« 前へ次へ »
ploring the death of his father, their founder, he was seized with deep remorse, which manifested itself in severe penances. See Note 10, on Canto V. The battle of Sauchic-burn, in which James III. fell, was fought 18th June, 1488.
Note 10. Stanza xxv.
Spread all the Burougb-mixir below, etc
The Borough, or Common Moor of Edinburgh, was of very great extent, reaching from the southern walls of the city to the bottom of Braid Hills. It was anciently a forest; and, in that state, was so great a nuisance, that the inhabitants of Edinburgh had permission granted to them of building wooden galleries, projecting over the street, in order to encourage them to consume the timber; which they seem to have done very effectually. When James IV. mustered the array of the kingdom there, in I5i3, the Borough-moor was, accenting to Hawthnrmlcn, « a field spacious, and delightful by the shade of many stately and aged oaks.» Upon that, and similar occasions, the royal standard is traditionally said to have been displayed from the Hare Stane, a high stone, now built into the wall, on the left hand of the highway leading towards Braid, not far from the head of Burntsfield-links. The Hare Stone probably derives its name from the British word ar, signifying an army.
Note 11. Stanza xxviii. O'er the paTiliom flew. I do not exactly know the Scottish mode of encampment in 1 "> i ... but Patten gives a curious description of that which he saw after the battle of Pinkie, in 1547:— « Here now to say somewhat of the manner of their camp: As they had no pavilions, or round houses, of any commendable com pas, so wear there few other tentes with posts, as the used manner of making is; and of these few also, none of above twenty foot length, but most far under: for the most part all very sumptuously beset (after their fashion), for the love of France, with tlcur-de-lys, some of blue buckram, some of black and some of some other colours. These white ridges, as I call them, that, as we stood on Fauxsyde Bray, did make so great muster towards us, which I did take then to be a number of tentes, when we came, we fouud it a linen drapery, of the coarser cambryk in dedc, for it was all of canvas sheets, and wear the tcnticles, or rather cabyns, and couches of their soldiers; the which (much after the common building of their country beside) had they framed of four sticks, about an ell long a piece, whearof two fastened together at one end aloft, and the two rinlcs beneath stuck in the ground, an ell asunder, standing in fashion like the bowes of a sowes yoke; over two such howes (one, as ii were, at their head, the other at their feet), they stretched a sheet down 011 both sides, whereby their cabin became roofed like a ridge, but skant shut at both ends, and not very close beneath on the sides, unless their sticks were the shorter, or their wives the more liberal to lend them larger napery; howheit, when they had lined them, and stuffd them so thick with sir.iw, with tlie weather as it »as not very cold, when they wear ones couched, they were as warm as they had been wrapt in horses* dung.»—Pattkn's Account 0/ Somerset $ Expedition.
Note 12. Stanza xxviii.
The well-known arms of Scotland. If you will believe Boethius and Buchanan, the double treasure round the shield, mentioned p. 83, counter fleur-de-Usetl or, lingued and armed ature% \tas first assumed by Achaius, King of Scotland, contemporary of Cbariemagne, and founder of the celebrated League with France; but later antiquaries make poor Eochv, or Achy, little better than a sort of King of Brentford, whom old Grig (who has also swelled into Crcgoriiu Magnus) associated with himself in the important durr of governing some part of the north-eastern coast of Scotland.
Note 1. Introduction.
Calttdouia'i Queca i* ebnn;;ed.
The old town of Edinburgh was secured on the north side by a lake, now drained, and on the south l»v a wall, which there was some attempt to make defensible even so late as 174s. The gates, and the greater pan nf the wall, have been pulled down, iu the course of the late extensive and beautiful enlargement of the ciry. My ingenious and valued friend, Mr Thomas CampU-l'. proposed to celebrate Edinburgh under the epithet here borrowed. But the « Qneen of the North » lias not be^n so fortunate as to receive from so eminent a pes the proposed distinction.
Note a. Introduction.
Flingiug lbj whilr armt to the tea.
Since writing this line, I find I have inadvertent!? borrowed it almost verbatim, though with somewhat a different meaning, from a chorus in « Caractactu:»
BriuttQ heard the detainl bold,
She flung; her white arm oVr the >e«.
