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the artillery commanded by Marmont rendered great services. The passage of the Adige, which was presumed as presenting great obstacles, was not disputed. Prince Charles had just been appointed Generalissimo of theimperial troops; he resolved upon proposing an armistice, which was signed at Steyer, the 25th December, 1800, and became General to the army of Italy by a convention, which General Marmont, authorized by General Brune, concluded with the Count of Hohenhollern, who represented General Bellegarde, at Treviso, January the 16th, 1801. It is from this period that we may date the extraordinary change which took place in the character of Marmont. He had been made Inspector-General of Artillery, and General in Chief of the army of Holland. His marriage had rendered him one of the richest individuals of France, and his devotedness one of the greatest favourites of the First Consul. Those same Officers with whom he had lived in much familiarity in Italy and in Egypt, he easily accustomed himself not to recognise, and he has been heard to reply to similar remembrances sometimes, by saying, “It may be so, but I do not recollect it:" and very often by turning his back upon those importunate visitors. During his stay in Holland, he employed himself in erecting pyramids by his soldiers, in honour of Napoleon: he was detested both by his army and the inhabitants, whom he treated on every occasion with haughtiness and contempt: the latter made him feel he was not the same man who, in 1800, was so polite when soliciting a loan of some millions on the part of Buonaparte; he increased his bad treatment to that degree, that the good Dutch people rendered sincere thanks to Providence, when in 1805, he was called to the grand army: his troops were in the organization, comprised under the name of the 2d corps. They consisted of the divisions of infantry, coinmanded by Generals Boudet, Grouchy, and Dumonceau, and in the division of light horse commanded by General Lacoste. After having passed the Rhine at Cassel, Marmont directed his march upon Wurtzburg, where he effected hisjunction with the Bavarians and the corps of the army of Marshal Bernadotte, on the 2d of October, 1805. He received orders to proceed towards the Danube, to cross that river, and to take position between Aicha and Augsburg. General Mack having shut himself up in Ulm, Buonaparte ordered the 2d corps to proceed by forced marches to Illersheim, to favour the movement of General Soult upon Memingen, and afterwards to come and co-operate in the blockade of Ulm, on the right bank of the Danube. That place having capitulated, Marmont served at first as a reserve to the grand army, and was afterwards detached towards Styria, to threaten the left of the Austro-Russian army, and harass the rear of the army of Italy, commanded by the Archduke Charles. This destimation, where he had but to fight against a few partisans in the environs of Leoben, prevented him from being at the battle of Austerlitz. After the peace of Presburgh, Marmont repaired with the French troops under his orders, into the Frioul, to guard the frontier of the kingdom of Italy. Buonaparte, always suspicious, had carried his mistrast so far, as not to distribute cartridges to the Dutch who made a part of Marmont's corps. General Dumonceau having complained of this disposition, as humiliating and dangerous, Marmont alleged the great want the other corps of the grand army were in for them, Some sycophants have flattered Marmont, by exaggerating into engagements some few musket shots fired on the 8th of November, at Weyer, on the 13th of the same month at Leoben, between Marmont's sharp-shooters, and some Austrian partisans. The truth is, that the campaign of 1805 against Austria, was to Marmont and his troops, but a continuation of marches, fatiguing throughout, on account of the difficulty of the roads, and the rigour of the season. He had to regret his not being in the different battles, as he lost the opportunity of instructing himself, by not being present in the fine military movements which took place towards the end of the campaign, notwithstanding which, he was created Duke of Ragusa. During his stay at Udina, Marmont had a very warm dispute with General Grouchy: he had ordered that General to occupy with his division, cantonments very unwholesome, and too poor to provide for his troops. Grouchy obeyed, but remonstrated after he had executed the movement prescribed. . He made Marmont sensible of the impropriety of his dispositions, giving him to understand, that as he was his senior in rank, as General of Division, he consequently ought to pay attention to the observations of a man, his superior in experience. Marmont, stung to the quick, answered him haughtily; “Know, General Grouchy, that I am one of those Generals in Chief, who are never to be dictated to." Grouchy gave him a smile of pity, and measuring Marmont from head to toe, placed his hand upon the hilt of his sword, telling him they were both Generals of Division. Marmont had him put under arrest, and requested his change from Buonaparte, which was immediately granted. Grouchy was put at the head of a division of dragoons, in which he distinguished himself at the battle of Friedland. In 1809, Marmont commanded the army of Dalmatia. Prince John summoned him to surrender, by his letter of the 17th of April. Although this prince's letter was very polite and conformable to the duties prescribed by honour and the laws of war, Marmont had the insolence not to make any reply to it. After having fought the engagements of Montkitta and Gradschatz, he arrived with his army on the 28th May, at Fiume, where he made his junction with the army of Italy, which had obtained some successes over the Archduke John. Marmont had under his orders about 10,000 effective inen. In his reports he gave very great praise to General Clauxel, who ought to have been considered for his ability and experience, as the real General in Chief of that army, but he complained bitterly of General Montrichard. In speaking of the affair of Ottochatz, which was only a skirmish, Marmont says, in his report of the 30th of May, 1809, “If General Montrichard had not been three hours behind hand, the rear of the enemy would have becn evidently destroyed, the artillery and baggage taken, &c.” He concludes by saying, “All our wishes will be fully gratified, sire, if what we have done should obtain the approbation of your majesty.” When Buonaparte resolved to attack the Austrian army at Wagram", he united all his forces. The Duke of Ragusa's corps crossed the Danube, on the night between the 4th and 5th July, and formed a part of the reserve. On the 6th, it was placed in the centre, with the corps of Graeral Oudinot, and on the 7th it pursued the Austrians in the direction of Znaim. After - the armistice, Marmont quartered his troops in the circle of Kornneuburg,

