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Dictionary of Ilusicians.
THOMAS F. MEEHAN
EDITORIAL STAFF, Amer ca.
SANITARY ENGINEERING AND MUNICLEWIS SAYRE VAN DUZER,
IPAL SUBJECTS CAPTAIN, U. S. N., RETIRED; WRITER OX NAVAL
MOSES NELSON BAKER, PH.D., C.E., AND NAUTICAL SI BJECTS.
ASSOCIATE EDITOR OF THE Engineering Veus
HARRY V. E. PALMBLAD, A.M., COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY; LECTURER, WOMAN'S
PROFESSOR OF MODERN LANGUAGES, PHILLIPS ART SCHOOL, COOPER L'NIOX.
JOHN DRISCOLL FITZ-GERALD, PH.D., PROFESSOR OF CLASSICAL PHILOLOGY, BARNARD COLLEGE, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.
MEMBER OF THE HISPANIC SOCIETY OF AMERICA;
CORRESPONDING MEMIER OF THE SPANISH ROYAL PHILOLOGY (MODERN)
ACADEMY, AND OF TIE ROYAL ACADEMY OF HISJOHN LAWRENCE GERIG, PH.D.,
TORY OF MADRID; PROFESSOR OF SPANISH, UNIASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF CELTIC, EXECUTIVE VERSITY OF ILLINOIS OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE LANGUAGES, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY.
CHARLES A. TAYLOR, PHYSICS
MEMBER OF THE STAFF OF THE Yew York HENRY D. HUBBARD,
UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES
MILO B. HILLEGAS, PH.D.,
WAR OF THE NATIONS
FRANK MOORI COLBY, M.A.,
AND EDITORIAL STAFF.
AARON L. TPEADWELL, PH.D., FINANCIAL EDITOR, Railway Age.
PROFESSOR OF TIOLOGY, VASSAR COLLEGE.
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ABNEY, Sir WILLIAM DE WIVELESLIE. Brit. that of Addis Abeba, and this had about 100 ish scientist, died at Folkstone, England, De- pupils, for although an edict was passed in 1907 cember 2. Since 1903 he had been scientific declaring education compulsory it has remained adviser to the Board of Education and a mem- a dead letter. The administration of justice is ber of the advisory council for education to the in the hands of the provincial governors and War Department. He was born at Derby, July chiefs with right of appeal to the emperor; and 24, 1843, and became a captain of the Royal the basis of the legal system is the code of JusEngineers in 1873. He was president of the tinian. The people are of Semitic origin and Royal Astronomical Society 1893–5 and of the consist of the following race groups: Gallas, Physical Society 1895–7. He was celebrated for Somalis, Shoans, Tigrians and Danakils. The his researches in photography and spectroscopy, Gallas constitute fully one-half of the population in which fields he published several important and are chiefly pastoral and agricultural. The books, including Instruction in Photography Shoans, from whom the ruling class is derived, (1870); Treatise on Photography (1875); Color number about 1,500,000. The Danakils are MoVision, Color Measurement and Mixture (1893); hammedans. There are also some negroes in Trichromatic Theory of Color (1914). He also the southern part. The chief pursuits are agriwrote a volume on Thebes in 1876, and The culture and grazing; though the soil is capable Pioneers of the Alps (with C. D. Cunningham) of producing diverse crops, culture is backward. in 1888.
