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long, for in such turbulent times nothing/routed three times in the last, which was permanent. The rich attended only was near Badajos, they determined to to the keeping up their power in order make some acceptable offering to God, to seize upon each other's estates, and to appease the justice of his anger ; thus sometimes even the Spaniards destroyed they offered tithes. the church property more than ihe 19. It appears that, at that period, Moors, so much so that the offer- the Spaniards were persuaded that God ings of the faithful were taken with did strike them with the rod of justice, the ornaments and sacred vases, and di-on accoupt of the impiety with wbich vided among them. This abuse was so they denied the churches the necessary great in the eleventh century, that the maintenance of their ministers. Most prebendaries of St. James's church of them wanted means to satisfy the were very meanly dressed, and their live expenses of worship, and to remedy the ings would not maintain them six distress of the poor; therefore it is promonths at the beginning of the twelfth bable that in such circumstances the century.
prelates and pastors exhorted the faith17. In the year 1031 the use of offer- ful to pay tithes, which had now beings was alniost abolished with us, as come a debt of justice. Thus we find, the council of Conipostella was obliged that in the year 1112, the inhabitants of to ordain that the prebendaries should Avila, Segovia, and Toledo, being exmake offerings in the three great festi- posed to the fury of the kings of Corvities of Christmas, Easter, and Whit-dova and Seville, implored the mercy of Sunday. The usurpation of the power- the Almighty, offering him the tenth of ful, and want of charity in the Chris- the booty they should obtain from the tians, reduced the churches to the Moors in this excursion; which vow greatest distress, and were the principal they performed, after gaining the fa-, causes of the introiluction of tithes. mous battle of Montello. Without them divine worship could not 20. In 1198 Innocent III. ascended have been performed nor the poor St. Peter's chair, and, according to the succoured ; and our bishops, full of the contents of the letter he wrote to the zeal which inflamed the fathers of the Archbishop Santiago, and the other fifth century, promoted the payment in prelates of the kingdom of Leon, the Spain, and exhorted the faithful to that general duty of paying tithes was not ineffect. The persuasions of Don James troduced into that kingdom, nor that of Gelmirez, excited Count Petriccio, 1113, Castille. The Spanish bishops had comto offer the tithes of his estates to the plained to that pope, that the faithful church of St. James.
did give them tithes, offerings, or first| 18. Although in the twelfth century fruits, under the pretext that the sacrathe payment of tithes became common ments were not administered to them, in Leon and Castille, they were in most by reason of the interdict to which the of the churches paid voluntarily; as kingdoni of Leon was subject. If the the bishops of those kingdoms pro- payment of tithes had not been volunhibited receiving from the hands of the tary at that period, the churches would excommunicated this or any other kind have enforced it, because the interdict did of offering. Though tithes were intro- not extinguish the right of prosecuting, duced into the Spanish March from the northe duty of paying, although it ninth century, their payment was still might interrupt the ecclesiastical offices. voluntary in some of the churches in Besides, the tithes are not paid precisely the bishopric. of Urgel, 1099; and for the administering the sacraments, therefore it is not strange that the debt but as a sacred charge of the state for of tithes should be a necessary one in the maintenance of religion. Had it Leon and Castille. About the year not been for that purpose, they would 1040, the inhabitants of Salamanca and not have been exacted from the Moors its neighbourhood made some sallies and Jews. It is not feasible, that the against the Moors; and after having been Spanish prelates should stand in need of the assistance of the king in recover with the tax of tithes heavier than they ing them; for all, excepting that of were accustomed to. Therefore it Oviedo, enjoyed the favour of Don Al-appears, that notwithstanding the apfonso; and for adhering to his cause parent universality of the before-menthey suffered the indignation of Inno- tioned. canon, the fathers of Peñafiel cent III.,
would not extend their precept to places t.." 21. From the eleventh century the where tithing was not customary; for
general opinion was that the payment they knew that the church ought not * of tithes was a divine right: as it was to impose taxes upon the faithful,
introduced into the Partidas and the although it may possess the power of laws of the Fuero Real, by Day Alfonso compelling them to pay tithes when the Wise. In 1302 it was also adopted established by custom. by the council of Peñafiel, and it there- 24. The principal cause of tithes not fore declared that all were under the having been introduced into the proobligation of paying them. Notwith-vinces of Spain, which had not recog. standing these écclesiastical and regal nised French dominion, and even in
decrees, the tithes of all kinds of fruits some of their bishoprics, was in the * were not paid in this kingdom ; for it is liberality of our kings and the other * well known that siuce their introduc-lords, as will be proved by the follow
tion the church received them by cus-ing facts :--In the year 1013, Don *tom, which varied in different provinces, Sancho the Great granted to the or by virtue of royal charters, or dona- monastery of Leyre the privilege of tions of individuals.
