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am sure you will alter a paragraph, must be to, Sir, your most grateful against which it is the duty of the and obedient humble servant, family to exclaim. Dear as my Fa.

Hor. WALPOLE, ther's memory is to my soul, I can never subscribe to the position that MR WALPOLE TO MR GOUGH. he was unrewarded by the House of

Strawberry Hill, Aug 24. 1789. Hanover. I have the honour to be,

“ I shall heartily lament with you, Sir, with great respect and gratitude, Sir, the demolition of those beautiful

Your most obliged and obedient humble servant,

chapels at Salisbury. I was scanda. Hor. WALPOLE. “ P.S. I did not take the liberty which they were indecently suffered

lized long ago at the ruinous state in of retaining your Essay, Sir; but

to remain. It appears as strange, should be very happy to have a copy that, when a spirit of restoration and of it at your leisure.”

decoration has taken place, it should be mixed with barbarous innovation.

As much as taste has improved, I do MR WALPOLE TO GOVERNOR POWXALL.

not believe that modern execution Berkeley-square, Nov. 7. 1783.

will equal our models. I am sorry You must allow me, Sir, to re- that I can only regret, not prevent. peat my thanks for the second copy I do not know the Bishop of Salisof your tract on my Father, and for bury even by sight, and certainly your great condescension in altering have no credit to obstruct any of his the two passages to which I presumed plans. Should I get sight of Mr to object; and which are not only Wyatt, which it is not easy to do, I more consonant to exactness; but, I will remonstrate against the intended hope, no disparagement to the piece. alteration ; but probably without suco To me they are quite satisfactory. cess, as I do not suppose he has auAnd it is a comfort' to me too, that thority enough to interpose effectual. what I begged to have changed was ly-Still I will try. It is an old not any reflection prejudicial to his complaint with me, Sir, that, when memory ; but, in the first point, a families are extinct, Chapters take parallel not entirely similar in cir- the freedom of removing antient mocumstances; and, in the other, a sort numents, and even of selling over of censure on others to which I could again the site of such tombs. A nnt subscribe. With all my venera- scandalous, nay, dishonest abuse, and tion for my Father's memory, I should very unbecoming Clergymen! Is it not remonstrate against just censure creditable for Divines to traffick for on him. Happily, to do justice to consecrated ground, and which the him, most iniquitous calumnies ought Church had already sold ?-I do not to be removed; and then there would wonder that magnificent monuments remain virtues and merits enough, far are out of fashion, when they are to outweigh human errors, from which treated so disrespectfully. You, Sir

, the best of men, like him, cannot be alone have placed several out of the exempt. Let his enemies, age and reach of such a kind of simoniacal his friends, be compared with him- abuse ; for, to buy into the Church, or and then justice would be done! to sell the Church's land twice over, Your Essay, Sir, will, I hope, some breathes a similar kind of spirittime or other, clear the way to his Perhaps, as the subscription indicates vindication. It points out the true taste, if some of the Subscribers could way of examining his character ; and be persuaded to object to the remois itself, as far as it goes, unanswera- val of the two beautiful Chapels, as ble, As such, what an obligation it contrary to their view of beautify.

11

ing, it might have good effect; or, if "the inhabitants being chiefly emsome letter were published in the pa- "ployed in that sort of manufactory." pers against the destruction, as bar. It is ceriain, however, that the manubarous, and the result of bad taste, it factures of Paisley, which consisted might divert the design. I zealously at that time chiefly of Bengals, in wish it were stopped--but I know imitation of striped muslins, and none of the Chapter or Subscribers. coarse linen checks, were very limiI have the honour to be, with great ted; for we find that, more than thirty regard, Sir, Your much obliged and years after this period, there were only most obedient, &c.

867 looms employed, and the whole Hor. WALPOLE. value of their manufactures, though

far more elegant fabrics had been introduced, only amounted to £.15,000.

At this time the kinds of goods manuGeneral View of the Progress and factured were checkered linen hand.

present State of the Manufactures kerchiefs, some of them fine and beauai PAISLLY.

tifully variegated, by the manner in

which the colours were disposed; which (From Wilson's Viero of the Agriculture of were succeeded by goods of a lighter Renfrewshire.)

