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by assiduous culture, but when they are strong enough, this culture may be withdrawn. It may be shown to the pupil, that it is for his own advantage to be economic of his little property: for economy should not be confined to the idea of saving money ; it should be extended to the care of saving all, for which money can be exchanged, or which it represents. Long before a boy should be intrusted with the management of money, he can be economic of his playthings, his clothes, of all the goods, however trifling, which are committed to his care, or of which he has the enjoyment. The first rewards of his economy will be, the personal pleasure of possessing what he has saved or preserved ; but this merely selfish gratification may soon and easily be extended to the generous delight of sharing what he has with his favourite play-fellows and companions: this generosity, nourished by sympathy, praise, and affection, may gradually be extended into charity in the most enlarged sense of the word. Take a child, who has shown generosity towards his companions, into situations where he may see indigent children, and their distresses will immediately excite his compassion ; he will then, from this new motive, wish to give, and to be economic, that he may have it in his power to bestow : for which reason he should never be allowed to give the money or property of others, but always something, which he spares and subtracts from his own enjoyments* Whether parents reside in a town or in the country, they may find opportunities of taking a boy into the dwellings of the poor: and they may indulge him in the pleasure of relieving some of the moments of misery. However trifling, however inadequate the relief, the very attempt, the very wish, will commence this part of a good clergyman's education. If afterwards he cannot give, he may speak with kindness; he may become interested for his fellow-creatures. The child will long for the time, when he may have it in his power to be of real use; when once the desire has been excited in his mind, he will eagerly attend to all that is said upon the subject, and to all the means that are suggested for its accomplishment. He may, by degrees, have his ideas on the subject of charity enlarged; he may be taught, that to give his time, to give knowledge, is often the best species of charity, that to forbear to dispense alms to the idle is mercy to the industrious, and, ultimately, even to the idle themselves. But these are remote ideas, which may be introduced at a later period of education. We only mention them now to stay the patience, and quiet the philosophical fears of those who have read Malthus, who might apprehend that we were proceeding to form an indiscriminate alms-giver; a pest, instead of a blessing to society.
Charity, in the comprehensive Scripture sense of the word, includes not only compassion for the distressed, but benevolent feelings for all men ; a disposition to interpret all their words and actions in the best manner, to see their follies, failings, and faults with commiseration, and to speak of them with lenity and gentleness. To form this heavenly temper, parents should begin by early attention to the little and secmingly unimportant habits of the child's mind. Every instance of a violent, positive, or unforgiving disposition, which appears in the boy, should be checked by punishment proportioned to : the offence *, and calculated to produce the end of all just punishment, reformation. Every symptom of a forbearing, candid, forgiving temper, shown towards companions of his own age, every instance of his bearing with their faults, speaking of them with indulgence and kindness, should be encouraged by all the rewards of praise, affection, sympathy, and esteem, which judicious and beloved friends and parents have it so amply in their power to bestow.
In marking the difference between education for different professions, we may observe, that a clergyman's should essentially differ from a lawyer's in one respect. A boy intended for the bar may be, in some degree, indulged in that pertinacious temper, which glories in supporting an opinion by all the arguments, that can be adduced in its favour: but a boy destined for the church should never be encouraged to argue for victory; he should never be applauded for pleading his cause well, for supporting his own opinion, or for decrying or exposing to ridicule that of his opponent'; he should discuss, not plead, and he should be educated to prefer the discovery of truth to the triumph of victory. He should be taught to reason with temper; and with toleration for the opinions and feelings of others. Thus he will be gradually and habitually prepared for that spirit of religious toleration, which should characterize a clergyman, and he will be formed to those habits of conversational charity, and to that mild persuasive eloquence, which will be useful, amiable, and conciliating in the highest as well as in the lowest stations he may occupy in the church. This tolerant temper need not, however, be carried quite so far as it was by a celebrated philosopher, who said, that he had avoided disputes all his life, and maintained that equanimity for which he was remarkable both in conversation and action, by adhering to his favourite maxim, that “ Every thing is possible, and consequently every body may “ be in the right.”
No!-candid habits and liberality are perfectly consistent with decided judgment and firm conviction. People are often violent in argument, and angry from a secret fear of the strength of their opponents. Where a person has a full sense of being in the right, and of having the best of an argument, it is easy to preserve calmness and temper. Therefore while means are taken to educate a clergyman to mildness of manners and disposition, there is no reason to apprehend that he should be rendered indifferent to the interests of religion.
To give him strength of mind, and to inure him to resist bad example and ridicule, preceptors should teach him to compare characters, and to observe what it is, that people really respect in others. It should be pointed out to him by examples in real life, that those, who adhere to what they believe to be right, are always respected; and that many persons are admired in public places only for fine clothes, equipages, and fashion. Our pupil may be taught confidence in his own understanding, without vanity; and self-estimation, without pride; he may trust in his perception of truth on all subjects that he has well examined; as he must in mathematics depend on the demonstrations, which precede that of the immediate subject to be proved.
Some of the means of forming the moral character of a clergyman have been now suggested. While these are employed, preceptors must at the same time excite the pupil to attend to those classical studies,which are peculiarly necessary; and which form almost the only object of school instruction. These studies should never be postponed till late in life: on the contrary, if they are commenced early, and if a fixed portion of every day is allotted to the business, the learned languages may be acquired under a judicious preceptor, in less time, and with less pain and labour, than are usually devoted to the task. How the pupils may be initiated by conversation in the first principles of grammar; and how the learned languages may be taught without much difficulty, may* elsewhere be seen.
English literature is necessary to a clergyman as well as classical learning. In conducting this part of education, the private preceptor has great advantages over public masters. By a proper choice of English books, the pupil's predilection for his profession may be increased, at the same time that his literary taste is cultivated. We shall not speak of the knowledge of history, chronology, and other useful parts of general education, which are necessary to be acquired. To form our pupil's taste for literature, we should not begin with grave works, but with interesting and entertaining books. He may read the lives, or rather striking passages from the lives of eminent divines, and of men distinguished for piety and benevolence; for instance, the Lives of Latimer, Ridley, Fenelon,
* Practical Education.