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For OCTOBER 1812.

Description of the House of Lundin. be memorials of a battle fought with

the Danes near to this place. FEW families, in Fifeshire, can John Lamont, of wton, the pub

boast of a higher antiquity than lication of whose Chronicle of Fife has the Barons of Lundin. Robert of lately so much gratified and amused Lundin, son to King William, mar- the curious public, resided in this viried the heiress of this family, who cinity, was factor to the family of bore the same name. It appears by Lundin of Lundin, and has recorded a charter of King William, that the many interesting facts regarding it. monastery of Cambuskenneth belonged then to this branch of the family of Lundin. This place continued in Description of the Country from Smo. their possession for a long series of

LENSKO to Moscow. generations, but is now the proper

( By Mr Coxe.) ty of Sir William Erskine, Bart. of To-y.

SMOLENSKO, tho' by no means we house is situated near the the most magnificent, is by far the to n of Largo, in Fifeshire, and on mest singular town I have ever seen. the west bank of the rivulet of Largo. It is situated upon the river Dnieper, Only one wall of the ancient build and occupies two bills, and the valley ing remains, but the present proprie. which lies between them. It is surtor has attached to it a handsome new rounded by walls thirty feet high and edifice in the Gothic style of archi- fifteen thick, with the lower part of tecture.

stone, and the upper of brick: these The highway to the south of the walls, which follow the shape of the house presents a remarkable pheno- hills, and enclose a circumference of menon, called the “ Standing Stones seven versts *, have, at every angle, of Lundin;!' being three large frag- round or square towers of two or three ments, near to each other, and of an stories, much broader at top than at irregular form. There are remains bottom, and covered with circular of a fourth, which appears to have

roofs been of equal magnitude with the other three. Mr Maule supposed them to Four miles and three quarters.

roofs of wood. The intervals are sko and Mohilef; separates the Uk studded with smaller turreis: on the raine from Poland ; tiows by Riot, outside of the wall is a broad, deep and falls into the Black Sea between ditch, regular covered way, with tra Oichakof and Kinburn. By the acverses, glacis, &c. and where the quisition of the province of Mohilef, ground is highest, there are redoubts is whole course is now included with of earth according to the modern style in the Russian territories. It begins of fortification. In the middle of the to be navigable at a little distance atown is an eminence, upon which bove Smolensko, though in some seastands the cathedral; from whence I sons of the year it is so shallow near had a most picturesque vicw of the the town, that the goods must be town, interspersed within the circuit transported upon rafts and small fiatof the walls with gardens, groves, boulomed boats. copses, fields of pasture, and corn. August 25. (1779,) we quitted The buildings are mostly wooden, of Smolensko, crossed the Dnieper over one story (many of them no better a wooden bridge into the suburbs; than cottages) excepting here and there and pursued our journey for some a gentleman's house, which is called vay ihrough a valley of fine pasture a palace, and several churches, con watered by the Dnieper, spotted with structed o' brick and stuccoed. One underwood, and terminating on each long broad street, which is paved, side in genile eminences clothed with intersects the whole length of the town trees. As we advanced, the country in a straight line; the other streets became more abrupt and uneven, but generally wiod in circular directions, no where rose into any considerable and are Avored with planks. The hill. Near Slovoda, a large strag. walls, stretching over the uneven sides gling village, where we stopped for of the hills till they reach the banks a few hours during the darkness of of the Dnieper ; their antient style of the night, we again crossed the Dniearchitecture; their grotesque towers ; per upon a raft formed of trunks of the spires of churches shooting above trees tied together with cords, and the trees, which are so numerous as scarcely large enough to receive the almost to conceal the buildings from carriage, which sunk it some inches view ; the appearance of meadows and under water ; this machine was then arable ground: all these objects blen- pushed from the banks until it met ded together exhibit a scene of the another of the same kind, to which most singular and contrasted kind. the horses stepped with great difficul. On the furiher side of the Dnieper ty; and the distance of the two rafts are many straggling wooden houses, from each other was so considerable, that form the suburbs, and are joined that the carriage could scarcely be to the town by a wooden bridge. As prevented from slipping between them far as I could collect from vague in- and sinking into the river. formation, Smolensko contains about The second post from this primitive 4.000 inhabitants : it has no manu- ferry was Dogorobush, built upon a factures; but carries on some com- rising hill, and exhibiting, like Smomerce with the Ukraine, Dantzic, and lensko, though upon a smaller scale, Riga. The principal articles of its an intermixture of churches, houses, trade are flax, hemp, honey, wax, cottages, corn-fields, and meadores : hides, högs bristles, masts, planks, some of the houses, which had been and Siberian furs.

