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............... 494

ART.

PAGE VI. THE DOGMATIC PRINCIPLE...

458 Undogmatic Christianity. A Sermon preached before the University of Oxford, on Sunday, May 3, 1863, by the Rev. Walter Waddington Shirley, M.A. London and Oxford : Parker.

The Unity of Evangelical and Apostolical Teaching. Sermons preached mostly in Canterbury Cathedral. By Arthur Penrhyn

Stanley, D.D. London : Murray. 1859. VII. THE CATHOLIC CONGRESS OF MALINES

482
Assemblée Générale des Catholiques en Belgique. Première
Session à Malines, 18-22 Aout, 1863. Programme des Travaux
-Questions Projets de Solution-- Propositions. Bruxelles :
Imprimerie de Th. Lesigne.

Essays and Miscellaneous Papers.
VIII. HISTORICAL NOTES OF THE TRACTARIAN MOVEMENT.

Part. II.-Tract 90 : its Antecedents, Motives, Object, and

immediate Results. IX. NOTICES OF BOOKS

509 Mgr. Manning's Sermons on Ecclesiastical Subjects—Tischendorf's Novum Testamentum Sinaiticum-Valroger's Introduction Historique et Critique aux Livres du Nouveau Testament Schwane's Dogmengeschichte der vornicänischen Zeit-Madden's Galileo and the Inquisition-Lyell and Poole on the Antiquity of Man-Stanley's Lectures on the Jewish Church-Sighart's Albert le Grand-Mathieu's Livre de Prières-Cartier's Vie de Fra Angelico-Cartier's Dialogue et Lettres de S. Catharine de Sienne --Bouix's Euvres Spirituelles de S. Pierre d'Alcantara-Bouix's La Solitaire des Rochers-Sixth Report of Inspector appointed to visit Reformatory and Industrial Schools—Parkinson's Lecture on Education-Anderdon's Adventures of Owen Evans-Wood's Glimpses into Petland — Blot's Auxiliatrices du Purgatoire

Question des Sæurs de la Charité en Portugal. X. FOREIGN PERIODICAL LITERATURE

568 Etudes Religieuses, Historiques et Littéraires — Le Corre

spondant—La Civiltà Cattolica. XI. FOREIGN EVENTS OF CATHOLIC INTEREST

.... 583 Polish Insurrection-Fausti Trial- Procession of the Santissimo Salvatore-Neapolitan States—Piedmont and Italy.

THE

DUBLIN REVIEW.

JULY, 1863.

ART. 1.-POPULAR DEVOTION IN SPAIN.

Historia Ecclesiastica de España. Por D. Vicente de la Fuente. 4 vols.

Barcelona : Libreria Religiosa. 1859. N° O man is sufficient for himself. He is, and must be, dependent

upon others. Almighty God, who created him in this state of dependency, has written in his heart the law of mutual love; and His own divine lips have pronounced that the love of our neighbour is one with the love of God. Nations in like manner are dependent upon one another. The whole system of commerce, of trade and barter, carried on as it is with such wear and tear, such infinite risks of danger, bloodshed, rebellion, war, is founded upon the primary axiom that we

are all dependent upon one another; that the whole world is but one family, the members of which minister to each other's wants. No member can be treated with contempt or despised, because it is useful to the body, and the hour may come which will both prove and make manifest its uses. Many consider it to be the glory of this nation that this law of dependency has received a wide practical development in that gigantic system of commerce with which, as with a net, we encircle the whole globe. They have no difficulty in admitting that we must knock at the doors of other nations and enter in, receiving for our daily use, from one cotton, or hemp, or silk; from another various precious timbers ; from another rare and dainty meats; from another fruits; from another scents and spices; from another gold, silver, lead ;—even distant seas have to contribute their coral and their pearl, as well as their strange living creatures, in order to supply the ever-increasing demands, to minister to the ever-growing dependency of one portion of the human family upon the rest. How often may we hear a portly and, to use that expression so characteristic of modern ideas, respectable-looking gentleman gravely asserting that everything can be got in London, in which comprehensive term he takes special care to inform us that he

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includes all that is edible. With a sort of honest pride, a conscious dignity and self-respect, many an Englishman congratulates himself on the fact that there are no waters over which our ships do not sail, no ports from which they do not bring to England some commercial tribute ; no nation can compare with ours in its fleet of merchantmen; no other country can present us with a tithe of the appliances and means of comfort and luxury that we enjoy; the energy of our race not only has discovered but has appropriated to itself more varied and fruitful sources of wealth than are possessed by any other people on the face of the globe.

Without disputing the truth of all this, what, we would ask, is the principle contained in these self-congratulatory assertions? In its ultimate analysis it is this,—that the greatest nation is the one which is the least satisfied with itself, and is the most dependent upon others. As Emerson declares that “the greatest man is the most indebted man,” so it may be affirmed of nations that the greatest is the most indebted. Indeed, this principle may be said to have reached its apogee when the system of free trade received the sanction of the British Legislature.