receiving the tithes from various towns 92. The laws of the Fuero Real were which he had wrested from the Moors. hot generally recognised, because the in 1070, Don Sancho II gave the i towns were governed by their own Monks of Ona, the power of erecting statutes or municipal charters, which churches in any of his estates, and
they had received from their lords, and authority to receive tithes from their * as the Fuero bad been given only to the new parishioners. When Don Bamiro
towns pertaining to the crown, the law of Arragon, transferred the church of for paying tithes was not general. The Huesca to Saca, in 1060, he granted
Partidas were not published until the with her the tenth of the gold, silver, ** 2d of May, 1339, in the reign of Alfonso wheat, wine, and any other productions ** XI,, and they have received only al of different towns named by him. In ***subsidiary authority ; thus, custom was 1099 the Ginsonense church in the - the only rule for tithing.
bishopric of Urgel was consecrated, and 23. The council of Peñafiel could most of her parishioners offered to pay * not have introduced their general use, the tenth of their fruits. In 1113. -, ** because it was not national, and in it Count Petriccio made an equal donation * was only present the bishops of Cuenca, to the apostolic church of St. James;
Siguenza, Osma, Segovia, and Patencia, and Don Alfonso I. of Arragon and with the archbishop of Toledo, who Navarre, and VII. of Castille, granted congregated together to forin a com- to the holy church of Saragossa, in
pact for defending ecclesiastical immu-11133, the right of receiving the tenth of "nity against any who should attempt to all the mills and baths of that city and • usurp church property, or to exact from its environs. When Don Sancho Ba
its vassals more than the accustomed mirez founded Lizarra (now Estella), he * taxes, according to records, in the gave to the monks of St. John de la
archives of the cathedral of Segovia, Peña, the tithes of all parishes founded, · *copied by Colmenaris. It cannot be or that should be founded, in the new believed that prelates so zealous in de-town; and Don Alfonso the VIII. made fending the vassals of the church from an obligation of paying to the church of
paying niore than the customary pen, Burgos, and to Marino, her bishop, the * *sions, would overcharge the subjects of teisth of the agricultural produce of the
the kings and those of the other lords, Botica Real, of Burgos, Ovierna, and
other places. Lastly, in the thirteenth|bined attack was making on the police century the king, St. Ferdinand, en in the village. Col. Wemyss and the dowed 'the 'inetropolitan church of Lancers wheeled round, and rode to Bila! Seville with the tithes of its dioceses, boa in a rapid trot, when they saw the excepting those of Figneral and Alju- country people flinging stones and misraffe.
siles of every description at Chief Consta* (To be continued.) . ble Brady and his police party, one of
whom was knocked off his horse, and the TITHE WAR.
whole village exhibited one scene of in
describable terror and confusion. By the The campaign has opened in Ireland, I promoc fexertion of Colonel Wemyss as the reader will see, from the follow-and the Lancers, who galloped through ing account. The killed and wounded the assailants,' and the timely influence seem to be pretty numerous. .. of a Roman Catholic clergymán, someTITHE AFFRAY--ATTACK ON THE thing like tranquillity was restored, but . . MILITARY.. : -*
it. was of momentary duration, for when : (From the Limericki Chronicle.).'' the Lancers drew up with the intention' At four o'clock yesterday morning, of leaving the village and resuming two pieces of artillery, sixty of the 12th their route, the country, fellows again , Lancers, with Captain Vandaleur, and pressed forward and pelled the soluiers five companies of the 92d Highlanders, with stones. Several of the Lancers with Major Rose, proceeded from this were struck and severely hurt, and one garrison towards Bilpoa, and under of their officers having lost his cap by. command of Colonel Wemyss, to attend the blow of a stone, they charged their a sale by distress for tithes due by the assailants with the sabre, and fired in parish priest of Doone to the rector, the defence of their lives, wounding some Rey. Mr. Coole. It having been previ-, of the most daring of their opponents, ously well known ihat the peasantry re. while many of the fellows received slight solved to assemble in rast nunibers for sabre cuts. The forbearance of the mithe purpose of intimidating any person litary was admirable, and the rioters from purchasing at this sale, Major would