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under Constantine the Great, ended the Greek Empire.

The capture of this city is one of the greatest events in the History of Modern Europe. It established the Turks in Europe :-they originally came from TURCOMANIA, a district near the Caspian Sea, in Asia. While it was thus productive of evil, it operated beneficially on mankind, for it occasioned the revival of literature in the fifteenth century, after a long night of darkness, and opened to Europe the intellectual riches of the Greeks. The Turks call Constantinople STAMBOUL, or ISTAMBOL.

THE CRESCENT.

The CRESCENT glimmers on the hill,
The Mosque's high lamps are quiv'ring still.

BYRON.

The CRESCENT, one of the insignia of the Turks, was the symbol of the city of Byzantium.

This device of the Ottoman Empire is of great antiquity as appears from several medals, and took its rise from an event related by Stephens the Geographer, a native of Byzantium. He tells us that Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, meeting with mighty difficulties in carrying on the siege of that city, set the workmen, one very dark night, to undermine the walls, that his troops might enter the place without being perceived ; but, luckily for the besieged, the Moon appearing, discovered the design, which was accordingly defeated. “In acknowledgment of this deliverance,” says the historian, “ the Byzantines erected a statue to Diana, and thus the Crescent became their symbol.

THE DARDANELLES.

His eye look'd d'er the dark blue water
That swiftly glides and gently swells
Between the winding DARDANELLES,

BYRON.

The ancient HELLESPONT received the name of DARDANELLES from the two CASTLES built on each side of the strait by the Emperor Mahomet IV. A.D. 1659. These castles, it is asserted, may be easily passed by a fleet, or they may be beaten down by batteries erected

on shore, or by sea, from situations where the great artillery cannot bear on ships. There are on each side of the water 14 great guns, which fire granite balls.

These guns are of brass, with chambers like mortars, 22 English feet long, and 28 inches diameter of the bore. They are very near the level of the water, in arched port holes or embrasures, with iron doors, which are opened only when the guns are to be fired. The balls cross the water from side to side. These monstrous cannons are not mounted on carriages, but lie on the paved floor, with the breech against the wall. They cannot be pointed, but the gunner must wait until the vessel he intends to fire

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