Proud la her lonly U>»>iu to unfold
Note 3. Introduction.
Henry VI. with his queen, his heir, and the chiefs of his family, fled to Scotland after the fatal Kittle of Towtou. In this note a doubt was formerly <xprr**rd, whether Henry VI. eame to Edinburgh,though his <pi. t, certainly did ; Mr I'inkerton inclining to believe that tv remained at Kirkcudbright. But my noble friend. Lord Napier, has pointed out to me a grant by lleorv. nf an annuity of forty merks to his lordship's aDcr«t>r. John Napier, suhscrilwd by the king himself at L\imburtjh, the 2S1I1 day of August, in the thirty-ninth y\r nf his rri(;n, which corresponds to the year of Cod i^di. This grant, Douglas, with bis usual neglect <>f accuracy, dates in i3('.ti. But this error being corrrctrd from the copy in Macfarlane's MSS.p. 110,, lao.remov. •* all "irepticism on the subject of Henry VI. being rrailv at Edinburgh. John Napier was son and heir of Sir Alexander Napier, and about this time was I*ro»ost nf Edinburgh. The hospitable reception of the disurewJ monarch find his family called forth on Scotland the
knife, spear, or a good axe instead of a bow, if worth 100/.: their armour to be of while or bright harness. They wore white tints, i. e, bright steel caps without crest or visor. By an act of James IV. their weaponshawings are appointed to be held four times a-year, under the aldermen or bailiffs.
Note 8. Stanza iii.
On fool ibe yeoman loo.
Bows and quivers were in vain recommended to the peasantry of Scotland, by repeated statutes: spears and axes seem universally to have been used instead of them. Their defensive armour was the plate-j.ick, hauberk, or brigautiue: and their missile weapons cross-bows and culverins. All wore swords of excellent temper, according to Patten , and a voluminous handkerchief round their neck, « not for cold, hut for cutting.* The mace also was much used in the Scottish army. The old poem, on the battle of Floddeu, mentions a band—
Who manfully did meet ihoir foei,
When the feudal array of the kingdom was called forth, each man was obliged to appear with forty days' provision. When this was expended, which took place before the battle of Flodden, the army melted away of course. Almost all the Scottish forces, except a few knights, men-at-arms, and the Border-prickers, who formed excellent light cavalry, acted upon fool.
Note 9. Stanza vi.
In all transactions, of great or petty importance, and among whomsoever taking place, it would seem, that a present of wine was an uniform and indispensable preliminary. It was not to Sir John Falstaff alone that such an introductory preface was necessary, however well judged and acceptable on the part of Mr Brook; for Sir Ralph Sadler, while on embassy to Scotland, in i539-4o, mentions with complacency, « the same night came Rothesay (the herald so called) 10 mc again, and brought me wine from the king, both white and rcd.» Clifford's Edition, p. 3$.
Note 10. Stanza ix.
■ — hii iron licit,
Few readers need to be reminded of (his belt, to the weight of which James added certain ounces every year that he lived. Pitscoltic founds his belief, that James was not slain in the battle of Flndden, because the English never had this token of the iron-belt to show to any Scotsman. The person and character of James are delineated according to our best historians. His romantic disposition, which led him highly to relish gaiety, approaching to license, was, at the same lime, tinged with enthusiastic devotion. These propensities sometimes formed a strange contrast. He was wont, during his lits of devotion, to assume the dress, and conform to the rules, of the order of Franciscans ; and when he had thus done penance for some time in Stirling, to plunge again, into the tide of pleasure. Probably, loo, with no unusual inconsistency, he sometimes laughed at the superstitious observances to which he at other times subjected himself. There is a very
singular poem l>y Dunbar, seemingly addressed to James IV. on one of these occasions of monastic seclusion. It is a most daring nod profane parody on the services of tlic churcli of home, entitled,
Dunliar't Dirge to the King,
We thai ire here, iu henven't glory.
See the whole in Sijibald's Collection, vol. I, p. a34-
Sir TIuj;h the Heron'* wife held §way.
