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great amusement. It is surprising to see the constancy and patience, which they show in putting these together, and the alacrity with which day after day they return to the work. The map of the world is the best to begin with, and the pupil should be led to perceive, that this map is the same as what is drawn on the globe. By frequent and short lessons the relative situations and particular shapes of the great continents and islands may be readily taught, and if learned early, will be indelibly fixed in the memory. In the technical use of the globes the pupil should be instructed; and if one lesson be carefully explained, and thoroughly understood, before another is attempted, no fatigue will be felt, and no disgust will arise. But, alas ! how seldom do parents attend to this simple rule! A good teacher would probably employ ten minutes a day for a month on what an eager mother thinks she ought to accomplish in an hour. Children of nine or ten years old may be employed in sketching the outlines of maps. It is obvious, that only the large divisions of a country should be laid down at first, and that no originals but the best should be imitated ; ambition to obtain neatness and accuracy of execution will be excited, by withholding praise from all that is hurried over in a slovenly manner. The exercise of constructing maps is far preferable to the mere copying; but even copying is better than tracing; a practice which is of very little service; it enploys only the hand; the mind scarcely pays any attention, or retains any remembrance of what is done.
Learning geography by globes and maps is very unjustly ridiculed by Rousseau, who catches hold of an unfortunate expression in a book of geography,—“ The world is a globe of paste
board,”—and in all the gaiety of rhetoric he attacks the whole system founded on this inaccurate assertion. He triumphantly proceeds to show, that a child would mistake the meaning of the words, and would have a confused idea that the world is a pasteboard globe. To this no answer need be made, but that every day's experience shows the contrary. It is one of the principal arts of intellectual education, to substitute symbols in the place of real objects, and to make technical description subservient to demonstration. Upon this depends the whole : of algebra. One of the most obvious and natural means of rendering this mode of substitution familiar to the mind is in the very case of geography. For example, if in making a common globe a small sphere of steel be inserted, and if a little figure containing a magnetic needle be placed on this globe, it will stand on any part of it, and will give a distinct idea of the antipodes, and of that attraction, which keeps bodies attached to the Earth. When a child sees a figure standing on the bottom of a pasteboard globe without falling off, he can readily conceive that the same thing may happen on the globe of the earth.
Not only globes, and maps, but views of countries, and models of fortifications and ships should be among the early toys and amusements of a young soldier or sailor. Insensibly some of the terms of art will thus be acquired ; indeed half the difficulty of learning any science is over, when its language has become familiar; to those who hear the technical terms of any art for the first time, there appears an amazing, and discourag
• It appears, that the same idea has occurred to M. Mentelle.
ing difficulty in comprehending what is in itself perfectly easy. It is of great consequence therefore, to obviate this difficulty early, especially with such children as have not sanguine confidence in their own abilities.
In the literary education of a boy destined for the army or the navy, some difference should be made from what would be advisable, if he were intended for any civil profession. Early progress in literature is not essential; nor is it necessary, that he should ever be critically skilled in the dead languages. We should not insist upon his proficiency in Latin, much less in Greek. The latter might be omitted; for the time and mind employed on it must be taken from more useful subjects, and it has no affinity to the martial character. When an officer is completely educated for a military life, he may then study what he pleases. Like general Wolfe he may at thirty years of age learn Greek in order to read Polybius; but he will read, or understand Polybius sufficiently well in Guischard's dissertations. Instead of Greek and a critical knowledge of Latin, he should learn all those modern languages, which may be of use to him in that intercourse with foreigners, to which his profession leads. The pronunciation of any language is easily caught in childhood, when the organs of speech are flexible, and before they have acquired any fixed habits; it will therefore be advantageous to teach the pronunciation of the characteristic sounds of modern languages as soon as the child can articulate. The peculiar sound of the French u, of the German ch, the Italian c and z, the Spanish g, might be acquired as readily as the sounds of our own alphabet, and it would be easy to teach them nearly at the same time. The first * books that he reads should be such as are calculated to rouse in his young mind the notions of honour, and the feelings of emulation. In his education it must be the object to excite enthusiasm, not to subject him to the nice calculations of prudence, or the more accurate judgments of reason. Consequently a species of reading, which may be disapproved of for other pupils, should be recommended to the young soldier. His imagination should be exalted by the adventurous and the marvellous. Stories of giants and genii, and knights and tournaments, and “ pictured tales of vast heroic deeds,” should feed his fancy. He should read accounts of shipwrecks', and hair-breadth scapes, voyages and travels, histories of adventurers, beginning with Robinson Crusoe, the most interesting of all stories, and one which has sent many a youth to seą.
Dr. Johnson's life of Drake, which is to be found among “ Fugitive Pieces," is a beautifully. written and entertaining piece of biography, peculiarly suited to young sailors. All the modern sentimental stories for children, which tend to soften the mind, must be pernicious to those, whose minds ought to be most firmly strengthened. Among moral fictions, Sandford and Merton may be recommended as likely to inspire manly feelings, and to form the character to fortitude, courage, truth, and all the virtues of a patriot and a soldier. This
. Captain Fellows's narrative of the loss of the Lady Hobart packet is extremely simple and interesting, and peculiarly suited to young readers; as it contains many instances of the advantage of temperance and discipline, and of the power of religion to support men in moments of the greatest distress and danger.
work has some defects; but it will be easy to prevent their doing harm to the young reader. The prejudice against gentlemen, which pervades the book, may be rendered harmless or rather advantageous, by pointing out that the author uses the word gentleman improperly as a term of reproach, and that he intends it to denote helpless, indolent, effeminate, or luxurious persons, who think that their rank or fortune exempts them from all useful exertion. Sandford and Merton was written before the French revolution, and at a time, when there was reason to dread, that the luxurious and effeminate manners, which were then fashionable in France, should spread to the nobility of England, and debase the manly character of Britons; fearing this danger, the authors endeavoured to counteract it by all his powers of eloquence and ridicule. The idea to be infused into the minds of youth is, that birth and education impose the greatest claims of honour, courage, patriotism, and every high-minded feeling. In the general mode of reasoning, and in the taunting irony used to enforce moral precepts and manly sentiments, Sandford and Merton resembles the manner of Xenophon in his Cyropædia, an ancient moral fiction, which should be earnestly recommended to young soldiers. It may be tiresome to read the whole early in life, but the most entertaining and interesting passages may be
& The author can assert from his own private acquaintance with the philanthropy aud good sense of Mr. Day, that, had he lived to see the event of the French revolution, he would in Sandford and Merton have guarded his · pupils against those democratic principles, which confound distinctions in society, with as much eagerness and ability as he has displayed to convince them, that rank and wealth without virtue or knowledge cannot prevent their possessors from being ridiculous or contemptible. .