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exported to Ireland) both at home Richard Arkwright had invented his and in the foreign market. This trade mechanism for carding and spinning is at present (1812) so very greatly cotton, the traders in this part of Scoldeclined at Paisley, that there are not land directed their attention to the ten thread mills fully employed. The cotton manufacture, which has now restraints on all commercial pursuits, become, by far, the greatest and most arising from the circumstances of Eu- extended branch of business in this rope, materially affect this branch of county. Accordingly, aboat thirty business. The stagnation is partly years ago, a number of mills, with owing to the introduction of cotton powerful machinery for spinning cotthread, and partly to the manufacture ton, were erected on the various rivers of ounce thread being much prosecu- and streams of Renfrewshire. The ted in Glasgow and Aberdeen, and in earliest of these was upon the water different parts of Ireland : it is boped, of Levern, at Barrhead, in the parish however, it will soon regain its usual of Neilston, where a small building, importance. Within these few years 78 feet long and 28 wide, was comthe manufacture of cotton thread has pleted and filled with spinning mabeen carried on to considerable ex- chinery, in the year 1780. Soon af. tent. It is called wire thread'; is pre- terwards, a similar mill, on a more ex. pared by machinery of the most ap- tended plan, was erected at Busby on proved construction; the extent is the river White-Cart, in the parish of equal to the produce of about thirty Mearns; and in the year 1782, a large mills, fully occupied in making ounce mill of six stories, 112 feet long and thread; affords employment to about 31 feet wide, was erected at Johnstone, 120 persons, exclusive of the cotton on the river Black-Cart, in the parish spinners, and it meets with an exten- of Paisley, which was the first extensive sale in many parts of the king- sive establishment of that nature in dom.

Renfrewshire. In less than twenty The extent of the linen thread ma- years, a number of mills of the same nufacture in all its branches for the kind, and of different dimensions, whole of Scotland in 1784, and its na- were erected on the banks of all the tional importance, is accurately given principal streams of this county; so in the communication already men- that, on the Levern, White Cart, tioned, and coincides nearly with the Black Cart, Calder, and Gryfe, there results of the inquiries made by Mr are now nineteen large cotton-mills, Arbuthnot, secretary to the trustees and several of less extent, on the smalfor the encouragement of arts and ler streams. Besides these there are manufactures. The author computes in Paisley, Johnstone, and Pollockthat there are employed for twining shaws, many large structures for the ounce thread 200 machines, and for same manufacture, the machinery of coloured, and other threads, 300 ma- which is driven by powerful steam chines: that the quantity of linen engines, on Bolton and Watts' conyarn used for these manufactures is, struction : so that the whole number 1,080,000 spindles, which, when made of cotton mills in Renfrewshire, of into thread, may

be valued at every size and of every description, £.220,000: and that this manufacture, exclusive of those which are filling in all the various operations, from the with looms, or are unoccupied, may spinning of the flax to the finishing at present be about forty-one. The of the thread, employs upwards of introduction of this manufacture, and 20,000 women, besides 4000 or 5000 the capital employed in it, have pro

duced a great addition to the popuCotton Spinning.--Soon after Sir lation of the county, and a vast con

sumpt

men.

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sumpt of cotton, from the British co- The time of attendance, is from 6 lonies, and from North and South o'clock in the morning till 7 or Sin America. From careful and accurate the evening; and, after deducting the calculations it appears, that the cot- intervals allowed for breakfast and ton mills in Renfrewshire, at present dinner, the hours of actual labour are contain 237,000 spindles for spinning eleven. yarn known in commerce by the name In order to show the rapid increase of mule-yarn, and 28,500 spindles for and prodigious amount of the cotton water twist; that they work into cot. manufactures of this island, Dr Aitton yarn at least 3,860,000 lbs. of cot. ken, in his history of Manchester, has ton wool annually; give employment given some extracts from a pampblet to 932 men, 2419 women, and 1792 published in 1788, the purpose of children ; and bring to market cotton which was to warn the nation of the yarn to the amount of £.630,000.- bad consequences which would result The capital employed in this branch from the rivalry of the East India of business within this county is pro- cotton goods, which then began to be bably not less than £.300,000, vested poured into the markets in increased in buildings and machinery. The quantities, and at diminished prices. kinds of yarn spun are seldom of the The author of that pamphlet asserts, finest quality, the value at present be. that, not above twenty years before ing commonly about 45. per pound. the time of his writing, the whole The consumpt of cotton wool at the cotton trade of Great Britain die niet spinning mills, in this and the neigh. return £.200,000 a-year to the coun. bouring county of Lanark, is now of try for the raw materials, combined such extent, as to have produced a with the labour of the people ; but at great change on the trade of Clyde; the time he wrote, although there the industry of our manufacturers at were only 114 water mills in Eng. bome giving a new direction to our land and nineteen in Scotland, yet the foreign traffic.—The following state- gross return from the raw materials ment of the imports of cotton into and labour exceeded seven millions Clyde at different periods, illustrate sterling. He estimates that those this.