It has been already noticed, that King James's acquaintance with Lady Heron of Ford did not commence until he marched into England. Our historians impute to the king's infatuated passion the delays which led to the fatal defeat of Flodden. The author of « The Genealogy of the Heron Family» endeavours, with laudable anxiety, to clear the Lady Ford from this scandal: that she came and went, however, between the armies of James and Surrey, is certain. See PinKerton's Biitory, and the authorities he refers to, vol. II, p. 99. Heron of Ford had been, in i5ti, in some sort accessary to the slaughter of Sir Robert Ker of Cessford, Warden of the Middle Marches. It was committed by bis brother the ba&tard, Lilburn, and Starked, three Borderers. Lilburn, and Heron of Ford, were delivered up by Henry to James, and were imprisoned in the fortress of Fustrastle, where the former died. Part of the pretence of Lady Ford's negotiations with James was the liberty of her husband.
Note 1 2. Stanza x.
For the f»irOuw*n of France
For her to hreok a luncti.
« Also the Queen of France wrote a love-letter to the King of Scotland, calling him her love, showing him that she had suffered much rebuke in France for the defending of his honour. She believed surely that he would recompense her again with some of his kingly support iu her necessity: that is to say, that he would raise her an army, and come three foot of ground on English ground, for her sake. To that effect she sent him a ring off her ticger, with fourteen thousand French crowns to pay his expenses," Pitscottip, p. 110.—A Turquois ring;—probably this fatal gift is, with Jamcs'ssword and dagger, preserved in the College of Heralds, London.
Note 13. Stanza xiv. —Archibald Bell-thu-Cai. Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus, a man remarkable for strength of body and mind, acquired the popular name of Bell-Oie-Catt upon the following remarkable occasion: James the Third, of whom Pitscotfie complains, that be delighted more in music, and « policies of building,» 1I1111 iu hunting, hawking, and other noble exercises, was so ill-advised, as to make favourites of his architects, and musicians, whom the same historian irreverently terms masons and tiddlers. His
nobility, who did not sympathise in the kings reij for the fine arts, were extremely incensed at the lioni conferred on those persons, particularly on Cocbr a mason, who had been created Earl of Mar. , seizing the opportunity, when, in 1482, the kin^ convoked the whole array of the country to nu against the English, they held a midnight counte the church of Lauder, for the purpose of fore removing these minions from the king's person, w" all had agreed on the propriety of the measure, I Gray told the assembly the apologue of the Mice, 1 had formed the resolution, that it would be hi] advantageous to their community to tie a bell round cat's neck, that they might hear her approach a distance; but which public measure unfortumi miscarried, from uo mouse being willing to urn! take the task of fastening the hell. «I understand moral,» said Angus, « and, that what we prnpovn not lack execution, I will bell tfie cat.* The rest the strange scene is thus told by Pilscottie:—
« Ity this was advised and spoken by thirlordi foresaid, Cochran, the Earl of Mar, came from 1 king to the council (which counsel was holJro in I kirk of Lauder for the time), who was well veoi panicd with a band of men of war, to the numl^ three hundred light axes, all clad in white livery, 1 black bends thereon, that ihey might be knn*n I Cochran Earl of Mars meu. Himself was clad ifl riding-pic of black velvet, with a great chain of fi about his neck, to the value or five hundred crovl and four blowing horns, with both the ends of p and silk, set with a precious stone, called a bat hanging in the midst. This Cochran had his lipuina born before him, overgilt with gold; and so wen- 1 the rest of his horns, and all his pallions were of fil canvas of silk, and the cords thereof fine twinnl ^ and the chains upon his pallions were double over^i with gold.
« This Cochran was so proud in his conceit, ihtf I counted no lords to be marrows to him; therefore] rushed rudely at the kirk-door. The council engirt who it was that perturbed them at that time Robert Douglas, laird of Lochlevcn, wa< keeper of di kirk-door at that time, who enquired w»o thai ** that knocked so rudely ? And Cochran answered, "Tld is I, the Earl of Mar.' The which news pleated «Uti| lords, because they were ready boun to cause u*r •'n as is afore rehearsed. Then the Earl of Angus p* hastily to the door, and with him Sir Robert rk>u,:" of Lochlevcn, there to receive iu the Earl of M*r, j* so many of his complices who were there, a* l 1 thought good. And the Earl of Angus met with *j Earl of Mar, as he came in at the door, aod pullnl ugolden chain from his craig, and said to him i ""* would set him better. Sir Robert Douglas «PVFBT? the blowing horn from him in like m timer, an-l'_" < 1 He had been the hunter of mischief over long-' Cochran asked, 'My lords, is it mows,1 or rarer- ^ They answered, and said, 'It is good earnest, M* thou shalt find : for thou and thy complices have * "^ our prince this long time; of whom thou "*" no more credence, but shall have thy ^*a"**"°* to thy good service, ns thou hast deserved * by past; right so the rest of thy followers.
