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Abstinence theory Adam Smith amount argument borrower called canon doctrine canonists capitalist chap circumstances claim commodities conception costs criticism duction durable economic edition employed Endemann Eodbertus exchange value existence explain Exploitation theory expression fact fruit fungible Gebrauch give gross interest ground Hermann Hugo Grotius income increased independent interest problem interest theory Knies labour power land land-rent lender lent loan interest machine material services means means of production Molinaeus natural interest natural powers Nutzung obtained owner paid passage payment perishable power of capital principle productive power productivity of capital Productivity theory profit of capital prohibition proportion proposition quantity of labour question quod rate of interest rate of profit receive recognise rent Ricardo sacrifice Salmasius socialist surplus value theoretical theorists theory of interest thing tion Turgot undertaker undertaker's usura Usuris wages of labour wealth whole words writers
378 ページ - The real price of every thing, what every thing really costs to the man who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it.
72 ページ - As soon as stock has accumulated in the hands of particular persons, some of them will naturally employ it in setting to work industrious people, whom they will supply with materials and subsistence, in order to make a profit by the sale of their work, or by what their labour adds to the value of the materials.
381 ページ - If among a nation of hunters, for example, it usually costs twice the labour to kill a beaver which it does to kill a deer, one beaver should naturally exchange for or be worth two deer. It is natural that what is usually the produce of two days...
381 ページ - In that early and rude state of society which precedes both the accumulation of stock and the appropriation of land, the proportion between the quantities of labour necessary for acquiring different objects seems to be the only circumstance which can afford any rule for exchanging them for one another.
71 ページ - In exchanging the complete manufacture either for money, for labour, or for other goods, over and above what may be sufficient to pay the price of the materials, and the wages of the workmen, something must be given for the profits of the undertaker of the work, who hazards his stock in this adventure.
73 ページ - In this state of things, the whole produce of labour belongs to the labourer; and the quantity of labour commonly employed in acquiring or producing any commodity, is the only circumstance which can regulate the quantity of labour which it ought commonly to purchase, command, or exchange for.
317 ページ - I think it will be but a very modest computation to say that of the products of the earth useful to the life of man, nine-tenths are the effects of labour...
317 ページ - Nor is it so strange as, perhaps, before consideration, it may appear, that the property of labour should be able to overbalance the community of land, for it is labour indeed that puts the difference of value on everything; and let any one consider what the difference is between an acre of land planted with tobacco or sugar, sown with wheat or barley, and an acre of the same land lying in common without any...
411 ページ - As the wages of the labourer are the remuneration of labour, so the profits of the capitalist are properly, according to Mr. Senior's well-chosen expression, the remuneration of abstinence. They are what he gains by forbearing to consume his capital for his own uses, and allowing it to be consumed by productive labourers for their uses. For this forbearance he requires a recompense.