texture, such as lawns, some of them THE chief manufactures of Ren- plain, and others striped or checkered

frewshire have been carried on at with cotton, and others spotted or Paisley and its environs, and in the figured, according to the taste or fannumerous villages connected with this cy of the artist. The weaving of populous town. It was erected into linen gauze was also carried on to a burgh of barony, in favour of George considerable extent. About this peShaw abbot of Paisley and his succes- riod the manufacturers, or merchants sors, by James IV. in the year 1488, connected with them, resorted occaand a charter was granted to its ma- sionally to England for the sale of gistrates by the abbot in 1490 : and their goods, particularly to fairs, such the possessions of the abbey having as are still held at Chester for the sale been erected into a temporal Lordship, of Irish linens and Welsh flannel, &c. that charter was confirmed to the ma- The extent of manufacture of these gistrates in 1658 by the Lord of different kinds of goods about the erection, who disponed to them the middle of last century, seems to have superiority and common lands, all been about 600,000 yards, and the which grants were in the year 1665 value about £.40,000. By the good confirmed by a charter from the crown. taste of the manufacturers, and the The magistrates have therefore every ingenuity of the weavers in this disprivilege of a royal borough, except- trict, fabrics from the loom were still ing representation in parliament. farther varied and improved, so that Crawford describes it in 1710, as con- the manufacture of linen goods of sisting of only one principal street, these descriptions gradually increased, about half a mile in length, with sever- till at last, between the years 1778 al other lanes, and it is probable the and 1786, there were manufactured anpopulation did not then exceed 1500 nually from a million and a half to souls. With regard to manufactures, two millions of yards, the values his words are, " That which renders of which were, from £.90,000 to " this place considerable, is its trade £.165,000. From that time this ma* of linen and muslin, where there is nufacture, being superseded by cotton “ a great weekly sale in its markets goods, as shall be afterwards explained, • of those sorts of cloth; many of constantly declined, till at length it is

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now nearly extinct. The rise and It is the duty of the stamp-masters fall of this manufacture will be best appointed by the board, to give an illustrated by a few extracts from the annual account of all linen goods accounis transmitted annually by the stamped by them; and the following stamp-inasters, to the board of truse table exhibits the quantities in differtees at Edinburgh, for the encourage- ent years, with their total value. ment of manufacturcs in Scotland.

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From this table, and from a farther into Britain ; that numbers settled in examination of the stamp.masters' London, and established the manubooks, it appears, that this branch of facture of silk goods in Spittalfields. manufacture was at its greatest height Soon after the middle of the last cenduring the years from Nov. 1781 to tury, when the traders in Paisley had Nov. 1784; the number of looms being increased their small capitals, they ocabove 2000, and the value of the casionally went to London, where the goods manufactured in those three light fabrics or fancy lawns were venyears, £.465,003 25: 4d., average ded, and directed their skill and in£.155,001 Os. 9d. per annum. genuity to the imitation of the silk

Silk gauze manufacture. It is well gauzes of Spittalfields, The first atknown, that at the revocation of the tempts were in the year 1759; and, edict of Nantz, in 1685, about half a in consequence of the taste and indusmillion of most useful and industrious try of the merchants, and the talents subjects having emigrated from France, of the workmen, their success was introduced many arts and manufactures complete ; and the result was, that ele

gant and richly ornamented silk gauThe particulars relative to the manu.

zes were manufactured in great varicfactures of Paisley, as stated by the Rev. ty, so as to surpass any thing of the Dr Snodgrass in the Statistical Account, same kind which had been produced. were communicated by a gentlemen of that The success of the manufacture town; who published a full aceount in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1787, and in the

brought several companies from LonScots Magazine for 1806, of the state of don to Paisley ; and a general mourmanufactures at Paisley at different periods. ing taking place in 1760, when the

by the

use of Indian muslins was adopted by “ had its origin in this parish in 1696 people of fashion, the thread gauzes

“ 1697. The person supposed to of Paisley being no longer in demand," have been bewitched, or tormented punibers of weavers were of course

agency of evil spirits, or of thrown idie. The consequent reduc

" those who were in compact with tion in the rate of labour, induced them, was Christian Shaw *, daugkother English companies to settle in “ ter of John Shaw of Bargarran, then Paisley; and in less than twenty years “ about eleven years of age. A short it became the distinguishing manu- " account of this trial may be seen in facture of that place: the traders who " Arnot's collection of criminal trials, were engaged in it had their weavers " Three men and four women were employed in every town and village " condemned to death as guilty of the of Renfrewshire, and in the villages of “crime of witchcraft, and were exethe neighbouring counties to the dis- “ cuted at Paisley. This may furnish tance of twenty miles: they not only ample matter of speculation to those had warehouses in London and Dub. “ whose object it is to trace the prolin, but employed persons in the city gress and variation of manners and of Paris and other great towns on the " opinions among men. The subse. continent for selling their goods. In quent history of this lady is, howthe year 1781, there were about twen. "ever, more interesting to the politity houses in Paisley engaged in the “cal enquirer. silk gauze manufacture, of which