have suffered in life and limb, Miller, chief magistrate of police, com. but for the frequent, earnest, and municated with the military authorities humane exhortation of the commandin this garrison, and it was determined ing officer, Lieut,-Colonel Wemys, accordingly to draw a strong division of who took the greatest pains to suppress troops to the scene of action. Upwards the tumult without bloodshed, and to of 6000 people were in the village of disperse the people. Bilboa, when the priest's cow was The crowds had now fled the village brought out for sale, and the surround, and retreated to the surrounding hills, ing hills were covered by at least 10,000 from whom Colonel Wemyss and the more. However, the imposing military Lancers heard several shots fired on their and police force that drew up in the departure to join the Artillery and Highvicinity prevented any opposition from landers. Everything was quiet at** the crowds present, and the cow was Bilhoa when they left, and six policeknocked down for 121. to the priest's men are now stationed in the Rev. Mr. brother, who paid the money, and re- Coote's house for his protection. The. fused to take the, overplus, after dis- troops did not return to this garrison charging all expenses. The troops with- until half-past nine o'clock last night, drew from the scene soon after without after a harassing excursion of 30 miles." interruption, while the peasantrywatched We have this morning ascertained their movements with great anxiety. the casualties that occurred yesterday They had not proceeded above half a One man, Real, of Cappamore, has a mile on their return, when an express sabre wound in the head ; Darby Conovertook the commanding officer, an-nell, of Castleguard, a shot in the groin; nouncing that a tremendous and com- Fitzgerald, of Cappamøre, a shot in the
thigh ; Fogarty, of Reisk, a shot in the and under 50lbs., 9.d. a pound ; any elbow. The wounds of Connel and quantity above 50lbs., 9d. a pound; Fitzgerald are dangerous. Darby Con- above 100lbs., 8.d. A parcel of seed nell died on Wednesday.
may be sent to any part of the kingdom; I will find proper bags, will send it to
any coach or van or wagon, and have it : ENGLISH TITHE-FIGHT. booked at my expense; but the money
TITHES IN DURHAM.On the 6th instant, must be paid at my shop before the seed Mr. J. Bell, tbe tithe-lessee for the parish of be sent away; in consideration of which Hexham, having procured a warrant, sent some I have made due allowance in the price. persons duly accredited to seize upon the goods lie the and chattels of Mr. Jobo Ridley, who had re
If the quantity be small, any friend can fused to pay tithes. The seizure being made, call and get it for a friend in the country; a person was left in Mr. Ro's house to watch if the quantity be large, it may be sent his furniture, &c., on which Mr. Ridley sent by me. The plants were raised from the bellman round the towu, stating that he weed wanted a person of known integrity to watch a
seed given me by Mr. PEPPERCORN (of suspicious character who infested' his house. Southwell, Bedfordshire), in 1823. He Ope was soon found, and there they actually gave it me as the finest sort that he had staid from Friday the 6th until Wednesday tbe ever seen. I raised some plants (for Alth instant, one watching Mr. R.'s goods, the use) in my garden every year: but, at other watching the watcher. On Tuesday the 10th. Mr. Ridley sent the bellman to invite the bar
e Barn-Elm I raised a whole field of it, public to come to his sale on Wednesday, to wit- and had 320 bushels of seed upon 13 Dess the proceedings of “ tithe-mongers and acres of land. I pledge my word, that their tools," when he meant to state his rea- there was not one single turnip in the sons for refusing to pay tithes. On Wednesday a large concourse of people, estimated at from
day whole field (which bore seed) not of
hola 600 to 1,000 persons, assembled in the street. Ithe true kind. There was but one of a near Mr. R.'s bouse. The sale commenced, suspicious look, and that one I pulled and furniture to the amount of the tithe and up and threw away. So that I warrant costs having been purchased, Mr. R. came out this seed as being perfectly true, and as upon his own pept-bouse, and, in a long address, which was well received, gave his rea: having proceeded tom prants with small sons for his conduct, and the assembly, after necks and greens, and with that reddish giving Mr. R. three cheers, quietly dispersed. stinge round the collar which is the sure
This is the way that the tithe-war sign of the best sort. began in Ireland. When will this
MANGEL-WURZEL SEED. Government he wise ?