Theoretically the soil belongs to the Negus or ABYSSINIA. A monarchy in northern Af- Emperor and the system of private property can rica to the southwest of the Red Sea with Sudan, hardly be said to exist. Stock-raising is of Massaua, the French Somali coast, and the some importance, and cattle, sheep and goats are British Somali Protectorate on the west, and plentiful. Breeds of small horses and small British East Africa and the Uganda Protectorate donkeys are raised and are used as pack animals. on the northwest and south. Its estimated area Cotton, sugar cane, dates, coffee and the vine is 350,000 square miles and its estimated popu- are cultivated to some extent. Coffee produclation more than 8,000,000. It is divided into tion is increasing and besides the cultivated the following nine provinces : (1) Harar and coffee, which is the long berry Mocha, there is dependencies; (2) Wollo; (3) Kassa and Magi; in the southern and western portions a consider(4) Gore; (5) Tigré; (6) Damot and Gojam; able growth of wild coffee plants. The total ex(7) Equatorial Provinces; (8) Gondar; (9) ports of coffee were estimated in 1916 at 6364 Gima or Jimma. Its independence was recog- metric tons. Other native products are hides nized by Italy on October 26, 1896, by the conven- and skins, millet, barley, wheat, tobacco and tion of Addis Abeba and its frontiers were de- gesho. The manufacturers are in a backward termined by treaties with Great Britain and state, but in some districts hatchets, knives and Italy. On December 13, 1906, Great Britain, other implements are made. Minerals are found, France and Italy undertook to preserve its in- including iron, coal, sulphur, copper and silver, tegrity and agreed that henceforth industrial but are not extensively worked. In some parts concessions should be so granted as not to injure of the country placer gold-mining is carried on. the interests of any of the contracting Powers. Commerce takes for the most part the route of They also agreed to abstain from interfering in the French Ethiopian railway, but there is a the internal affairs of the country, but to act considerable caravan trade in the interior. The together in harmony for the protection of their chief exports are hides and skins, coffee, wax, interests in bordering lands, etc.
civet, ivory and butter. Spices, gums, gold and The inhabitants have been Christians since rubber are also exported to some extent. The their conversion in the fourth century and they imports, which are chiefly from England, France, have remained members of the Alexandrian India, Italy and the United States, comprise for church under an Abuna or head bishop who is the most part manufactures, including cotton always a Copt and appointed by the patriarch goods, arms and munitions, liquors, railway maof Alexandria, subject to a native prelate known terials, sugar, and petroleum. The exports as the Echegheh. The ecclesiastics number about through Jibuti in 1917 were reported as follows: 100,000. The people are generally illiterate, Hides, 5,704,423 kilos; coffee, 5,092,647 kilos; education being for the most part confined to the and beeswax, 381,313 kilos. In that year the clergy. Only one school was reported, namely, exports to the Sudan were reported as follows:
Coffee, £E105,895; wax, £E18,265. Imports popular dramatist, who had won great success from the Sudan in 1917 amounted to £465,226. before the war by a long series of plays written The Board of Trade reported the exports from in collaboration with G. A. Caillavet, including Abyssinia into Great Britain for 1919 at £28,947 one, L'habit vert, which had humorously satirand the imports from Great Britain to Abyssinia ized the Academy itself. Joseph Bédier is a at £10,822.' Highway communications are back- prominent philologist. He was an active propaward and transportation depends on mere trails gandist during the war and his writings, includon which pack animals, including sometimes ing an edition of the diaries of German soldiers, camels, are employed, but in the neighborhood published early in the war, were widely circuof the capital some few miles of metaled road sated in translations in the countries of the Alhave been made. There is a French railway lies. André Chevrillon is the nephew of Taine line to Jibuti and to Diré Dawa, 187 miles in and the author of books on India and on Ruskin length, and after January, 1909, measures were in English literature, among other subjects, and taken to complete the line to Addis Abeba. This has visited the United States. reached the capital in 1917. Telegraph lines ACADEMY OF ARTS AND LETTERS, connect Addis Abeba with Harar, with Jibuti AMERICAN. Founded in 1904 by seven members. in French Somali, and with Massaua in Eritrea, of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. the length being about 1056 miles. There is This society is patterned on the French Academy also a small mileage of telephone wire. The in Paris. Membership is limited to 50 persons. coin of the country is the Maria Theresa dollar, Beginning in 1909 a series of annual meetings to which in late vears has been added the Mene have been held. Until 1919 William Dean lek dollar of about the same value, that is, in Howells was president of the Academy, but his the neighborhood of fifty cents.