“ Having acquired a remarkable number about one third was from Lon. dexterity in spinning fine yarn, she don. They employed 5000 looms, “conceived the idea of manufacturing and produced yearly £.850,000 worth « it into thread. Her first attempts of silk goods. T'he manufacture of “ in this way were necessarily on a ribbons and of some other silk fabrics “ small scale. She executed almost was introduced in 1772, and was for every part of the process with her some time carried on to a considera- own hands, and bleached her mabis extent. It is now, however, al- “ terials on a large slate placed in one 200 t wholly relinquished; and there are “ of the windows of the house. She ac pescuit liut above a dozen of looms

sueceeded, however, so well in these caployed in the manufacture of silk

essays as to have sufficient encou. souls of any description. The intro

Tagement to go on, and to take the Kuction of cotton spinning and the “ assistance of her younger sisters and Saring of muslins, directed the at- " neighbours. The then lady Blanention of our traders to new schemes

tyre carried a parcel of her thread of industry, and put an end to the “ to Bath, and disposed of it advantamanufacture of silk

geously to sore manufacturers of were no longer fashionable.

lace, and this was probably the first Before entering upon the cotton 66 thread made in Scotland thai had manufacture, it may

be

66 crossed the Tweed. About this notice of another branch of earlier

6 time a person who was connected commencement which has been long“ with the family, happening to be in successfully prosecuted in Paisley, “Holland, found means to learn the namely, the manufacture of thread; “ secrets of the thread manufacture, the origin of which is given by the 66 which was then carried on to great Rev. Dr Young in the Statistical Ac- “ extent in that country, particularly count of the parish of Erskine. He " the art of sorting or numbering the observes, that “ One of the last trials for witch

Afterwards married to the Rev. Mr “ craft which happened in Scotland, Mller, minister of Kilmaurs in Ayrshire.

" threads

gauzes, which

proper to take

" threads of different sizes, and pack there are about the same number of “ing them up for sale, and the con machines for twining thread; but “struction and management of the they are of better mechanism, and the

twisting and twining machine, business is in every respect so ably " This knowledge he communicated conducted, that this manufacture is

on his return to his friends in Bar considerably extended. The quantity

garran, and by means of it they were of linen yarn made into thread may “ enabled to conduct their manufac be about 350,000 spindles yearly; “ ture with more regularity and to a the annual value of the thread itself

greater extent. The young women may be about £.100,000; and the “ in the neighbourhood were taught number of persons employed about " to spin fine yarn, twining mills were 1500, exclusive of those employed in “ erected, correspondences were esta- spinning yarn, which is carried on at « blished, and a profitable business a distance from town, or in other parts “ was carried on. Bargarran thread of the kingdom, or brought from Ire“ became extensively known, and, be- land. The kind of thread chiefly

ing ascertained by a stamp, bore a manufactured is white thread, known

good price. From the instructions to the merchants by the name of oudce “ of the family of Bargarran, a few or nuns thread, being different from

families in the neighbourhood en the coloured kinds made at Dundee “ gaged in the same business and con and Aberdeen. Besides this, there “ tinued it for a number of years. It are considerable quantities of heddle

was not to be expected, however, twine prepared, not only to serve the " that a manufacture of that kind weavers in Paisley and Glasgow, but " could be confined to so small a dis. also in Coventry and Spittalfields: strict, or would be allowed to remaiu and small quantities of thread, in imi“ in só few hands for a great length tation of the manufacture of Lisle in 6 of time. The secrets of the busi French Flanders, are also made at this “ness were gradually divulged by town. Some of this kind, which has “ apprentices and assistants. Tra. been produced in Paisley, and made

ders in Paisley availed themselves of Scots yarn, is worth about ten “ of these communications, and laid guineas per pound. The trade is re“ the foundation of the well established gulated by an act of parliament pas" and extensive manufacture of thread, sed in 1788, which determines the " which has ever since been carried length of the reel and the number of on in that town."

threads in each hank: an important Such was the commencement of this and salutary regulation for the conmanufacture. With regard to its pro- sumer, because it prevents frauds, and gress, it is said, that when first intro enables him to understand with preduced at Paisley in 1722, and for cision the kind and qualities of thread some years afterwards, the value of offered for sale: a statute which might, Thread manufactured did not exceed with great propriety, be extended to £.1000 per annum: but it gradually every species of thread. This act advanced, so that in the year 1744 does noi extend to Ireland; where there were ninety-three mills for twist considerable manufactures of thread ing or twining thread. In the year are now carried on under no legisla. 1781 they increased in the town and tive regulation. In consequence of suburbs to 132; and in 1791 there this, the number of threads in their were 137, which brought to market hanks has been from time to time rethreads to the value of £.60,000 year- duced, so that they begin to supplant ly, and gave employment to many in the British manufacturer, (who pays dustrious families. In ordinary times

a duty of 10 per cent on all threads

exported

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