* For a correct Narrative of the Operations of this Battle, vide Military Panorama, Vol. I. page 413; which is accompanied by Two Plans, shewing the positions of the armics on the 5th and 6th July 1809.

and when Buonaparte wished to appear to intimidate Austria, by making the whole of the grand army take positions towards the latter end of July, Marmont's troops encamped upon the heights of Krems.

Succeeded in Dalmatia by General Court Bertrand, Marmont was appointed to supersede Massena, in the command of the army called that of Portugal-he must be considered as entirely under the orders of Soult: he might have been crushed in his movement from Ciudad Rodrigo to Badajoz, by the bridge of Almaraz, if he had been opposed by an army equal to the proposed plan. Hisjunction with Soult forced Lord Wellington to raise the siege of Badajoz, but the French knew not, or perhaps were not to profit by this first advantage. His union with Dorsenne, the 24th of September, under the walls of Ciudad Rodrigo, afforded him a fine occasion of giving his first battle as General in Chief. The 25tb, he had not his troops. The 26th, he hesitated, and on the 27th, when the English had evacutated Fonteguinaldo, he complains highly that he was not waited for. This conduct proves clearly to us that Marmont dreaded the issue of a general engagement, and that if Lord Wellington had remained in bis intrenched camp, the French, with all their bragging, would have retired upon the right bank of the Agueda, very well satisfied with having re-victualled Ciudad Rodrigo.

TRANCENDENT MERIT DIVERSELY REWARDED. CALIGULA made his charioteer a present of five hundred thousand crowns, because he possessed the extraordinary talent of driving six in hand, secundum artem ; the Athenians raised a statue to Aristotle, for having displayed much science in the Tennis-court; Sultan Osman, having observed one of his inferior gardeners plant a cabbage gracefully, made him Viceroy of Cyprus; Henry VIII. of pious, clement, and amiable memory, created his chief cook a Baron, because he excelled all his contemporaries in the sublime art of dressing tripe ; Cardinal Richelieu, being informed that the Abbé Godeau, a wretchedly ignorant priest, had put Grace before meat into the most unpoetical jingle, sent for him, complimented him ironically on his composition, and, being in a fanciful humour, appointed him to the vacant bishopric of Grasse. To those Mirabilia may be added the extraordinary case of a British General, who though proverbially disqualified for his profession, obtained a regiment, merely because, being of a mechanical disposition, he knew how to make a watch, and when, and where, and through what medium to present it! This circumstance procured for the donor the appellation of the time-server, and that of the time-keeper, for the donee.

“ Munera, crede mihi, placant hominesque deosque !" Such is the omnipotence of corruption !--The General alluded to has been dead many years. Regiments are now given to the worthy only.

Leisure Moments in the Camp and Guard-Room. Vol. II.

P

RUSSIAN CAMPAIGNS.