lately constructed at the Empress's exThe Dnieper rises in the forest of pence, were of brick covered with Volkonski, near the source of the stucco, and had the appearance of so Volga, about 100 miles from Smolen. many palaces when contrasted with the


weanness of the surrounding hovels. on the top whereof stands the town, This place was formerly a strong for- making a magnificent appearance, tress, and frequently besieged during with the doines and spires of several the wars between Russia and Poland: churches rising above the trees. the ramparts of the antient citadel still Viasma spreads, in a broken disjointed remain; from them we commanded an manner, over a large extent of ground: extensive view of the adjacent coun- its buildings are mostly of wood, a few try, consisting of a large plain water- houses of brick excepted, which had ed by the winding Dnieper, and lately been erected by the munificence bounded by distant hills. From of the Empress. Part of the principal Dogorobush we proceeded about 24 street is formed, like the Russian roads, miles to a small village called Zara- of the trunks of trees laid cross-ways, tesh; where we thought ourselves and part is boarded with planks, like very fortunate in being housed for the the floor of a room. It contains above night in a tolerable hut, which afford- twenty churches, a remarkable numed us, (a rare instance of accommoda- ber for a place but thinly inhabited. tion in these parts,) a room separate The churches in these small towns and from that used by the family. Our villages are chiefly ornamented with hostess was a true Asiatic figure : she a cupola and several domes : the outbad on a blue garment without sleeves, side walls are either white-washed or which descended to the ankles, and painted red; and the cupolas or domes was tied round the waist with a are generally green, or of a different red sash; she wore a white piece of colour from the other parts. At some linen wrapped round her head like a distance the number of spires and turban, ear-sings, and necklace of va- domes rising above the trees, which riegated beads; her shoes were fasten- conceal the contiguous hovels, would ed with blue strings, which were also lead a traveller unacquainted with the bound round the ankles, in order to country to expect a large city in a keep up the coarse linen wrappers place, where perhaps, upon nearer inthat served for stockings.

spection, he will only find a collection August 27. Our route, next morn of wooden huts. ing, froin Zaratesh to Viasma, lay At Viasma was concluded, in 1634, through a continuity of forest, occa the treaty of perpetual peace between sionally relieved by the intervention of Ladislaus IV. king of Poland, and pastures and corn-fields. When we Michael Feodorovitch: by this treaty reflected ihat we were in the 55th de- Michael confirmed the cession of Smogree of northern latitude, we were lensko, Severia, and Tchernichef, surprized at the forwardness of the which had been yielded to the Poles harvest; the wheat and barley were at the truce of Develina ; while Ladialready carried in, and the peasants slaus renounced the title of Tzar, and were employed in cutting the oats and acknowledged Michael as the righemillet. Since our departure from ful sovereign of Russia *. On this Smolensko the weather had proved casion both monarchs relinquished remarkably cold; and the wind had what they did not possess; and wisely the keenness of a November blast: sacrificed imaginary pretensions to the the

peasants were all clothed in their attainment of a substantial peace. sheep-skins, or winter dresses.

The Russian peasants appeared in At a small distance froin Viasma general a large, coarse, hardy race, and we passed the rivulet of the same of great bodily strength. Their dress name, navigable only for rafts, which is a round hat, or cap, with a very high descended its stream into the Dnieper:

crown, we then mounted a small eminence,

* Lengnich, Hist, Pol, P,



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