t Notwithstanding, the lords held them quiet till they
^wrd certain armed men to pass into the king's pal
a, and two or lltree wise men to pass villi them,
nipitlhe king fair pleasant words, till (hey laid
ii&^nn all the king's servants, and took them and
[ liagfdtliem Iwtfore his eyes over (he bridge of Lawder.
. !»."<%tiorm they brought forth Cochran, and his hands Wad with a tow, who desired (hem to (ake one of his JOjuJIion lows and bind his hands, for he thought *nae to have his hands bound with such a tow of *9f, like a thief. The lords answered, he was a tmtor, he deserved no Iwtter; and, for despight, they !«k i hair (filter, » and hanged him over the bridge d Uwitr, above the rest of his complices.»—Pitscot
'nr, p.;», folio edit.
Note 14. Stanza xiv.
Ai*aio»t the war had Angn> flood.
lapB was an old man when the waragainst England *3s resolved upon. lie earnestly spoke against that at-sir from its commencement; and, on the eve of rt» tattle nf Flodden, remonstrated so freely on th< ~;*4icr of fighting, that ihc king said to him willi •"*ti««1 indignation, « if he was afraid, he might go -V-* The earl burst into tears at this insupportable -iJi, and rr(ired accordingly, leaving his sons, George, 1 njaff of Angus a»d Sir William of rilcnbervic, (n r ©mand his followers. They were both slain in (he fctidr, with (wo hundred gentlemen of the name of > &«gb*. The aged carl, broken-hearted at the caln•Hifs of hU house and country, retired in(o a religious **«, where be died about a year after the field of rUleo.
Note 15. Stanza xv.
TVo rvtl jou in Tantallon Hold.
•V rains of Tantallon Castle occupy a high rock
■jMinginio the German ocean, about two miles east -'■ North Berwick. The building is not seen till a close >Pj»roachT as there is rising ground betwixt it and the b*A The circuit is of large extent, fenced upon three '*k*by the precipice which overhangs the sea, and on ^ fWth by a double ditch and very strong outworks. , Tutailorj «at a principal castle of the Douglas family, S'i»hra the Earl of Angus was banished, in 1S27, it "^■ttonetl in bold out against James V. The king went ffl penon against it, and, for its reduction, borrowed fTMo ibe caale of Dunbar, then belonging 10 the Duke 'J Albany, two great cannons, whose names, as Pitscot
'reforms us with laudable minuteness, werc«Thrawn■Qolli'd Mo» and her Marrow ;» also, « two great boiwds, and two moyan, two double falcons, and four Tarter falrons ;» for (be safe guiding and re-delivery ^ »hrch, three lords were laid in pawn ai Dunbar. Ye(, «*»itb»Unding all this apparatus, .lames was foreed ■■'• niH- the >ieget and only afterwards obtained pos*wion of Tantallon by treaty with (lie governor, Sii »«o Paoango. When the Earl of Angus returned from taatihmeni, upou the death of Jarnes, he again ob, *«d posseuion of Tantallon, and it actually afforded "fujje to an English ambassador, under circumstances v«miar to those described in the text. This was no
■'her than the celebrated Sir Ralph Sadler, who resided 'here for some lime under Angus's protection, after the
failure of his negotiation, for matching the infant Mary with Edward VI. He says, (hat (bough (his place was poorly furnished, it was of such strength as might warrant him against the malice of his enemies, and thai he now thought himself out of danger.*
There is a military (radition, (hat the old Scottish March was meant to express the words.
Ding down Tantallon,
Tantallon was at length « dung down» and ruined by the Covenanters; i(s lord, (lie Marquis of Douglas, being a favourer of the royal cause. The castle and barony were sold in the beginning of the eighteenth century to President Dalrymple of North Berwick, by the then Marquis of Douglas.
