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they did not enter into his preaching, and had no place, we may be fairly sure, in the lost ending of S. Mark, or in the collection of sayings which was used by the authors of our first and third Gospels; they were not communicated even to S. Paul. But while the words themselves died with S. Peter, and their precise nature cannot even be conjectured, it is permissible to believe that they combined in the Master's inimitable way the tenderness and the sternness? of a Divine love, and that they completed the conversion of the penitent Apostle, restoring his peace of mind, and enabling him to stablish his brethren.
Although it was Mary who for her greater loyalty was counted worthy to see the risen Lord first, it was not Mary's report, as Renan supposes, that let in the first ray of hope upon the disciples, but Simon Peter's. Later in the day the Eleven and their company were found radiant with the conviction that the Lord had risen indeed, since He had appeared to Simon. The Apostle who had risen from his fall through the words of absolution that came from the risen Christ was the first to bring the Gospel of the Resurrection home to the hearts of his fellows.
* Rom. xi. 22 lồe oův XPotótyta kai átotoulav Beoû.
TO CLEOPAS AND ANOTHER.
AUTHORITIES: ‘Mc.' xvi. 12, 13; Lc. xxiv. 13-35.
BEFORE Peter had returned to the company, two of the men-disciples had occasion to set out for a village some miles distant from the city. It was Emmaus, not Emmaus Nicopolis, the modern Amwâs, which is twenty miles off, but either the present Kalôniyeh, close to the ruins of Joshua's Mozah, or el ķubêbeh, a little further to the north-west. Of the travellers one was a certain Cleopas or Cleopatros, whose Greek name has suggested a connexion with the court of Herod ; 3 the other is unknown, but neither of the two belonged to the number of the Eleven.
As they crossed the hills which descend from Jerusalem to the Mediterranean, the men conversed 5
? Josh. xviii. 26. 2 See Dr. Sanday's Sacred Sites, p. 29 ff. and plate xxviii. 3 Hastings, D.B. ii. 6399. 4Cf. Lc. xxiv. 33. 5 The Joppa road would allow of their walking side by side: see Latham, R.M. p. 103 f.
on the topic of which their hearts were full. An eager discussion arose between them, perhaps as to the credibility of the story told by the women, and they did not notice the approach of one who was gaining upon them from behind. Presently he overtook the two, and stood by their side; and in their surprise they stopped short on their way, as though inviting the stranger to join them. He noticed the settled gloom on their faces, and asked what they were so keenly debating. Cleopas answered that he must surely be some solitary sojourner* in Jerusalem if he was ignorant of the events of the last few days. The other simply asked what kind of events Cleopas meant. His reply is instructive, for it reveals the thoughts which were passing in the minds of the rank and file of the disciples. A mighty prophet, he said, a prophet to whom they had looked to ransom ® Israel, had been delivered over to the Romans by the heads of the nation, and put to death by crucifixion; and this tragedy had been enacted three days ago. This morning, however, strange reports had reached them; some women of the party,? who had gone
Lc. £v Tŷ ... Ouršnteîv : 0l Xbyou OÛTOL OŮs åvtißáx/ete. 2 èotá Ondav.
3 OKVO pwrol. Latham illustrates this by imagining a pair of Royalists going on foot out of London on Jan. 30, 1649.
foù jóvos trapolkeîs ; or, the only sojourner.'
to the tomb at daybreak, brought tidings that the body was not there, and that they had been told by angels that Jesus was alive ; moreover, the disappearance of the body was confirmed by members of their own company 1 who had been to see for themselves.
One can see the perplexity which filled the minds of these Galilean or Judaean2 disciples. They knew not what to believe. On the one hand there was no doubt that the Master was a prophet, and a great prophet; both His words and His mighty works had shewn Him to be this, and nothing that befell Him could efface the impression produced by His ministry. But was ' He also, as they had fondly hoped, the Christ? Where was now their dream of national deliverance under His leadership? What did the crucifixion, the burial, the three days spent in the tomb, mean but the total failure of these hopes ? And yet, what was to be thought of the women's story, partly confirmed by two such men as Peter and John ?
The reply of the stranger is not reported at length, but Cleopas remembered afterwards the stinging reproof with which it began. “Foolish
1τινές των συν ημίν.
2 Mr. Latham gives reasons for preferring the latter supposition ; see Risen Master, p. 199ff,
į men, and slow of heart, you have never really
believed the prophets which have been read in your ears every Sabbath day. Had you'understood their teaching, you would see that all has happened as they said it must happen. There was a moral necessity 2 that the Christ should suffer before He reigned ; that He should redeem by suffering, and not by a forcible repression of evil.' Then, as Cleopas further recollected, the rest of the way was beguiled with a fascinating study of the old Scriptures; one after another they were unlocked, as with the key of David, and laid open before the two disciples; and, as the great Expositor passed from Moses to Malachi, there rose up before them the picture of the suffering, conquering Christ, until their hearts glowed with the fire 4 of a new hope. Who was this companion of their road? Could it be indeed-but no, the thought was incredible, they must put it from them.
When they reached Emmaus the sun was low in the west, and the Mediterranean already aglow
1 åvóntoi kai Bpadeis tû kapdią. For similar reproofs cf. Mc. vii. 18, viii. 17, 'xvi.' 14.
3 On the loss of these and similar utterances see some good remarks in Latham p. 118 f.
+ ουχί ή καρδία ημών καιομένη ήν; και κέκλικες ήδη η ημέρα,