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crown, a coarse robe of drugget (or side. Most of these huts are, howin winter of a sheep-skin with the ever, only one story; a few of them wool turned inwards) reaching below contain two rooms, the generality only the knee, arid bound round the waist one. In some of this latter sort I was by a sash, trowsers of linen almost as frequently awakened by the chickens thick as sack-cloth, a woollen or Han- picking the grains of corn in the straw nel cloih wrapped round the leg in. upon v hich I lay, and more than or stead of stockings, sandals woven from by a less inoffensive animal. At strips of a pliant bark, and fastened by Tabluka, a village where we passed strings of the same materials, which the night of the 27th, a party of hogs are afterwards twined round the leg, gained admittance into the room at and serve as garters to the woollen or four in the morning, and roused me flannel wrappers. In warm weather by grunting close to my ear. Not the peasants frequently wear only a much pleased either with the earliness short coarse shirt and trowsers. of the visit, or the salutation of my

Their cottages are built in the visitors, I called out to my servant, same manner as those of Lithuania; “ Joseph, drive these gentry out of but larger, and somewhat better pro- “the room, and shut the door." vided with furniture and domestic “ There is no door that will shut," utensils: they are of a square shape; replied Joseph with great composure; formed of whole trees, piled upon we have tried every expedient one another, and secured at the four to fasten it without success; the corners where their extremities meet, hogs have more than once been ex. with mortises and tenons. The inter- “cluded, but have as often returned." stices between these piles are filled This conversation so effectually rouwith moss. Within, the timbers are sed me, that I determined to resign to smoothed with the axe, so as to form my unwelcome guests that litter which the appearance of wainscot; but with. I could no longer enjoy: I accordingout are left with the bark in their rudely raised myself from the straw; and state. The roofs are in the penthouse sitting down, contemplated, by the form, and generally composed of the light of a slip of deal, the scene around bark of trees or shingles, which are me. My two companions were sometimes covered with mould or turf. stretched upon the same parcel of

The peasants usually construct the straw from which I had just emerged; whole house solely with the assistance a little beyond them our servants ocof the hatchet, and cut the planks of cupied a separate beap ; at a small the floor with the same instrument, in distance, three Russians, with long many parts being unacquainted with beards, and coarse sackcloth shirts the use of the saw : they finish the and trowsers, lay extended upon their shell of the house and the roof before backs on the bare floor: on the oppothey begin to cut the windows and site side of the room three women in doors. The windows are openings of their clothes slumbered on a long a few inches square, closed with slid- bench; while the top of the stove af

. ing frames; and the doors are so low as forded a couch to a woman, dressed not to admit a middle-sized man with. like the others, and four sprawling out stooping. These cottages, some- children almost naked. times, though very rarely, consist of The furniture in these cottages contwo stories ; in which case tbe lower sists chiefly of a wooden table or dresapartment is a kind of store-room, &e. ser, and benches fastened to the sides and the upper is the babitable part of of the room: the utensils are platters, the house : the staircase is most com- bowls, spoons, &c, all made of wood, monly a kind of ladder on the out- with perhaps one large carthen pan,

in which the family cook their vic- preceded us, and provided our lodging tuals. The food of the peasants is and supper. I have little to say of black rye bread, sometimes white; Moshaisk; as we entered it at so late eggs, salt - fish, bacon, mushrooms : an hour, and departed the next morntheir favourite dish is a kind of hodge- ing by day-break. Wechanged horses podge made of salt or fresh meat, at the village of Selo-Naro, and arri. groats, rye flour, highly seasoned with ved early in the evering at Malo-àonions and garlic; which latter ingre- Viasnia, embosomed in the forest, dients are much used by the Russians, and pleasantly situated at the edge of

August 27. Near Viasma we en- a small lake. This place is distant tered the vast forest of Volkonski, only 24 miles from Moscow, where thro' which we continued for 150 miles we were impatient to arrive ; but we without interruption, almost to the prudently deferred our journey until gates of Moscow. This forest, which the next morning, as we did not chuse stretcheson all sides to an immense ex- to tempt fortune again by exposing tent, gives rise to the principal rivers ourselves a second time to dangers, in of European Russia, the Duna, the a dark night and in an unknown Dnieper, and the Volga. The sources country. of the Duna were at some distance The road for some way before we from our route ; but those of the Dnie. came to Malo-à-Viasma, and from per and the Volga rose at small in- thence to Moscow, was a broad, tervals from each other, not far from straight avenue, cut through the forest. Viasma. The country in this part The trees, which composed these was more than usual broken into hill vast plantations, set by the hand of and dale ; though still it exbibited Nature, were oaks, beech, mountainrather a succession of waving surface, ash, poplar, pines, and firs, mingled than any considerable elevations. together in the most wanton variety,