Note 16. Stanza xv.
tltuir mono on hisldade.
A very ancient sword in possession of Lord Douglas bears, among a great deal of flourishing, two hands pointing to a heart which is placed betwixt them, and the date i3?.o, being the year in which Itruce charged the Good Lord Douglas to carry bis heart to the Holy band. The following lines (the first couplet of which is quoted by Codscroft as a popular saying in his time) arc inscribed around the emblem:
So roony j;oid a* of yo Douglas licinpe,
Of am: rfumanii' wan ne'er in Scotland tcine.
I will yu ihflr[»e, efteryol I depart.
( do protest in rynic of al my rinfto,
This curious and valuable relique was nearly lost during the civil war of i~$5-ti, being carried away from Douglas Castle by some of those in arms for Prince Charles. Rut great interest having been made by the Duke of Douglas among the chief partisans of Stuart, it was at length restored. It resembles a Highland claymore, of the usual size, is of an excellent temper, and admirably poized.
Nole 17. Stanza xxi.
—Marlin Swart. The name of this German general is preserved by that of the field of battle, which is called, after him, Swartmoor.—There were songs about him long current in England.—Sec Dissertation prefixed to Ritson's y/ncicnr Songs, 1791, page lxi.
Note 18. Stanza xxi.
Perchance »ome form wa« unobserved *
It was early necessary for those who felt themselves obliged to believe in (be divine judgment being enunciated in the trial by duel, 10 find salvos for the strange and obviously precarious chances of the com hat. Various curious evasive shifts, used by those who look up an unrighteous quarrel, were supposed sufficient to convert it iirto a just one. Thus, in ihe romance of « Amy* and Amelion," the one brother-in-arms, fighting for the other, disguised in his armour, swears ihat he did not commit the crime of which the Steward, his antagonist,
1 The very curicui State Paper»of ibuable nepoiirtor bote been lately pnblifcbod by MrLliHord, with *ome Notw by the author of Munition.
truly though maliciously, accused him whom he represented. Rrantomc tells a story of-an Italiau, who entered the lists upon an unjust quarrel, but, to make his cause good, lied from his enemy at the first onset. «Turu, coward !» exclaimed his antagonist. « Thou liest,» said the Italian, « coward am I none; and in this quarrel will I fight l0 ,He death, but my first cause of rombat was unjun, and I abandon it.» « Je voustaissc it petuer,* adds Brantnme, «*il ny a pasde labus la.» Elsewhere, he says, very sensibly, upon the confidence which those who had a righteous cause entertained of victory; « Un autre abus y avoit-il, que ceux qui avoient un juste subjet de qucrelle, et qu'on tes faisoit jurer avantentrcr ttu vamp, pensoient estrc aussitost vainqucurs, voire sen assttroient-t-ils dtt tout, mesme que leurs confesseurs, parrains, et confidants leurs en respondoiettt tout-a-fait, eomme si Dieu lettr en eust donne tine patente; et ne regardant point a dautres fautes passecs, et que Dieu en garde la punition it ce coup lit pour phis grande, despiteuse, et exemplaire.* —Discours sur les Duels.
Note 19. Stanza xiv. Dun-Edln'aCrott. The Cross of Edinburgh was .in ancient and curious structure. The lower part was an octagonal lower, sixteen feet in diameter, and about fifteen feet high. At each angle there was a pillar, and between them an arch, of the Grecian shape. Above these was a projecting battlement, with a turret at each corner, and medallions, of rude hut curious workmanship, between them. Above these rose the proper Cross, a column of one stone, upwards of twenty feet high, surmounted with a unicorn. This pillar is preserved at the House of Drum, near Edinburgh. The magistrates of Edinburgh, in 17:10, with consent of the Lords of Session, (proh pudor!) destroyed this curious monument, under a wanton pretext that it encumbered the street; while, ou the one hand, they left an ugly mass called the Luc ken booths, and, on the other, an awkward, long, and low guardhouse, which were fifty times more encumbrance than the venerable and inoffensive Cross.
From the tower of the Cross, so long as it remained, the heralds published the acts of parliament; and its site, marked by radii, diverging from a stone centre, in the High Street, is still the place where proclamation*
Note 50. Stanza xxv.