establishments, when in full work, bags. lbs. give employment to 110,000 persons;

that in all the subsequent stages of the

137,160 were imported

manufacture, the number employed In 1790......... 6,509 = 1,757,504 is estimated at 240,000; making an And the a

aggregate of 350,000 persons: and the verage of

quantity of raw material applied to the 31,364 = 8,468,832* different branches of the manufacture from 1804

he computes at 22,600,000 lbs. But to 1810.

since the year 1788, the cotton manuof persons employed in

facture has increased in, at least, a cotton spinning are ;

three or four fold ratio ; the quantity

of cotton manufactured being probabMen from .........16 to 24

ly 80,000,000 lbs. the number of perweek,

per Women from...... 6 to 8

sons employed in all the branches, Children from..... 3 to 5

about one million, and the gross value

of the goods made above £.20,000,000. • Mr Chalmers states that the cotton wool imported into Scotland during "1755 was

(To be concluded in our nert) 105,831 lbs. and in 1800 – 13,204,225 Ibas. See Caledonia, vol. ii. p. 42.

Ac.

In 1775 there? 508 =

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six years

The wages

SIR,

last. I am,

Sir,

Account of the Progress made in clear- der of Augustus, in consequence of a ing the Ruins of ROME. vow made by him during a storm of

thunder, from which he escaped unTO THE EDITOR.

hurt, appears now in all its majesty,

and is disengaged entirely from the IT may be interesting to some of rubbish, which concealed a great part

your readers, who in their early of it from inspection. Much skill in days have visited Rome with a view the architectural conductors of this to contemplate and examine the re- undertaking has been exhibited in recmains of its ancient grandeur, to know tifying the position of three columns what progress has been made in clear- remaining in this Temple, in the coning out the foundations of the vener struction of a new entablature, and able ruins of Rome, in consequence of replacing the architrave on these cothe Imperial decree of the 17th of lumns. July 1811, relating to that noble un The Temple of Antoninus and dertaking; and I have, therefore, sent Faustina, on the antient Via Sacra, you a translation of the statement gi- has been cleared out to the paveven by the learned Monsieur Millin ment. on this subject in his Encyclopedick The Temple of Peace, built in the Magazine for the month of March reign of the Emperor Vespasian, has

been completely disencumbered of

earth and ruins, and cleared to its oYour obedient humble Servant, riginal foundations.

ALBANICUS.

The Piazzas of the Colyseum have

been cleared out. The Piazza del Popolo will be The magnificent surbase of the soon disencumbered from the old con Temple of Fortune, at present called vent and houses which blocked up Santa Maria d'Egizzia, is entirely that noble approach to the city, displayed. and there is proposed to be a grand The elegant little Temple of Vespromenade for the public all along ta-of Hercules Victor, and of the the walls on the left bank of the Ti- Sun, which is on the left bank of the ber, by Mount Pincio and the Villa Tiber, at the foot of Mount AvenMedicis, and to terminate at the ave- tine, is entirely disengaged from rubnue of the Trinità del Montè. bish and adjoining buildings, and

The Roman Forum, the Garden displays its twenty fluted columns of of the Capitol, the Colyseum, the the Corinthian order of white marble. Mount Palatine, the Circus Maximus, The workmen are employed in the Temples of Vesta and of Virilis clearing out the chambers of the reFortuna, and the Temple of Janus, are mains of Titus's Baths on the Esquilall of them disencumbered.

line Mount, where some ancient paintThe Temple of Concord adjoining ings have been discovered, worthy of to the Capitol, to which the Roman the fine age of Trajan. Senate was wont to adjourn from the The pulling down and removing Capitol, and which having been acci- the two convents of the Spirito Sancdentally destroyed by fire was rebuilt, to and Santa Eufemia, and various as appears by the inscription which buildings and inclosures adjacent, remains on the architrave of the front opens to view more perfectly the noof the building, has been fully disen- ble pillar of Trajan, with its interestcumbered from rubbish. The re- ing pedestal, and the hi torical basso mains of the Temple of Jupiter the relievos of the Dacian War. Thunderer, which was ereeted by or. The buildings adjacent to the VaOctober 1812.

tican

tican and the Fountain of Trevi, and “the public, if the charity of wellthose encumbering the Pantheon, “ disposed persons were not intercepthave been also removed; and, as up- " ed by some common strollers, who wards of two thousand workmen are are most importunate, and who least employed at Rome in this manner, we

" deserve it !"
may expect, in the course of another Of all the modes of giving charity,
year, to see a great deal accomplished the least advantageous, undoubtedly, is
towards the satisfaction of those who that of bestowing it upon common beg.
shall hereafter visit the ancient Me. gars. No examination can here take
tropolis of the Roman Empire. place into the merits or wants of the

applicant; but the presumption is
strong against his deserving relief,

since he would, in that case, have Account of an Institution about to be been entitled to legal provision from

formed in EDINBURGH, for the re- the parish to which he belongs.lief of the Poor, the detection of Im. Such an exhibition, besides, implies a postors, and the suppression of com- total absence of that honourable pride mon begging.

