vivacity and engaging manners made him the centre of attraction. Every such occasion was used as a means of setting before the members the great advantages that would arise from the consummation of the plan proposed.

In the first place, Congress could thus pay a large amount of the national debt to its most worthy creditors without money. Again, it would open up the northwest to settlement, thus insuring large sales of land to others than soldiers. And further, it would establish a barrier between the older settlements and the western Indians, thus furnishing protection without expense to the Government.

In three or four days he had so fully succeeded in enlisting the favor of Congress that on the 9th, a new committee was appointed to prepare a frame of government for the Territory. This committee was composed of Colonel Carrington and Richard Henry Lee of Virginia, Mr. Kean of South Carolina, Mr. Smith of New York, and Mr. Dane of Massaehusetts. It is quite probable that the members of this committee were selected in accordance with Dr. Cutler's wishes.

The next morning after this committee was appointed, it called Dr. Cutler into its councils, having previously sent him a copy of the ordinance spoken of in the last article, which had already passed two readings, and asked him to make suggestions and propose amendments. This he did, returning the paper to the committee, with his suggestions.

At this date, July 10, he left for Philadelphia for the purpose of visiting his scientific correspondents, Dr. Franklin and Dr. Rush, and also to look in upon the Constitutional Convention, which was then in session.

The next day after his departure, th: committee presented to Congress a new ordinance prepared in accordance with his suggestions. If Mr. Force could have had access to Dr. Cutler's diary in writing up the history of the Ordinance of 1787, the mystery of the sudden and radical changes that he found between the 9th and the nth of July, would have vanished. It would have answered for him another question that seemed to puzzle him so much; viz., how a committee, in which a majority were southern men, had been secured in favor of such an ordinance.

On the 18th he was again in New York. On the 19th he made this entry in his diary: “Called on members of Congress very early in the morning, and was furnished with the ordinance establishing a government in the western Federal territory. It is, in a degree, new modeled. The amendments I proposed have all been made except one, and that is better qualified.”

The frame of government having been satisfactorily settled, Congress proceeded to state the conditions on which the sale of lands should be based. On the 20th these terms were shown to Dr. Cutler, who rejected them. He says: “I informed the committee that I should not contract on the terms proposed; that I should greatly prefer purchasing lands from some of the states, who would give incomparably better terms; and therefore proposed to leave the city immediately."

At this time a number of leading persons who held government certificates proposed to make Dr. Cutler their agent for the purchase of lands for themselves. This would give him control of some four millions more of the debt with which to influence Congress. He agreed to act for them on condition of secrecy. That same day he dined with a large party of gentlemen, and further worked up his scheme. The next day several members called on him, and finding him apparently determined not to act on their conditions, and that he proposed leaving immediately, they assured him that he had many friends among them, and that Congress was disposed to give him better terms. peared very indifferent, and they became more and more anxious. His ruse, for such he meant it to be, was working admirably. He finally told them that if Congress would accede to his terms, he would extend his proposed purchase, so that Congress could pay more than four millions of the public debt; that the intention of his company was an actual, a large and immediate settlement of the most robust and industrious people in America, which would instantly enhance the value of federal lands. On his own terms he would renew the negotiations if Congress was disposed to take the matter up again.

On the 24th he wrote out his terms and sent them to the Board of Treasury, who had been empowered to complete the contract.

He ap

He says,

These terms specified that the general government should survey the tract at its expense; stated the manner of payment, the number of payments, and the time the deed should be given, etc. But the most striking provisions were, that in addition to the 16th section of each township, set apart by the act of 1785, for the support of free schools, the 29th section of each township should be given perpetually for the ministry; and that two entire townships should be set apart, without expense to the company, for the establishment and maintenance of a university.

These terms called forth considerable opposition, and taxed the lobbying powers of the Doctor to their utmost. “Every machine in the city that it was possible to set to work, we now set in motion.” “My friends made every exertion in private conversation to bring over my opponents. In order to get at some of them so as to work powerfully on their minds, we were obliged to engage three or four persons before we could get at them. In some instances we engaged one person, who engaged a second, and he a third, and so on to the fourth before we could effect our purpose.

In these maneuvers I am much beholden to Col. Duer and Maj. Sargent.