death on April 11, 1920, caused the election of a The government is feudal, under a sort of new president, William Milligan Sloane. Durstate council consisting of the chief notables. ing 1920 four new members have been elected In 1919 a form of cabinet government was intro to the Academy: Childe Hassam of New York, duced. The army amounts to about 200,000 men, David Jayne Hill of Washington, D. C., Lorado but is ill equipped and ill organized. After the Taft of Chicago, Ill., and Booth Tarkington of death of Menelek in December, 1913, his grand- Indianapolis, Ind. These members were to fill son, Lidj Yasu, succeeded, but was deposed Sep- vacancies caused by the death of Julian Alden tember 27, 1916, and succeeded by a daughter of Weir, Horatio William Parker, and William Dean Menelek, Waizeru Zauditu, born in 1876. She Howells, and one chair previously vacant. was crowned February 11, 1917, and the chief The fifth series of addresses given under the or Ras, Taffaria, was proclaimed regent and auspices of the Academy was given at the heir to the throne. The government was recog- Chemists' Club, 50 East 41st Street, New York nized by Great Britain, but unstable conditions City, during 1920. Speakers and their subjects as the result of civil war prevailed during 1917, were as follows: "The Spirit of Italy," BA 1918 and 1919.
William Roscoe Thayer; "Music and Liberty," ACADEMY, FRENCH (ACADÉMIE FRANÇAISE). by William J. Henderson; “The English LanThe oldest of the five academies which make up guage in America," by Paul Shorey; "The Literthe Institute of France and officially considered ature of Japan,” by William Eliot Griffis. the highest: founded in 1635; reorganized in In 1920 the membership list was as follows: 1816. The list of its members known as the John Singer Sargent, Daniel Chester French, Forty Immortals in 1920 was as follows: John Burroughs, James Ford Rhodes, William Othénin de Cléron, Comte d'Haussonville; Milligan Sloane, Robert Underwood Johnson, Charles Louis de Saules de Freycinet; Louis George Washington Cable, Henry van Dyke, WilMarie Julien Viaud (Pierre Loti); Ernest liam Crary Brownell, Basil Lanneau GilderLavisse; Paul Bourget; H. G. Anatole François sleeve, Woodrow Wilson, Arthur Twining HadThibault (Anatole France); Gabriel Hanotaux; ley, Henry Cabot Lodge, Edwin Howland BlashHenri Emile Lavedan; Paul Deschanel; Frédéric field, Thomas Hastings, Brander Matthews, Masson; René Bazin; Alexandre Ribot; Maurice Thomas Nelson Page, Elihu Vedder, George EdBarrès; Maurice Donnay; Jean Richepin; Ray- ward Wood berry, George Whitefield Chadwick, mond Poincaré; Eugène Brieux; Jean Aicard; Abbott Henderson Thayer, George de Foret René Doumic; Marcel Prévost; M'g'r Duchesne; Brush, William Rutherford Mead, Bliss Perry, Henri de Régnier; Denys Cochin; General Lyau Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Nicholas Murray Buttey; Emile Boutroux; Alfred Capus; Pierre ler, Paul Wayland Bartlett, Owen Wister, Herde la Gorce; Henri Bergson; Marshal Joffre; bert Adams, Augustus Thomas, Timothy Cole, Louis Barthou; R. M. A. Tardiveau (R. Cass Gilbert, William Roscoe Thayer, Robert Boylesve); François de Curel; Alfred Baudril. Grant, Frederick MacMonnies, William Gillette, lart; Marshal Foch; Georges Clemenceau; Jules Paul Elmer More, Barrett Wendell, Gari Cambon; Henri Bordeaux; Robert de Flers; Melchers, Elihu Root, Brand Whitlock, Hamlin Joseph Bédier; Louis Chevrillon, Three of the Garland. Those elected after 1918 were Paul above were elected in 1920, namely Robert de Shorey, Charles Adams Platt, Maurice Francis Flers, Joseph Bédier and André Chevrillon, whose Egan, Archer M. Huntington, Childe Hassam, receptions were to be held between February 7 David Jayne Hill, Lorado Taft, Booth Tarkingand April 15, 1921, at intervals of one month. ton. The permanent Secretary of the Academy The Academy held its great annual public meet- in 1920 was Robert Underwood Johnson. Heading on November 25th, with M. Raymond Poin- quarters are at 347 Madison Avenue, New York caré presiding. There were speeches by the pre- City. siding officer and reports from M. Frédéric ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, NATIONAL. A Masson, and M. Jean Richepin. Meanwhile the body of distinguished American scientists inwork on the dictionary was proceeding and had corporated by act of Congress, March 3, 1863, advanced into the letter H.
for the purpose of promoting scientific research Of those elected in 1920, Robert de Flers is a and of examining, investigating, and reporting