Four or five persons, whether relations or lovers of his The author requests permission yet farther to verify mistress is uncertain, beset the disguised monarch, as the subject of his poem, by an extract from the genea. he returned from his rendezvous. Naturally gallant, logical work of Buchanan of Auchmar, upon Scottish and an admirable master of his weapon, the king took surnames. post on the high and narrow bridge over the Almond « This John Buchanan of Auchmar and Arnpryor river, and defended himself bravely with his sword. A was afterwards termed King of Kippen,' upon the folpeasant, who was threshing in a neighbouring barn, Jowing account: King James V., a very sociable, decame out upon the noise, and, wbether moved by com- bonair prince, residing at Stirling, in Buchanan of passion or by natural gallantry, took the weaker side, | Aropryor's time, carriers were very frequently passing and laid about with his flail so effectually, as to dis- along the common road, being near Arnpryor's house, perse the assailants, well threshed, even according to with necessaries for the use of the king's family; and the letter. He then conducted the king into his barn, he, having some extraordinary occasion, ordered one of where his guest requested a basin and towel, to remove these carriers to leave his load at his house, and he the stains of the broil. This being procured with would pay him for it; which the carrier refused to do, difficulty, James employed himself in learning what telling him he was the king's carrier, and his load for was the summit of his deliverer's earthly wishes, and his majesty's use; to which Arapryor seemed to have found that they were bounded by the desire of possess-small regard, compelling the carrier, in the end, to ing, in property, the farm of Braehead, upon which leave his load; telling him, if King James was king of he laboured as a bondsman. The lands chanced to Scotland, he was king of Kippen, so that it was reasonbelong to the crown: and James directed him to come able he should share with his neighbour king in some to the palace of Holyrood, and enquire for the Gude of these loads, so frequently carried that road. The man (i. e. farmer) of Ballanguich, a name by which he carrier representing this usage, and telling the story, was known in his excursions, and which answered to as Arnpryor spoke it, to some of the king's servant the Il Bondocani of Haroun Alraschid. He presented it came at length to bis majesty's ears, who, shortly himself accordingly, and found, with due astonish thereafter, with a few attendants, came to visit bis ment, that he had saved his monarchi's life, and that neighbour king, who was in the mean time at dinner. he was to be gratified with a crown-charter of the King James having sent a servant to demand access, lands of Braehead, under the service of presenting an was denied the same by a tall fellow with a battle ewer, basin, and towel, for the king to wash his hands, axe, who stood porter at the gate, telling, there could be when he shall happen to pass the Bridge of Cramond. no access till dinner was over. This answer not satisThis person was ancestor of the Howisons of Brae- fying the king, he sent to demand access a second time; head, in Mid-Lothian, a respectable family, who con- upon which he was desired by the porter to desist, tinue to hold the lands (now passed into the female otherwise he would find cause to repent his rudeness, line) under the same tenure.

His majesty finding this method would not do, desired Another of James's frolics is thus narrated by Mr the porter to tell his master that the goodman of Campbell, from the Statistical Account. « Being once Ballageigh desired to speak with the king of Kippen. benighted when out a-hunting, and separated from his. The porter telling Aropryor so much, he, in all humble attendants, he happened to enter a cottage in the manner, came and received the king, and having enter midst of a moor, at the foot of the Ochil hills, near tajned him with much sumptuousness and jollity, be Alloa, where, unknown, he was kindly received. In

came so agreeable to King James, that he allowed him to order to regale their unexpected guest, the gudeman take so much of any provision he found carrying that (e. i. landlord, farmer,), desired the gudewife to fetch | road as he had occasion for; and seeing he made the the hen that roosted nearest the cock, which is always first visit, desired Arnpryor in a few days to retura the plumpest, for the stranger's supper. The king, him a second to Stirling, which he performed, and highly pleased with his night's lodging and hospitable continued in very much favour with the king, always entertainment, told mine host, at parting, that he thereafter being termed king of Kippen whike bar should be glad to return his civiltty, and requested | lived.»—BUCHANAN's Essay upon the Family of Buchen that the first time he came to Stirling he would call at nan. Edin. 1775, 8vo. p. 74. the castle, and enquire for the gudeman of Ballenguich. The readers of Ariosto nust give credit for the amar Donaldson, the landlord, did not fail to call on the able features with which he is represented, since he gudeman of Ballenguich, when bris astonishment at generally considered as the prototype of Zerbino, the finding that the king had been his quest afforded no most interesting hero of the Orlando Furioso. small amusement to the merry monarch and his cour