So much, then, for the fact that England's material greatness is due to the persevering energy and determination with which she has naturalized, and we may say Anglicized, the wealth and resources of foreign countries. We have thought it no derogation to our national dignity to become receivers and learners, rejecting nothing that might increase our material prosperity. And here the question suggests itself, how far have we carried out this principle in the higher order of morality ? What have we borrowed from other nations ? In what measure have we been anxious to advance our people in the moral scale, by introducing among them the thoughts, feelings, practices, and habits of other nations, where these are manifestly higher in tone and more in accordance with the spirit of Christianity than our own ? Have we been as zealous to learn how we may raise our labouring poor from a condition more nearly resembling that of beasts of burden than of a Christian population? Where is the joy and sweetness of life, the intelligence in spiritual things, the ready, facile charity, the real refinement which we find among the peasantry of Catholic countries ? In truth, it must be confessed that we have adopted the principle of free trade in commerce, but have ignored it as respects that interchange of moral influences by which nations can confer on each other the most solid benefits. In the pursuit of material prosperity we have run all over the world, but in all that affects the spiritual interests of our people we have shut ourselves up within ourselves, and have treated other countries with absolute contempt. The cause of this, no doubt, may be found partly in that vein of pride and haughtiness which the English character has derived from its Norman admixture ; but much more in the nature of Protestantism, which persists in adhering to its one article of faith—its own sufficiency, while its people are sinking into the lowest depths of immorality and crime.

That the separation from the unity of the Church has been the chief cause of the peculiarity to which we have adverted, is evident from the fact that the same reproach cannot with equal justice be addressed to the Catholics of this country. If, from our common national character, we have been slow to learn and adopt the practices of others, and to copy whatever was worthy of imitation in their pious institutions, our religion, at all events, has helped us over this stumbling-block, and we have successfully naturalized much that once was foreign to us. We have crossed the Channel, and have done something towards supplying the faults and deficiencies in our workhouse system, for we have scarcely a town without its society of S. Vincent de Paul, whose members unite to the relief of corporal necessities that gentle kindliness and love for their suffering brethren with which our holy religion inspires them. And now, of late, the Petites Sours-Little Sisters of the Poor-another French institution, have been introduced into our great towns, so that the old and destitute may receive from the generous and devoted hearts of women, who have consecrated themselves to God and to His poor, a sympathy and a tenderness which perhaps they have never known before. Then, too, we have out-door Nursing-Sisters and Hospital-Sisters, and other communities and works of foreign origin which it is not necessary to designate by name.

The fact is, if we have an earnest desire that the English people should one day exhibit the religious devotedness and sanctity for which the land had become famous before the Norman set foot upon its shores, we must in every way guard ourselves against a development of the nationalism, pride, and ambition which were the characteristics of that arrogant and overbearing race. To these qualities in the dominant class the contests about investiture, the hatred of the stranger, the trampling upon ecclesiastical rights, the suspicion and jealousy of Rome, the perpetual encroachments for 500 years of the State upon the Church, must be attributed. The Reformation, when it came, was but the legitimate growth, the fully ripened fruit, of those evil seeds which had been germinating for centuries. True greatness in religion was incompatible with the natural development of the Norman character. The Church succumbed under it, and was wellnigh trodden out of the land. If it has sprung up again, it may be rather compared to the young underwood that succeeds the fallen forest. While tender and pliant and full of hope, it cannot be expected to yield the variety of beauty, the light and shade, the protection and retreat, afforded by the ancient trees, whose roots had ramified for ages in the soil below, and whose branching arms had twisted and intertwined themselves above in every form of mutual complication and embrace.

As England in the natural and material order may be considered as it were the focus of the commercial activity of the world, so is Rome in the supernatural and spiritual order the great religious mart and the centre of intercommunion and exchange. Herself absolutely supreme in authority, and infallible in her teaching, she rejects nothing that is good, from whatever quarter it may emanate. To her nothing that is praiseworthy, or honourable, or of good report, is foreign. Without envy she receives and learns of all, and without jealousy she gives and communicates to all. Her College of Cardinals admits natives of every country and clime. We can hardly realize her form and spirit until we have made ourselves acquainted with her great religious orders and communities-the Franciscan, the Dominican, the Jesuit, the Theatine, the Redemptorist, and others ; yet the Jesuit and Dominican came from Spain, the Franciscan from Umbria, the Tbeatine and Redemptorist from Naples. And many of the most popular devotions and practices, such as the Quarant'Ore, Via Crucis, Missions, Retreats, devotion to the Sacred Heart, to S. Joseph, the Angelus, and many more, which have become as much identified with Rome as the very monuments out of which she is built,—these were not born to her, but were adopted and appropriated by her: omnes isti congregati sunt, venerunt tibi. Like Solomon, she has “made a market in all the kingdoms of the earth.” This generous largeness, this willingness to be recipient, and to adopt whatever is good, without regard to the whisperings of a petty national pride or a dread of foreign innovation, as it has its primal seat in the central heart of Christendom, so may it be regarded as the measure of the truly Catholic spirit in every portion of the Church; and it appears to us that nothing can be more desirable for the nascent Church in England, after joining together so closely and intricately the bonds which unite her to Rome that nothing shall ever again be able to dissolve them, than to imitate the example of the Mother and Mistress of Churches, and profit to the greatest possible extent by the experience of other countries :Ï'he wise

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