On the 28th we arrived at the vil. The different shades of green, and the lage of Gretkevat, owards the close of rich tints of the autumnal colours, the evening, and imprudently pro- were inexpressibly beautiful; while ceeded on our journey another stage of the sublime, but uniform expanse of eighteen miles : the evening set in ex. forest, was occasionally relieved by ceedingly dark, cold, and rainy; the recesses of pastures and corn-fields. road was uncommonly bad ; and we were in continual apprehensions of being overturned. The greatest danger, however, which we encountered, Monthly Memoranda in Natural Hiswas unknown to us until we arrived

tory. at the end of the station : we were then informed by our servants

, that October. DURING the whole month

the weather has been exwe had actually crossed a broad piece tremely variable. On the evening of of water upon a wooden bridge with the 19th there was a good deal of out railing, so infirm that it almost lightning. In the course of the next cracked under the carriage, and so nar- day, the mercury in the barometer row that one of the hindwheels was for fell as low as 28 m, lower than it has an instant absolutely suspended over been remarked for many years. the precipice beneath. Our usual There appears to have been a very good fortune brought us safe, between great tide in the surrounding ocean twelve and one, to a cottage at Mo- at this period; the effects of which shaisk, where we found an excellent were felt at Leith on the 21st and ragout of beef and onions prepared for 22d, when many cellars and houses us by the trusty servant, who always were inundated.

ORNITHOLOGY. Mr Bullock, pro- ly to visit these remote and stormy prietor of the splendid netv Museum rocks, the Great Seals (Phoca barbain Piccadilly, London, and who some ta) had enjoyed a five years jubilee, years ago exhibited his fine collection and were now very abundant. Nuin this city, has spent a considerable merous skeletons of this uncommon part of the past summer among the species of seal marked, at the entrance Orkney and Shetland islands, in quest to a cave, the scene of the annual of specimens of some of the rarer ani- slaughter practised in former times. mals, particularly birds, which inha. The sea-fowls were now in countless bit those remote islands, and the in- thousands, the whole surface of the sulated barren rocks or skerries con rock being covered with nests, and nected with them.

eggs or young. All the commor On the Mainland of Orkney, Mr species of gulls and auks were breedBullock discovered a non-descripting here. The Eider-duck was comspecies of Alauda or Lark, which in. mon, having maintained this as a habits the upper moorlands, such as favourite breeding place since the Wideford Hill near Kirkwall, along days of Buchanan, who gives a lively with the grous, in company with and elegant description * of its apwhich indeed it is generally observed. pearance and habits, under the name In Hoy island, remarkable for its of colk (colca); but the latinity of lofty and magnificent sea-cliffs, Mr which description is more to be adBullock was successful in procuring mired than its accuracy as a piece of specimens of all the four species of natural history. A great colony of Eagles that are known to be natives gannets, or Solan-geese, held undisof Great Britain. By the assistance turbed possession of the Stack of of the most active and expert rockmen, Suleskerry, a huge detached conical who are accustomed to climb the tre- rock, of great height. mendous precipices in search of the In North Ronaldshay, the most lyres or shearwaters, he procured the northerly of the Orkney Islands, Mr eggs and young of the Golden Eagle B. observed, in the month of August, (Falco chrysaëtos) and the White- the Great Owl(Strix bubo), the Kattailed Eagle (F. albicilla); and he ogle, or cat-bird of the Orcadians.got the full-grown Ring-tail (F. ful. One of this species was, about the vus), and Sea Eagle (F. ossifragus). same time, shot in Unst, the most north

His observations on the marine erly of the Shetlands, by Lawrence birds of Orkney confirm the remark Edmondstone, Esq., of that island. It of Professor Jameson, that the Uria seems not improbable, therefore, that minor of naturalists is merely the this bird sometimes breeds in the unyoung of the Uria troile; and he as- frequented hills of these islands. certained that the grey toist of the In Unst, Mr B. was fortunate Orcadians is only the young of the enough to shoot a Pratincole (Glablack toist, or Uria grylle, as had been reola Austriaca), being only the previously suspected.

second specimen we have ever heard He was lucky in catching, in the of in Great Britain. This bird is so early part of summer, favourable wea rare that it has not yet found a place ther for exploring the lonely islet of in any British list; it does not appear Suleskerry and its Stack, situated in in Col. Montagu's Ornithological the Atlantic Ocean, about 40 miles Dictionary, nor in Dr Turton's Briwestward from Hoy Head. On ac tish Fauna. count of the disasters which have of. Canonmills, 29th Oct. 1812. fen befallen the small open boats, in Tshich the hardy natives used annual.

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* Hist. lib. i. prope fin.


General View of the Finances of GREAT BRITAIN for the year 1811.

(From Papers laid before. Parliament.)

the year.

Heads of Revenue.