Note 6. Stanza xxviii. tiers; and, to carry on the pleasantry, he was thence

-- - Surling's Tower forth designated by James with the title of King of the

of yore the name of Snowdoun claims. Moors, which name and designation have descended from father to son ever since, and they have continued

William of Worcester, wlio wrote about the middle in possession of the identical spot, the property of Mr of the fifteenth century, calls Stirling Castle Snowdone. Erskine of Mar, till very lately, when this gentleman, Sir David Lindsay bestows the same epithet upon at in with reluctance, turned out the descendant and repre-his Complaint of the Paping. sentative of the King of the Moors, on account of his

Adieu, fair Snowdoun, with thy towers biek. majesty's invincible indolence, and great dislike to re

Thy chapel-royal, park, and table round: form or innovation of any kind, although, from the

May, Jane, and July, would I dwell in thee,

Were I a man, to hear she birdir sound, spirited example of his neighbour tenants on the same

Whilk doth again' thy royal rock rebound. estate, he is convinced similar exertion would promote his advantage.»

"A small district of Perthshire.

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Mr Chalmers, in his late excellent edition of Sir luis private excursions, was the Goodman of BallenDavid Lindsay's works, has refuted the chimerical de- guich; derived from a steep pass leading up to the Castle firation of Snawdoun from snedding, or eutting. It of Stirling, so called. But the epithet would not have was probably derived from the romantic legend which suited poetry, and would besides at once, and preconnected Stirling with King Arthur, to which the maturely, have announced the plot to many of my zation of the Round Table gives countenance. The countrymen, among whom the traditional stories above ring within which justs were formerly practised, in the mentioned are still current. . castle park, is still called the Round Table. Snawdoan is the official title of one of the Scottish heralds, whose epithets seen in all countries to have been fan- The Author has to apologise for the inadvertent tastically adopted from ancient history or romance. appropriation of a whole line from the tragedy of

It appears from the preceding note, that the real | Douglas, same by which James was actually distinguished in

. I hold the first wbo strikes, my foe.

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This Poem,



Taz Scene of the Poem is laid at Rokeby, near Greta-bridge, in Yorkshire, and shifts to the adjacent fortress of Barnard Castle, and to other places in that ncinity.

The time occupied by the Action is a space of Five Days, Three of which are supposed to elapse between the end of the Fifth and beginning of the Sixth Canto.

The date of the supposed events is immediately subsequent to the great Battle of Marston-moor, 3d July, 1644. This period of public confusion has been chosen, sothont any purpose of combining the Fable with the Military or Political Events of the Civil War, but only as affording a degree of probability to the Fictitious Narrative now presented to the Public.

When conscience, with remorse and fear,
Goads sleeping fancy's wild career.
Her light seem'd now the blush of shame,
Seem'd now fierce anger's darker flame,
Shifting that shade, lo come and go,
Like apprehension's hurried glow;
Then sorrow's livery dims the air,
And dies in darkness, like despair.
Such varied hues the warder sees
Reflected from the woodland Tees,
Then from old Baliol's tower looks forth,
Sees the clouds mustering in the north,
Hears, upon turrel-roof and wall,
By fits the plashing rain-drop fall,
Lists to the brecze's boding sound,
And wraps bis shaggy mantle rouod.



Those towers, which in the changeful gleam
Throw murky shadows on the stream,
Those towers of Barnard hold a guest,
The emotions of whose troubled breast,
In wild and strange confusion driven,
Rival the Oitting rack of heaven.
Ere sleep stern Oswald's senses tied.
Oft had he changed his weary side,
Composed his limbs, and vainly sought
By effort strong to banish thought.
Sleep came at length, but with a train
Of feelings true and fancies vain,
Mingling, in wild disorder cast,
The expected future with the past.

Tas moon is in her summer glow,
But hoarse and high the breezes blow,
And, racking o'er her face, the cloud
Varies the tincture of her shroud;
Og Barnard's towers, and Tees's stream, (1)
Sbe changes as a guilty dream,

Discourse on Diels, and the work on the same subject, | its having been the scene of a courtly amusement al-
« si gentement écrit,» by the venerable Dr Paris de luded to by Sir David Lindsay, who says of the past-
Puteo. The Highlanders continued to use broadsword | times in which the young king was engaged,
and target until disarmed after the affair of 1745-6.