which is usually attendant on habits

of honest industry. To banish beggars Among all the schemes for maintaining the from our streets has therefore, proper.

poor of the City, the least weight has been laid upon that single point which is of ly, been a leading object in the rethe greatest importance; I mean that of cent systems of police. To effect Keeping foreign beggars from swarming this laudable purpose, however, in a hither out of every part of the Country; sweeping manner, and without any for, until this be brought to pass effectu. examination, might involve persons ally, all our wise reasonings and proceedings upon them will be vain and ridicu: who are really necessitous : some lous. Swift, v. 12. p. 277. might be ignorant where to apply for

relief; others might find it difficult NO circumstance is more honour- to transport themselves to the place,

able to the present age, than the and to produce due evidence of their numerous institutions for relieving claim. The humane passenger, theredistress of almost every description. fore, would still have the feeling, that Scarcely is a class of sufferers pointed the object soliciting his bounty may out, than funds sufficient are imme- be in real distress. A remedy can ondiately provided. Extreme care, ly be found in some arrangement, by however, ought to be taken, that which these different persons may these ample supplies should be judici- have their wants and claims investiously employed, and bestowed only gated, and may be transmitted and upon deserving objects. If a strict recommended to the quarters where scrutiny is not made, such funds, in- they would be entitled to relief. We stead of relieving want, will serve are happy to state, that such an instionly to support the worthless in idle. tution is immediately to be formed ness and vice.

in this city, under the most respect. “ It is true, indeed, that sometimes able auspices, and as we have been " honest endeavouring men are redu- favoured with the following report of “ced to extreme want, even to the a committee, appointed by the Com" begging of alms, by losses, by acci- missioners of Police, in which the na“ dents, by diseases, and old age, ture and objects of this institution are « without any fault of their own : so fully and so well explained, we 6 but these are very few in compa- conceive that no apology can be ne * rison of the other ; nor would their cessary for presenting it at length to " support be any sensible burden to

our readers,

Report

1

Report of the Committee appointed by our national humanity and justice, the Commissioners of Police, to in- were it not generally known to be quire into the Practicability of sup- the effect of artifice. It is not from pressing the Practice of common beg- a wish to spare the eyes or feelings of ging, and relieving the Industrious sickly sensibility, that we would reand sickly Poor.

move this disgrace from our streets,

but because we are convinced that COMMITTEE.

real distress is over-looked, while atThe Lord Provost of Edinburgh. tention is occupied by obtrusive Mr Sheriff Rae.

imposture; and because we know, Bailie Walker.

that charity is deadened by habitual Robert Johnston, Esq.

acquaintance with deceit : and we John Connel, Esq. Advocate. know, too, that many delude themWilliam Inglis, Esq. W. S. selves with a pernicious notion, that Andrew Storie, Esq. W. S. they have discharged the high duty Mr James Brown.

of charity, when they have bestowed Mr Andrew Walker.

trifles for which they have no use,

for

the mere purpose of removing the In every great city, the practice of annoyance of importunity. This ircommon begging has been found to ritable indolence, which cannot with. be an evil of no ordinary magnitude ; stand the pertinacity of beggars, and and its suppression, whether in the which disdains the labour of investi

open form of importuning the gating the justice of the appeal made passenger, or in that of private soli- to their humanity, is undoubtedly the citation, forms an object worthy of principal cause of all that diversity of attention in a well-regulated system imposture which assumes the appearof Police. In this undertaking, how- ance of distress, aided by the ignoever, the hands of the magistrates rance and credulity of many in the require to be strengthened by all the lower stations of life, especially of aids which individuals or societies can servants, which leads them by numeafford. It is always the idle and the rous donations of their mites, and dissolute who resort to this line of life; often by bestowing what is, properly and while it occupies in lazy labour speaking, not their own, to give great those who are thus engaged, it fre- encouragement to common beggars. quently requires as much health and The disposition to sympathise and strength for its performance as would to relieve is assuredly amiable, but be sufficient, if well directed, to sup- the mode is extensively mischievous : port the individuals by honest indus- it fosters idleness, in the first instance, ty. It extorts from the public, sup- and becomes the cause, more or less plies almost as large as would be re- remote, of the numerous vices of which quired for the relief of the really idleness is the common parent. necessitous, and diverts those supplies As the practice of common begfrom their proper channel. It con- ging is thus fraught with evil to the firms corrupted morals, and trains up individuals who betake themselves to children in vice, ignorance, idleness, it, so is it no less distressing to the and deceit; it entails upon the public community, where such practice prea succession of vagrants of the worst vails. Nothing can be more harasdescription, and poisons society with sing, than to have a claim of either a race of people hostile to the real real or pretended distress made upon welfare of a country. The horrible one at every corner of a street, and appearance of misery which impostors such claims often persisted in with a often exhibit, would be a reproach on degree of perseverance, meant and

more

calculated

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