(Continued from page 139.) THE British nation, ever liberal towards suffering patriotismn, could not view the deprivations and miseries occasioned to the Russian peasant and soldier in this struggle, without coming forward to their relief. Humanity, and even policy, demanded that we should afford every aid to the people who were contending for the freedom of the Continent. Their noble conduct had broken a link and made a chasm in the successes of the Tyrant of Europe, which all were bound to prevent being filled up: it had dissolved the Continental System, and afforded an opening to British manufactures in the Baltic: it had broken that chain in which British commerce and prosperity were held bound by their enemy. Various meetings were therefore convened throughout the country to afford such relief to the distressed Russians, as might in some degree compensate them for the very great sufferings and losses they had sustained from their merciless invader. Sums to a great amount were contributed by all classes of Britons, and these augmented by a parliamentary vote worthy of the character of the country, and the glorious cause in which Russia was engaged. The words of the late Mr. Windham were now fully verified, that "the Russian nation cannot yet have forgotten what it owes to the glorious memory of its great founder, and to that of Catharine II.-Nor can the Court of Petersburgh compromise the dignity of a sovereign, and so far divest royalty of honour, honesty, and of all the attributes of a legitimate government, as to countenance the crimes of the rulers of France.”

01 France.” The situation of affairs in Russia had induced Alexander to accord with the demands of Turkey, and thus to obtain a peace with that country. Russia had required the cession of Moldavia, Wallachia, and the establishment of the Danube as the southern boundary of her empire, but not confined herself to that part of Moldavia on the eastern bank of the Pruth.-- This peace afforded the ema peror the means of converting all bis forces to the expulsion of the invader; and, accordingly, the army which had been employed on the frontier, marched through the south of Poland, and united itself to the army which had been previously stationed in Volhynia.

Beauharnois was now conducting the 4th corps of the army from Viasma towards Witepsk, a distance of one hundred and thirty miles N. W. by the way of Douchovchina. Viasma, by the main western road through Dorogobuz, is about eighty-five miles from

Smolensko, and the latter place is sixty miles from Witepsk. Within this triangle, therefore, were the following operations carried on. On the 7th of November Beauharnois was attacked by Platow, who forced the corps to separate, one part pursuing its former course, the other wandering away to the left. Beauharnois underwent extreme hardships" on that day. In the course of it,

* As proofs of the extreme sufferings of the French army at this time, the two following documents are given, being intercepted letters from Eugene Beauharnois to Berthier.

Intercepted Letter from the Piceroy of Italy, Eugene Napoleon, to the Prince of Neufchatel, from Sasalie, Oct. 27, (Nov. 3) 1812. “I have the honour to acquaint your Highness, that I put myself in motion this morning at four o'clock, but the difficulties of the ground, and the slippery ice, have occasioned such obstacles to the march of my corps of the army, that its head alone could arrive here at six in the evening, and the tail of the colnmns was compelled to take up a position two leagues in the rear. “From two till five o'clock the enemy made his appearance on my right. He attacked nearly at the same time the head, the centre, and the tail of my columns, with artillery, Cossacks, and dragoons. In the van-guard he found a gap, of which he took advantage to make an inroad, and carry off two regimental cannon, which were on a steep declivity, and at some distance from their escorts. The 9th regiment of infantry hastened to the spot, but the pieces were already carried off. “The enemy fired on our rear-guard with four pieces of cannon, and General Oranno believes, though without affirming it as certain, that he saw some infantry. On each of the other points the enemy had two pieces of cannon. “Your Highness will readily perceive, that, embarrassed by my heavy baggage, which has been replaced in my hands, and by a numerous artillery, of the horses attached to which, 400, without exaggeration, have died this day, my situation is critical enough. Nevertheless, I shall continue my movement very early to-morrow morning, in order to reach Pologhi. There I shall expect information, and according to what I learn there, I will decide on marching either to Douchovchina, or to Pnevo. “I must not conceal from your Highness, that after using every effort in my power, I have yet found it impossible to drag Iny artillery, and that in this respect, very great sacrifices must be expected. To-day many pieces were spiked and buried.—l au, &c.”

Letter from the same to the same, at the time of crossing the river Pop, Oct. 27, (Nov. 8, 1812. “Herewith enclosed I address to your Highness the letter which I wrote you yesterday, but which did not reach you, the officer who was the bearer having been misled by his guide. r “Your Highness will be surprised at learning that I am still only upon the Vop. I nevertheless set out this morning from Sasessie at five o'clock; but the road is so cut up with ravins, that incredible efforts were necessary to advance even thus far. It is with pain that I feel myself under the severe necessity of acknowledging to you the sacrifices which we have made to accelerate our march. These three last days have cost us two-thirds of the artillery of this corps of the army. Yesterday about 400 horses died; and to-day, perhaps, double that number have perished, exclusive of the great number of horses which I have caused to be put on for the

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