Some hari'd him to the Hurly-hacket ;
Note 8. Stanza xvi.

which consisted in sliding, in some sort of chair it may
Like mountain-cat who guards her young,
Full at Fitz-James's throat he sprung.

be supposed, from top to bottom of a smooth bank.

The boys of Edinburgh, about twenty years ago, used I have not ventured to render this duel so savagely desperate as that of the celebrated Sir Ewan of Lochiel,

to play at the hurly-liacket on the Calton-hill, using chief of the clan Cameron, called, from his sable com

for their seat a horse's skull. plexion, Ewan Dhu. He was the last man in Scotland

Note 10. Stanza xx. who maintained the royal cause during the great civil

The burghers hold their sports to-day, war, and his constant incursions rendered him a very unpleasant neighbour to the republican garrison at In

Every burgh of Scotland, of the least note, but more verlochy, now Fort William. The governor of the

especially the considerable towns, had their solemn fort detached a party of three hundred men to lay waste

en to lou wasto play, or festival, when feats of archery were exhibited, Lochiel's possessions, and cut down his trees; but, in a

and prizes distributed to those who excelled in wrestling, sudden and desperate attack, made upon them by the

hurling the bar, and the other gymnastic exercises of chieftain, with very inferior numbers, they were al

the period. - Stirling, a usual place of royal residence, most all cut to pieces.

was not likely to be deficient in pomp upon such occani The skirmish is detailed in a curious memoir of Sir Ewan's life, printed in the Ap

sions, especially since James V. was very partial to them,

His ready participation in these popular amusements pendix of Pennant's Scottish Tour.

was one cause of his acquiring the title of King of the « In this engagement, Lochiel himself had several

Commons, or Rex Plebeiorum, as Lesley has latinized wonderful escapes. In the retreat of the English, one lit. The usual prize to the best shooter was a silver arof the strongest and bravest of the officers retired be

row. Such a one is preserved at Selkirk and at Peebles hind a bush, when he observed Lochiel pursuing, and

At Dumfries, a silver gun was substituted, and the code seeing him unaccompanied with any, he leaped out,

tention transferred to firearms. The ceremony, as and thought him his prey. They met one another with

"|"there performed, is the subject of an excellent Scottish equal fury. The combat was long and doubtful: the

poem, by Mr John Mayne, entitled the Siller Gun, 1808, English gentleman had by far the advantage in strength

which surpasses the efforts of Fergusson, and comes and size; but Lochiel exceeding him in nimbleness and

near those of Burns. agility, in the end tript the sword out of his hand: they! Of James's attachment to archery, Pitscottie, ibe closed, and wrestled, till both fell to the ground, in faithful, though rude recorder of the mangers of that each other's arms. The English officer got above Lo

I period, has given us evidence: chiel, and preged him hard, but stretching forth his

«In this year there came an ambassador out of neck, by attempting to disengage himself, Lochiel,

England, named Lord William Floward, with a bishop who by this time had his hands at liberty, with his with him, with many other gentlemen, to the dum

umber left hand seized him by the collar, and jumping at his of threescore horse, which were all the able men a extended throat, he bit it with his teeth quite through, waled (picked) men for all kind of games and pastimes, and kept such a hold of his grasp, that he brought shooting. Jouping, running, wrestling, and castrag away his mouthful: this, he said, was the sweetest bit

the stone, but they were well 'sayed (essayed or tried he ever had in his lifetime.»— Vol. I, p. 375.

ere they past out of Scotland, and that by their own Note 9. Stanza xx.

provocation; but ever they tint; till at last, the Queet -Ye towers! within whose circuit dread

of Scotland, the king's mother, favoured the English A Douglas by his sovereign bled,

men, because she was the King of England's sister : and And thou, O sad and fatal mound !

therefore she took an enterprise of archery upon the That oft bast heard the death-axe sound.

English-men's hands, contrary her son the king, and Stirling was often polluted with noble blood. It is any six in Scotland that he would wale, either great thus apostrophized by J. Johnston:

men or yeomen, that the English-men should shed -- Discordia tristis

against them, either at pricks, revers, or buts, as ibe Hou quotios procerum sanguine tinxit humum !