Any quantity under 10lbs., 7d. a
pound; any quantity above 10lbs. and · SEEDS
under 50lbs., 7d. a pound; any quantity FOR SALE AT MR. COBBETT'S SHOP, | above 50lbs., 6 d. a pound; any quanNo. 11, BOLT-COURT, FLEET-STREET. (tity above 100lbs., 6d. a pound. . The February, 1832.
selling at the same place as above; the LOCUST SEED.
payment in the same inanner. This · Very fine and fresh, at 6s. a pound. seed was also grown at Barn-Elm For instructions relative to sowing of
farm, the summer before the last. these seeds, for rearing the plants, for
for It is a seed which is just as good making plantations of them, for pre- at ten years old as at one. The plants paring the land to receive them, for the
Cihe were raised in seed-beds in 1828; they after cultivations, for the pruning, and
were selected, and those of the deepest for the application of the timber; for
red planted out in a field of 13 acres,
xos." I which was admired by all who saw it, all these see my “WOODLANDS;” or TREATISE ON TIMBER TREES AND as a
as a most even, true, and beautiful field
of the kind. The crop was very large ; UNDERWOOD. 8vo. 14s. .
| and out of it were again selected the SWEDISH TURNIP SEED.
plants from which my present stock of * Any quantity under 10lbs., 10d. a seed was growed ; though, indeed, there pound; and any quantity above 10lbs. was lille room for selection, where all
were so good and true. I got my seed as I ever wish to eat, and I would alfrom. Mr. Pym, of Reigate, who raised ways have it if I could. Now, for the it from plants proceeding from seed that instructions to make bread with wheatI had given him, which seed I had raised flour and corn-flour. Suppose you are at Worth, in Sussex ; and, all the way going to make a batch, consisting of through, the greatest care had been thirty pounds of flour; you will have taken to raise seed from no plant of as of course twenty pounds of wheat-flour dubious character. This seed, therefore, and ten pounds of corn-flour, Set your I warrant as the very best of the kind.- sponge with the wheat-flour only. As A score or two of persons, who sowed soon as you have done that, put ten of this seed last year, have given me an pints of water (warm in cold weather, account of the large croys they have and cold in hot weather) to the cornhad from it, and have all borne testimony flour ; and mix the flour up with the to its being the truest seed they ever water"; and there let it be for the presaw of the kind. . I sell these seeds sent. When the wheat sponge has risen, much cheaper than true seed, of the and has fallen again, take the wetteda same sorts, can be got at any other up corn flour, and work it in with the place; but I have a right to do this, wheat sponge, and with the dry wheatand I choose to exercise my right. My tour that has been round the sponge. seeds are kept with great care in a Let the whole remain fermenting toproper place; and I not only warrant gether for about half an hour; and the sort, but also, that every seed grow, then make up the loaves and put them if properiy put into the ground. into the oven. The remainder of the
process every one knows. These inUSES OF COBBETT-CORN TLOUR. |structions I have, as I said before, from We use the corn-flour in my family. / Mr. Sapsford; and I recollect also, that FIRST as bread, two-thirds wheaten and this is the way in which the Americans one-third corn flour: SECOND. in batter make their bread. The bread in Long puddings baked, a pound of flour, a Island is made nearly always with rye quart of water: two eggs, though these and corn-flour, that being a beautiful list are not necessary; Third, in plum-country for rye, and not so very good puddings. a pound of flour, a pint of for wheat. I should add here, that there water. half a pound of suet, the plums, is some little precaution necessary with and no eggs : FOURTH, in plain suet- regard to the grinding of the corn. The puddings, and the same way, omitting explanation given to me is this : that to the plums; fifth, in little round do it well, it ought to be ground twice, dumplings, with suet or without. and and between stones such as are used in though they are apt to break, they are the grinding of cone-wheat, which is a very good in this way; in broth, to
bearded wheat, which some people call thicken it: for which use it is bevond all lrivets. This, however, is a difficulty measure better than wheaten-flour.
( which will be got over at once as soon Now, to make BREAD, the following as there shall be only ten small fields of are the instructions which I have re-/ this corn in a county. ceived from Mr. Sapsford, baker, No.! I sell it according to the following 20, the corner of Queen Anne-street,
table : Wimpole-street, Marybone. As I have
If planted in rows 3 feet apart, and the plants
8 inches in the row, frequently observed, the corn-flour is
PRICE. not so adhesive; that is to say, clammy,
£. s. d. as the wheat and rye flour are. It is,
1 Ear will plant nearly TWO RODS 0 0 35
| 1 Bunch will plant more than therefore, necessary; or, at least, it is
sevEN RODS................ 0 1 0 best to use it, one-third corn-flour and 6 Bunches will plant more than 40 two-thirds wheat or rye flour. The rye rods, or a quarter of an acre.. 0 5 6 and the corn do not make bread 80 / 12 Bunches will plant more than bright as the wheat and the corn, nor
: 80 rods, or half an acre .... O 10 6
125 Bunches will plant more than quite 60 light; but it is as good bread 160 rods, or an acre ........ 10