of Vaccination. the Island, and give the most satis- They cannot conclude their Report, factory proofs of the success and effi- without adverting to the mischiefs cacy of the practice.
which are daily arising from the difNotwithstanding the incontrover- fusion of the fatal contagion of Small tible evidence of the very great ad- Pox in the community, in consequence vantages of Vaccination, it is much of Variolous Inoculation, among the to be lamented that there are still lower classes of the people, which some Medical Practitioners, though constantly keeps up the contagion, the number of them is comparatively and where it saves a single life, exsmall, who obstinately persist in dis- poses numbers to a most dangerous seminating, by Inoculation, the con- disease. It is greatly to be wished tagion of the Small Pox, and who that this evil could be checked, by strenuously encourage and support, such measures as Government in its especially among the lower orders of wisdom might judge proper to frame, the people, the prejudices against the in order to prevent the spreading of new practice : rumours are industri- the Small Pox, and thus keeping up ously spread abroad, of deforming and a continual source of infection in the loathsome diseases produced by this heart of the Metropolis. practice; and numerous misstatements The constant renewal of the contaof cases are published, of the occur- gion of Small Pox in this Capital, rence of Small Pox after Vaccination. which they so deeply lament, is strikThat in some instances the Small Pox ingly contrasted with the advantages has affected persons who have been enjoyed by several of the other capimost carefully vaccinated, is suffi- tals of Europe, in consequence of the ciently established; nor ought we to universal adoption of Vaccination by be surprised at this, when we consi- Medical Practitioners, seconded by der that the Inoculation for the Small the authority of Government. The Pox sometimes fails, and that several cities of Vienna and Milan, in which cases may be produced, in which per- the mortality from Small Pox was sons have been
cted with the na- formerly more considerable in propor. tural disease more than once in the tion to their population than in Loncourse of life. The number of in- don, have been for some time freed stances of Small Pox after Vaccina- altogether from this destructive pest;
the first for five, and the latter for Aug. 12. The following rather eight years, according to the state. uncommon exotics are at present in ment of Drs De Carrio and Sacco: flower in the Royal Botanic Garden and in the city of Geneva, the Small here: Stachytarpheta mutabilis of Pox has been nearly extirpated. In the new Hortus Rewensis ; SphæroSwitzerland in general, but more par- lobium vimineum, a New Holland ticularly in Geneva, the extension of plant; and Menyanthes Indica, or the blessings connected with Vaccin- Indian Bogbean. The Hæmanthus ation has in a great degree depended puniceus, or Bloodflower, though more on the warm and active co-operation common, may also be mentioned, as of the Clergy, who were assiduous not often seen in fine state. in recommending the practice to their 20. A Short Sunfish (Tetrodon Parishioners from the pulpit, as well Mola of Linnæus) was taken in the as promoting it by every other exer- Frith a little way off the village of tion in their power. Impressed with Newhaven. It was swimming quietthe strongest conviction of the greatly along at the surface, when the advantage which Vaccination would crew of a fishing-boat observing it, derive from a similar co-operation in rowed after it, and easily secured it. this country, the Board formerly con- It was brought to Mr Wilson, Col. sidered it as a part of their duty to lege, and has been carefully preserv. address the Bishops, for the purpose ed. It exhibited no phosphorescence, of soliciting their assistance in check- and has now in a great measure lost ing the ravages of the Small Pox, by its silvery hue. It measures in rendering the benefits of the Vac- length, from the snout to the middle cine Inoculation more extensively of the caudal fin, 1 foot 6 inches ; in known.
depth, from the middle of the back The Board has great pleasure in to the middle of the belly, 1 foot; stating, that the Money granted by and from the tip of the dorsal to the Parliament during the last Session, extremity of the anal fin, 2 feet 2 has been sufficient to defray the ex
inches. The pectoral fins are very penses of the year 1811, and they are small. Both the upper and under of opinion, that the same sum will be mandible are bony and undivided. adequate to the expenditure of the Dr Turton, aware that this fish poscurrent year.
sesses more of the character of a Dio. By order of the Board,
don, and finding a Diodon Mola, a James Hervey,
tropical fish, already in the Systema Register.
Nature, has, in his British Fauna, constituted a new genus, under the title of Cephalus, from the striking resemblance which the whole sun
fish bears to the mere head of a large Monthly Memoranda in Natural His- fish; and the species here alluded to, tory:
is called Cephalus brevis. Two o
ther specimens have at different times, August. VEGETATION having of late years, been taken in the Frith
this season been greatly of Forth. They were both nearly retarded by the snow and frost of of the same dimensions with the one March and April, the
gener- above described ; and all of them al will be nearly a month later than had the appearance of animals arriusual. The general appearance at
ved at maturity. present, however, proinises at least HOOPOE. A Hoopoe (Upupa an average crop.
epops) was some time ago observed
fying about the island of Stronsa in Wallace, in his book published beOrkney. This beautiful and rare fore the close of the 17th century, as bird, particularly remarkable for its an occasional visitant of the Orkney fine crest of orange-coloured feathers Islands. Its English as well as its Latipped with black, did not fail to tin names are founded on its uncomdraw attention. It was chased se mon call, which resembles the sound veral times, especially about night- Opp, opp, opp. Mr Pennant, in fall, but escaped by flitting over the his Supplement to the Arctic Zoolnumerous hill-dikes, or mud-walls, ogy, mentions that it is not an unwhich separate the arable from the common bird in Sweden ; and that pasture lands. At last it was caught its call being thought similar to the alive by Mr Murray, farmer at Huip. Swedish alarm To arms, it is thence It lived in confinement for about a named Harfogel, or the Soldier-bird. week, feeding on worms and insects. Canonmills,
N. The Hoopoe is mentioned by Mr 28th Aug. 1812.
Statistical View of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA for the last twenty years. (From the second edition of " a View of the State of Parties in the United States of America.")
POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
747,610 886,149 965,079 340,120 586,050 959,920 434,373 502,515 810,163 378,787 422,845 472,010
96,540 151,719 228,705 393,751 478,105 563,626 249,073 345,591 414,935
73,677 | 220,959 406,511 319,728 349,692380,646 237,946 251,002 || 261,942
105,602 261,727 82,548 162,686 252,433 184,169 211,149 245,562
230,760 85,536 154,465 217,913 141,885 | 183,858 214,414 68,825 69,122
76,931 59,096 64,273
64,273 72,674 TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENTS.
76,556 8,850 40,352 5,641 24,520 14,093 24,023
20,845 12,282 4,762
Orleans,...... Mississipi, Indiana...... Columbia,.. Louisiana,... Illinois, Michigan,
Total, 5,303,661 7,238,421