Scots pleased.
Hoc nuo infelix, et felix cetera, nusquam

« The king hearing this of his mother, was content, Lætior aut cæli frons geniusve soli.

and gart her pawn a hundred crowns, and a fua of The fate of William, eighth Earl of Douglas, whom wine, upon the English-men's hands; and he James II. stabbed in Stirling Castle with his own hand, nent laid down as much for the Scottish-men, and while under his royal safe-conduct, is familiar to field and ground was chosen in St Andrews, a

three all who read Scottish history. Murdack Duke of Allanded men and three yeomen chosen to shoot bany, Duncan Earl of Lennox, his father-in-law, and the English-men, to wit, David Wemyss of his two sons, Walter and Alexander Stuart, were execut-| David Arnot of that ilk, and Mr John W ed at Stirling, in 1425. They were beheaded upon an vicar of Dundee; the yeomen, Jobo Thomson, eminence without the castle walls, but making part of Steven Taburner, with a piper, called Alexand the same bill, from whence they could behold their they shot very near, and wårred (worsted) strong castle of Doune, and their extensive possessions.men of the enterprise, and wan the handse This « heading hill,» as it was sometimes termed, bears and the tun of wine, which made the king very commonly the less terrible name of Hurly-hacket, from that his men wan the victory.»-P. 147.



s of that

Warred (worsted) the Eagad

Note II. Stanza xxii.

proud, and that they had too high a conceit of them- - Robin Ilood.

selves, joined with a contempt and despising of all The exhibition of this renowned outlaw and his band others. Wherefore, being wearied of that life, and sas a favourite frolic at such festivals as we are de remembering the king's favour of old towards him, he scribing. This sporting, in which kings did not disdain determined to try the king's mercifulness and clemency. to be actors, was prohibited in Scotland upon the Re- So he comes into Scotland, and, taking occasion of the formation, by a statute of the 6th Parliament of Queen king's hunting in the park at Stirling, he casts himself Mars. c. 61. A. D. 1555. which ordered. under heavy to be in his way, as he was coming home to the castle. penalties, that « na manner of person be chosen Robert So soon as the king saw him afar off, ere he came Hude, por Little John, Abbot of Unreason, Queen of near, he guessed it was he, and said to one of his May, nor otherwise. But 1561, «the rascal multi courtiers, yonder is my Gray-Steill, Archibald of Kilstude > says John Knox, « were 'stirred up to make a pindie, if he be alive. The other answered, that it Robin Hade, whilk enormity was of mony years left could not be he, and that he durst not come into the and damned by statute and act of Parliament; yet king's presence. The king approaching, he fell upon would they not be forbidden.» Accordingly they raised his knees and craved pardon, and promised from a very serious tumult, and at length made prisoners thenceforward to abstain from medaling in public afthe magistrates who endeavoured to suppress it, and fairs, and to lead a quiet and private life. The king would not release them till they extorted a formal went by, without giving him any answer, and trotted a promise that no one should be punished for his share good round pace up the hill. Kilspindie followed, and, of the disturbance. It would seem, from the com though he wore on him a secret, or shirt of mail, for plaints of the General Assembly of the Kirk, that these his particular enemies, was as soon at the castle-gate as profane festivities were continued down to 1592.1 Bold the king. There he sat him down upon a stone withRobin was, to say the least, equally successful in maio- out, and entreated some of the king's servants for a aming his ground a zainst the reformed clergy of Eng. cup of drink, being weary and thirsty, but they, feartand: for the simple and evangelical Latimer com- ing the king's displeasure, durst give him none. When plains of coming to a country church, where the people the king was set at his dinner, he asked what he had refused to hear him, because it was Robin Hood's day. done, what he had said, and whither he had gone? and his mitre and rochet were fain to give way to the I was told him that he had desired a cup of village pastime. Much curious information on this drink, and had gotten none. The king reproved them subject may be found in the Preliminary Dissertation / very sharply for their discourtesy, and told them, that to the late Mr Kitson's edition of the songs respecting if he had not taken an oath that no Douglas should this memorable outlaw. . The game of Robin Hood

ever serve him, he would have received him into his was usually acted in May; and he was associated with service, for he had seen him some time a man of great the morrice-dancers, on whom so much illustration ability. Then he sent him word to go to Leith, and has been bestowed by the commentators on Shakspeare.