It had been the purpose of the company to secure for Gen. Parsons the Governorship of the new Territory, but it became known that Gen. St. Clair had an ambition in that direction. Gen. St. Clair was withholding his influence. Dr. Cutler sought an interview with him. After that,” says the Doctor, “our matters went on much better.” It will be remembered that General St. Clair became the first Governor of the Northwest Territory.

On the 27th Congress directed the Board of Treasury " to take order and close the contract.That evening Dr. Cutler left New York for his home, authorizing Maj. Sargent to act in his stead. On the 29th of August the Doctor made a report to the directors. and agents at a meeting in Boston. A great number of proprietors were in attendance, all of whom fully approved of the proposed contract.

The contract was finally executed October 27, 1787.
The next paper will discuss the Influences of the Ordinance.

DEPARTMENT OF PEDAGOGY. [This Department is conducted by S. S. Parr, Principal De Pauw Normal School.]




THE editor of this department will probably be labeled by many of his readers a "growler” or a “crank." Well !

all right! When growling will not be necessary the world will be much nearer the millenium than it is now. The present is a period of rapid development, which is always a period of humbug and shallowness. When the reflective period followig this shall come, many things that now boldly walk in the light of day will slink into the obscurity of twilight. One of these is the so-called observation-lesson. We have before us one labeled "An Observation Lesson - Differences between Horses and Cattle, by Dr. (?)


Have one toe. Usually with horns.

Never with horns. Without a mane.

Have a flowing mane. Pawing with fore-feet denotes an- Pawing with fore-feet usually de

notes hunger. Long hair in a tuft at end of tail. Tail covered with long coarse hair. Encircle food with the tongue and Seize grass with their lips and conconvey to mouth,

vey to their teeth in feeding. Lips slightly movable.

Lips very movable. Have no upper incisor teeth. Have upper and lower front teeth. Lie down fore parts first.

Lie down hind parts first. Rise on hind legs first.

Rise on fore-legs first. Shorter mouth. No vacant space Mouth long. Space between front

between incisor and molar teeth. and back teeth. Four stomachs. (Tripe is one of One stomach to hold about three them.)

gallons. Always chew the cud.

Do not chew the cud. Intestines small—120 feet long. Intestines large-60 feet long. Have gall bladder.

Have no gall-bladder. Can vomit.

Can not vomit. Can breathe through the mouth. Never breathe through the mouth. Mouth usually open when wearied. Never open the mouth from exDefence by hooking.

haustion, but only to eat or bite. Bellow or moo.

Defence by kicking. Do not perspire easily, if ever. Neigh or whinney.


Have dew lap.

Perspire easily. No warts inside of hind legs. No dew lap. Never use teeth in fighting. Hard oval warts inside hind legs. Do not retract the ears.

Use their teeth in fighting. Very rough tongue.

Retract the ears when angry. Broad triangular head.

Soft smooth tongue.
Wide ears.

Long narrow head.
Limbs formed for strength. Erect narrow ears.
Live twelve or eighteen years. Limbs formed for swiftness.
Do not roll over.

Live thirty or forty years.
Sleep with both ears alike. Lie down and roll over.
Seldom sleeps standing.

Sleep with one ear forward. Eat awhile and lie down to rumi- Often sleep standing. nate.

Eat all or most of time in pasture. Shoulders forward.

Shoulders slope back. No one would deny that the above states some real or assumed facts of interest. But that this parallelism and antithesis of statement constitute a lesson in observation quite another matter. Direction in observation should tell one where to look and how to look, but not what he should find. This goes one step too far and becomes the old-fashioned cramming of memory. The above lesson is to be given children without dealing with the objects direct. If the children were country children, they would already know many of the facts by recalling their previous observations. If they were town children, they would know fewer by observation, and the exercise would be more purely one of verbal memory. In either case there would be no study of the things, and hence no real, direct observation, but in its stead a memory-drill. The exercise would be better if the children were told when to look and how to look, and then lit look and discover what they could. Some of the assumed facts are of doubtful correctness. Cattle are said to be without a mane: how about the buffalo? “Pawing with fore-feet denotes anger”: every farm-boy has seen cattle paw and "hook” the ground in play. “Can vomit": but do not, etc., etc.

In the case of most of these “lessons,” the principal thing is the name, and they are only a sugar-coated way of giving oldfashioned doses of verbal memory-work.

S. S. P.

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