This awful tunimoni came.
This supernatural citation is mentioned by all our Scottish historians. It was probably, like the apj>arition at Linlithgow, an attempt, by those averse to the war, to impose upon the superstitious temper of Jamc-< IV. The following account from Vitscoltie is characteristically minute, and furnishes, besides, some curious particulars of the equipment of the army of James IV. I need only add to it, that Plotcock, or Plutock, is no other than l'luto. The christians of the middle ages by uo means disbelieved in the existence of the heathen deities: they only considered them as devils ;' < See. 00 tbii rarioH* lubjvct, ibu Eaaav oa Falriee, In tho • Border Sloitreltv.* vol. 11, aoder U10 fourth head; aUo Jacktoo on I to belief, p. 175. Chaucer calU Pinto the •kibq of Faerie;* aad ■ Dunbar name* him • IMuto, lhai t-lrirh iocubui.* If be wai not actually the devil, be routt Ik- con.i.l.-nJ at ibe . prince of the , power of lb-air.- The moat remarkable ioiianec of lbe«e inr1 firing clauiral avpentltioitt, U that of ibe Uerinan*, ntaoernfnn ! the Hill of Veaui. Ill 10 which she attempt* lo a*lice all rjallaol kntcbii. and detain* frrtn iu a »rt of Fool"» Pa/nliM.
and Plotcock, so far from implying any thing fabulou*. was a synonymc of the grand enemy of mankind«> Yet all their warnings, and uncouth tidings, nor no good counsel, might stop the king, at this present, from his vain purpose, and wicked enterprise, hut haste*! him fast to Edinburgh, and there to make his provisions and furnishing, in having forth of his army against the day appointed, that they should meet m the Burrow-muir of Ediuburgh: that is to say, seven cannons that he had forth of the castle of Edinburgh, which were called the Seven Sisters, casten by Robert Borthwick, the master-gunner, with other small artillery, bullet, powder, and all manner of order, as the master-gunner could devise.
« In this mean time, when they were taking forili their artillery, and the king being in the Abbey for th«time, there was a cry heard at the Market-cross of Edinburgh, at the hour of midnight, proclaiming as it ha*I been n summons, which was named and called by the proclaimcr thereof, The Summons of Plotcock; whwti desired all men to compear, both Earl, and I^ond, awl Baron, and all honest gentlemen within the town (every man specified by bis own name), to compe.ir, within the space of forty days, before his master. where it should happen him to appoint, and be for the time, under the pain of disobedience. But whether this summons was proclaimed by vain persons, nightwalkers, or drunken men, for their pastime, or if it was a spirit, I cannot tell truly; but it was shown to me, that an indwcller of the town, Mr Richard Lawson, being evil-disposed, ganging in his gallery-*tair foreanent the cross, hearing this voice proclaiming this summons, thought marvel what it should he, cried on his servant to bring him his purse; and when lie bad brought him it, he took out a crown, and cast over the stair, saying, I appeal from that summons, judgment, and sentence thereof, and lakes me all whole in the mercy of God, in Christ Jesus his son. Verily the author of this, that caused me write the manner of ibr summons, was a landed gentleman, who was at that time twenty years of age, and was in the town the time of the said summons; and thereafter, when the field was stricken, he swore to me, there was 00 man that escaped that was called in this summons, but ilui one man alone which made his protestation, and appealed from the said summons: but all the lave were perished in the field with the king."
Note at. Stanxa xxix.
FIu-Eu*tace bade, (been pauic a while
The convent alluded to is a foundation of Cistertua nuns, near North Berwick, of which there are stii: some remains. It was founded by Duncan, Earl of Fife, in 1216.
Note 22. Stanza xxxi.
Tliftt one of hi* ow n anonttrv Drove the monk* forth of tiorentrv. This relates to the catastrophe of a real Robert or Marmion, iu the reign of King Stephen, whom William of Newbury describes with some attributes of my fictitious hero: « Homo betlicotust ferocia, et atUttm fere nullo suo tempore impar.u This baron, bavin; expelled the monks from the church of Coventry, »inot long of experiencing the divine judgment, as Okxime monks no doubt icrmcd his disaster. Uavmi