expect his further pleasure. Then some kinsman of A very lively picture of these festivities, containing a

David Falconer, the canonier that was slain at Tantallon, great deal of curious information on the subject of the

began to quarrel with Archibald about the matter, private life and amusements of our ancestors, was

wherewith the king shewed himself not well pleased thrown by the late ingenious Mr Strutt, into his ro

when he heard of it. Then he commanded him to go mance entitled Queen-Hoo-Hall published, after his

to France for a certain space, till he heard further dath, in 1808.

from him. And so he did, and died shortly after. This

gave occasion to the king of England (Henry VIII.), to . Note 12. Stanza xxii.

blame his nephew, alleging the old saying, That a king's Indifferent as to archer wight,

face should give grace. For this Archibald (whatThe monarch gave the arrow bright. The Douglas of the poem is an imaginary person, a

soever were Angus's or Sir George's fault) had not been - supposed uncle of the Earl of Angus. But the king's

principal actor of any thing, nor no counsellor nor

stirrer up, but only a follower of his friends, and that behaviour during an unexpected interview with the Laird of Kilspindie, one of the banished Douglasses,

noways cruelly disposed.»--Hume of Godscroft, II, 107. tander circumstances similar to those in the text, is

Note 13. Stanza xxiii. imitated from a real story told by Hume of Godscroft.

Prize of the wrestling match, the king I would have availed myself more fully of the simple

To Douglas cave a golden ring. and affecting circumstances of the old history, had The usual prize of a wrestling was a ram and a ring, they not been already woven into a pathetic ballad by but the animal would have embarrassed my story. my friend Mr Finlay. .

Thus in the Cokes Tale of Gamelyn, ascribed to Chaucer: * lis (the king's) implacability (towards the family of Douglas) did also appear in his carriage towards

There bapped to be there beside Archibald of Kilspindie, whom he, when he was child,

Tryed a wrestling;

And therefore there was y-setten loved singularly well for his ability of body, and was

A ram and als a ring. Font to call him bis Gray-Steill. 3 Archibald being banished into England, could not well comport with

Again the Litil Geste of Robin Hood: Ibe lumour of that nation, which he thought to be too

- By 'n bridge was a wrestling,

And there taryed was he, Boek of the Universal Kirk, p. 414.

And there was all the best yemek Sz Scottish Historical and Romantic Ballads, Glasgow, 1808.

. Of all the west countrey.

A full fayre game there was set up, *ampion of popular romance. See Ellis', Romances, vol. II.

A white ball up yopighe,

ol. II, p. 117.

A great courser with saddle and brydle,

- wyll give them accordynge to my conscyence. With gold burnished full brycht; A payre of gloves, a red goldo ring,

Wyll ye all be content to fulfil my testament; howe A pipe of wyne, good fay;

say ye?-Sir, quod they, we be ryghte well contente to What man bereth him best I wis,

fulfyl your commaundement. Thane first, quod be, I The prise shall bear away.

wyll and give to the chapell of Sayat George, here in Rition'. Robin Hood, vol. I.

this castell, for the reparacions thereof, a thousande and five hundrede frankes: and I give to my lover, who hath

truly served me, two thousand and five hundrede CANTO V.

frankes: and also I give to Aleyne Roux, your new ca

p'tayne, four thousande frankes : also to the varlettes of Note 1. Stanza iii.

mychambrel gyve fyve hundrede frankes. To mine offyThese drew not for their fields the sword,

cers I give a thousande and five hundrede frankes. The Like tenants of a feudal lord,

rest 1 gyve and bequeth as I shall show you. Ye be upon Nor own'd the patriarchal claim

a thyrtie companyons all of one sorte: ye ought to be Of chieftain in their leader's name ;

brethrene, and all of one alyaunce, without debate, ryotte, Adventurers they.The Scottish armies consisted chiefly of the nobility ve shall'fynde in yonder cheste. I wylle that ye departe

or stryffe among you. All this that I have showed you and barons, with their vassals, who held lands under all the residue equally and truelly bitwene you thyrtie. them, for military service by themselves and their te- And if ve bc nat thus contente, but that the devylle nants. The patriarchal influence exercised by the

ence exercised by the wyll set debate bitwene you, than beholde yonder is a heads of clans in the lighlands and Borders was of a strong axe, breke up the coffer, and gette it who caudifferent nature, and sometimes at variance with feudal |--To these words every one ansuered and said, Sir, and principles. It flowed from the Patria Potestas exer- dere ma

r dere maister, we are and shall be all of one accorde. cised by the chieftain, as representing the original fa- Sir, we have so much loved and doated you, that we ther of the whole name, and was often obeyed in con- I will breke no coffer, nor breke no poynt of that ye tradiction to the feudal superior. James V. seems have ordavned and commanded.»-Lord BERNERS first to have introduced, in addition to the militia fur