Gross receipt within

Rate percen-Net produce applitum for col-cable to national ob

lection. ljects. ORDINARY REVENUES. Permanent aud Annual Taxes.

d. £. $. d.

d. Customs

Great Britain 9,676,009 4 7 7 14 9 7,835,236 5 6 Excise

Ditto 20,617,266 8 0 3 6 11 (19,003,970 16 5 Stamps

Ditto 5,396,882 11 5 2 14 3 5,291,224 9 101 Land and assessed taxes

Ditto 7,399,442 1 3 17 1 7,280,919 4 81 Post-office

Ditto 1,709,869 1 9 21 12 2 1,478,505 3 10 ls in the £.1, on pensions and salaries

Ditto 19,288 7 21 1 4 11 26,201 4 111) 6d. in the 2.1, on pensions and salaries

Ditto 17,650 8 8 1 1 8 21,480 6 63 Hackney coaches

30,909 0 0

10 3 7 28,076 9 1! Hawkers and pedlars

23,282 18 11 10 5 5 21,240 16 7

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5 0 4 40,986,860 16 1041

9,570 10 9 5,357 12 11] 26,044 6 109)

595 4 11 85,858 12 081


2,633,919 0 10 6,484,964 1973) 13,437,649 19 89

14,336 5 011

281,386 80

2,752,796 11 10


permanent and annual duties £. 44,890,600 1991 Smal Branches of the Hereditary Revenue. Alienation fines

8,571 10 0 Post fines

2,032 5 0 Seizures

26,044 6 101 Compositions and proffers

595 4 11 Crown lands

82,507 16 23

Great Britain 3,013,723 2 4

Ditto 6,543,953 1 0

Ditto 13,220,355 4 5
Arrears of income duty, &c.

14,541 961
Lottery, net profit (of which one-third part|
is for the service of Ireland)

304,000.00 Monies paid on account of the interest of

loans raised for the service of Ireland 2,752,796 11 10 On account of the commissioners appoint

ed by act 35, GEO. III. cap. 127, and 37, GEO. III. cap. 27, for issuing exchequer bills for Grenada, &c.

31,000 0 0 Surplus fees of regulated public offices 73,324 17 112 Surplus revenue of the Isle of Man

1,596 08 On account of the interest, &c. of a loan granted to the Prince Regent of Portu

57,170, 30 Imprest money repaid by sundry public

accountants, &c. including interest 40,301 973 Other monies paid to the public

50,476 0 9 Total, independent of loans £. 71,113,588 6 0 Loans paid into the exchequer (of which the sum of £.4,500,000 is for the service

-16,636,375 39

31,000 0 0 73,324 17 1131 1,595 0 8

57,170 3 0

40,301 973 50,476 0 9

66,973,208 1 5

of Ireland)

16,636,375 3 9

Grand total

£. 87,749,963 99

83,609,583 5



October 1812.


the year.

IRELAND. An account of the ordinary revenue and extraordinary resources, constituting the public income

of Ireland; for the year ended the 5th of January 1812; distinguishing, under each head do revenue--the amount of the gross receipt—the rate per centum for collecting the same tinguishing, also, the amount of the net produce. Heads of Revenue.

Rate per Net produce appu Gross receipt within

centum, for cable to national

collection. jects. £.

d. Customs

2,420,425 17 91 17 5 9]) 1,999,313 6 8 Excise

2,244,661 1 2 14 8 252,515,783 1 94 Stamps

743,619 2 19 6 4 113 829,218 2 51 Post office

205,265 19 5 53 12 83 111,2017 11 Poundage fees

25,370 14 21

25,370 14 21 Pells fees

5,074 2 11

5,074 2 1: Casualties

2,926 19 31

2,926 19 31


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Total ordinary revenue

£. 5,647,343 16 1
Gain by exchange on sums received from
Great Britain

4,041 09

52,219 8 0

3,337 138

112,937 10 0

2,872 6 ?

4,041 0 9 From the commissioners of the navy on ac

count of advances made by several collectors in Ireland, for seamen's wages, &c.

52,219 8011 From the paymaster-general on account

of advances made by several collectors in Ireland for half-pay to reduced officers, officers' widows, &c. on the British establishment

3,337 13 33 From Great Britain, being one-third of the profit on the lotteries of 1810

112,937 10 0 From several county treasurers, per the

receiver-general, on-account of fines levied on parishes for deficiencies in their proportion of men for the militia

2,872 6 21 From several county treasurers, per the

receiver-general, on account of advances made by the treasury for improving post roads

14,913 4 98 From the treasurer of the county of Cavan,

paid to the collector of Cavan on account of advances made by the treasury for byilding a new gaol in said county

916 13 9 From Great Britain in part of £.4,500,000

British, for the public service in Ireland, pursuant to 51, GEO. III. c. 49

2,780,353 0 10 Other monies paid to the public


JECTS. Linen manufacture

88 18 2 Improvement of Dublin

10,216 15 10 Rep.:irs of the Royal Exchange and Commercial Buildings

1,843 17 6 Lagan navigation

5,624 10 4 Inns of Court

1,391 0 0 Light-houses

18,262.18 5

14,913 4 9

916 13 9

2,780,353 0 10

8,876 12 10!

1894 10,266 172

2,236 0 2 4,224 11 91 1,391 00 18,262 16 5

8,505,925 19 37

Totals, independent of the loans · £. 8,665,239 6 101 Loans paid into the Exchequer in the year ended the 5th January 1812

3,127,246 6 6

3,127,246 6 61

Grand Total,

£. 11,792,485 13 43

(11,638,172 5 10


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