Froissart. nished from these sources, the service of a small number of mercenaries, who formed a body-guard, called

Note 2. Stanza vi. the Foot-Band.

Thou now hast glee-maiden and harp!
The satirical poet, Sir David Lindsay

Get thee an ape, and trudge the land, (or the person who wrote the prologue to his play of

The leader of a juggler band. the « Three Estaites»), has introduced Finlay of the The jongleurs, or jugglers, as we learn from the elaFoot-Band, who, after much swaggering .upon the borate work of the late Mr Strutt, on the sports and stage, is at length put to flight by the fool, who terrifies pastimes of the people of England, used to call in the him by means of a sheep's skull upon a pole. I have aid of various assistants, to render these performances rather chosen to give them the harsh features of the as captivating as possible. The glee-maiden was a nemercenary soldiers of the period, than of this Scottish cessary attendant. Her duty was tumbling and dance Thraso. These partook of the character of the Adven- ing; and therefore the Anglo-Saxon version of Sains turous Companions of Froissart, or the Condottieri of Mark's Gospel states Herodias to have vaulted or tumItaly.

bled before King Herod. In Scotland, these poor creaOne of the best and liveliest traits of such mannerstures seem, even at a late period, to have been bondsis the last will of a leader, called Geoffroy Tete Noir. I women to their masters, as appears from a case rewho having been slightly wounded in a skirmish, his ported by Fountainhall. «Reid the mountebank purintemperance brought on a mortal disease. When he sues Scot of Harden and his lady, for stealing away from found himself dying, he summoned to his bed-side the him a little girl, called the tumbling-lassie, that danced adventurers whom he commanded, and thus addressed upon his stage ; and he claimed damages, and pro them:

duced a contract, whereby he bought her from her mea Fayre sirs, quod Geffray, I knowe well ye have al-ther for 3ol. Scots. But we have no slaves in Scotland, wayes served and honoured me as men ought to serve and mothers cannot sell their bairnes; and physicians their soveraygne and capitayne, and I shal be the glad attested, the employment of tumbling would kill ber der if ye will agre to have to your capitayne one that is and her joints were now grown stiff, and she declined descended of my blode. Behold here Aleyne Roux, my to return; though she was at least a 'prentice, and so cosyn, and Peter his brother, who are men of armes I could not run away from her master: yet some . and of my blode. I require you to make Aleyne your Moses's law, that if a servant shelter himself with thee, capitayde, and to swere to him faythe, obeysaunce, against his master's cruelty, thou shalt surely por love, and loyalte, here in my presence, and also to his liver him up. The lords, renitente cancellario, ass brother: howe be it, I will that Aleyne have the sove- zied Harden, on the 27th of January (1687).*-rayne charge.-Sir, quod they, we are well content, for TAINHALL's Decisions, vol. I, p. 439.' ye hauve right well chosen. There all the companyons

"Though less to my purpose, I cannot belp noticing and made theym servyant to Aleyne Roux and to Peter his

stance, respecting another of this Mr Reid's attendaals, which brother. When all that was done, then Geffraye spake curred during James II.'s zeal for catholic proselytisen, and agayne, and sayd: Nowe, sirs, ye have obeyed to my by Fountainball with dry Scottish irony. January 1711, ".

Reid the mountebank is received into the popish church, and pleasure, I canne you great thanke: wherefore sirs

of his blackamores was persuaded to accept of baptism from wyll ye have parte of that ye have holpen to conquere. popish priests, and to turn christian papist; which ** I say unto you, that in yonder chest that ye se stande trophy: he was called James, after the king and chanceli yonder, therein is to the sum of xxx thousande fragkes, I the apostle James.1-Ibid. p. 410.


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