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Taken altogether the schools are certainly far above the average, and the spirit in them, which is the best part of any school, is certainly most excellent.
Mr. Hailman recognizes the fact that education is a growth and that time is a necessary element, and he provides for the development of all the child's powers. The nature of Mr. Hailman's work is such that its good effects can not be seen or felt at once, but time must prove its great value.
The above notes give faithfully the impressions received, and if the criticisms are too severe or the commendations too strong, pardon is asked for the one as readily as for the other.
NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION. This association will convene at Topeka, Kan., July 13-16, and the prospects now are that it will be as large a meeting as the one held two years ago at Madison, Wis. An excellent program is almost completed and other inducements are all that could be expected. Hotel rates are low and the citizens promise to entertain 5000 teachers at $1 a day. Half fare rates have been secured on the railroads, clear on to the Pacific coast if teachers wish to go so far.
State Supt. Holcombe is President of the Primary Section of the Association, and W. N. Hailman, Supt. of the La Porte schools, is President of the Kindergarten Section. These gentlemen have arranged to hold joint sessions of these departments, which will certainly add interest to both. Let Indiana send a good delegation.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
QUESTIONS PREPARED BY STATE BOARD FOR FEB.
[These questions are based on the Reading Circle work of last season. ) READING.- State three characteristics of good reading and your method of securing each of them.
State three things that the pupil should be able to do before attempting to recite a reading lesson.
3. State the difference, if any, between monotony in reading, and monotone.
4. What is the use of the punctuation marks in the readers?
5. Give your method for conducting a recitation in the Fourth Reader. 6. Read a selection chosen by the superintendent.
WRITING AND SPELLING.—The penmanship shown in the manuscripts of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 100, with reference to legibility (50), regularity of form (30), and neatness (20). The hand-writing of each pupil will be considered in itself, rather than with reference to standard models.
The orthography of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 100, and I will be deducted for each word incorrectly written.
SCIENCE OF TEACHING.–1. Explain how the subject of history affords culture to the imagination.
What two things are to be acquired in writing? 3. Illustrate in the subject of physiology the law of proceeding from the known to the related unknown. 4.
How does mental science assist one to understand the reasons for requiring silence in the school-room?
5. Define attention as an act of mind. What powers of mind are involved in an act of attention?
ARITHMETIC.- :-1. Upon what principle is the reduction of a fraction to its lowest terms based ? Illustrate.
5, 5.* 2. The difference of time between St. Louis and a city east of it is 1 hour, 20 minutes, 24 seconds. St. Louis is 90° 25' west longitude ; what is the longitude of the other city?
Proc. 5, ans. 5. 3. Write the following in words: 46.7021 ; 200,003; 70.00300 ; 809.05800; 308,504.
2 each. 4. What is the value of (129–76) X 1 of (1274–223) X2134X632?
Proc. 5, ans. 5. 5. A square farm contains 40 acres; what is the length of fence on one side?
Proc. 5, ans. 5. 6. A man owned of a steamboat and sold of his share for $18,000; what was the value of the steamboat?
7. The circumference of the forward wheel of a wagon is 15.5 feet; the circumference of the hind wheel is 16.8 feet; how many times will each revolve, and how many times will one revolve more than the other in moving 4}}} miles.
8. What is the interest, at 7 per cent., of $195.25, from Sept. 12, 1882, to Aug. 28, 1885?
9. State the two ways of multiplying a fraction by an integer. Illustrate by examples.
5, 5. 10. Define quantity, figure, proportion, interest, cube root. GEOGRAPHY, What is the latitude of a place situated on the tropic of Capricorn? On the Polar Circle?
2. Draw a map of the Gulf of Mezico, marking carefully the position of all states and countries which border it.
3. Name five mountain ranges of the Eastern Hemisphere that serve as boundary lines, stating the general direction of each.
4. Describe the course of a vessel from Trieste to Tokio, sailing east.
5. Draw a sketch of Egypt, placing upon it the Nile, Cairo and Alexandria.
6. Take an imaginary journey from Indianapolis due west to the Pacific Ocean, and tell what differences of climate you encounter.
7. State the difference between standard and local time, and give the reason for the difference.
8. Locate the following noted mountains: Hecla, Vesuvius, Popocatapetl, Katahdin, Black Mountain. 9. Explain, briefly, the causes of the ocean currents.
Describe the soil, climate, and chief productions of Ohio. GRAMMAR.-1. What are parts of speech? Name them.
How do you determine to what part of speech any word belongs? 3. What kind or kinds of objects may be expressed by each of the simple relative pronouns?
4. What kind or kinds of objects may be expressed by each of the interrogative pronouns?
5. When is a noun in the objective case?
For those that fly may fight again,
Which he can never do that's slain.
a. That custom has been formerly quite popular.
b. What sounds have each of the vowels? What is the difference between the synopsis and the conjugation of a verb?
PHYSIOLOGY.Give a full account of the processes of circulation and respiration, tracing a portion of the blood from a villus of the alimentary canal through the heart and lungs back to the same point.
HISTORY.-1. Why did the results of settlements in the eastern and northern parts of America differ so essentially from those in Central and South America ?
What led to the settlement of Rhode Island? How did this agree with the alleged cause for the settlement of the Massachusetts colonies?
5, 5. 3. What connection had Washington's services during the French and Indian War with his appointment as Commander-in-Chief in the Revolution?
4. What were some of the great objects of Washington in all the measures of his administration?
5. Name the States created from the Northwest Territory, and de
scribe the influence upon their growth of the Ordinance of 1787. 5, 5.
6. What singular feature marked the treaty of peace after the War of 1812? What was the moral effect of this?
7. Name in order those who filled the first ten presidential administrations under the Constitution.
8. How did the agitation of the slavery question promote the election of Lincoln ?
9. What expression of Seward showed how little the North realized the magnitude of the Rebellion? What battle aroused them to the real danger?
10. What was the Halifax Award?
ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS PUBLISHED IN MARCH. PHYSIOLOGY.—The human heart is a double organ, each side of two connecting chambers being separated from the other side by a thick wall, or septum. The upper chambers, called auricles (little ears), have thinner walls than and lie nearly at right angles with the lower chambers, or ventricles (little bellies). The auricles lie upon the top of the thick fleshy walls of the ventricles, and, usually, are very inaccurately represented in books. The heart is a tremendous force-pump. Its muscles, when not unduly stimulated by liquors, rest between each movement or beat, the rest being longer when one is lying down, or asleep in any position. Were it not for this rest, the heart-muscles would soon give out; for it is estimated that their work each day is equal to that required to lift twenty-one tons one foot high.
The heart is enclosed in a small serous sack, the pericardium. The oily fluid secreted by this membranous sack prevents friction. An increase of this fuid without a corresponding increase in absorption produces the disease known as dropsy of the heart, the pressure of the accumulated "water" gradually increasing until it stops the heart's motion.
Tubes pouring blood in the direction of the heart are called veins; those carrying blood away from the heart, arteries. The veins have thinner walls than the arteries. They also have valves in them, which are lacking in the arteries, because, in the arteries, valves would be hindrances, not helps to the circulation of the blood. You can detect the presence of these valves in the veins by compressing a vein upon the back of the hand with one finger while pressing the blood above a valve with another. Both arteries and veins have three coats except where connecting with the capillaries, when the wall of each is composed of a single thin membrane. The largest artery, the one passing out from the left ventricle of the heart, is the great aorta; the largest veins, those entering the right auricle of the heart, are the ascending and the descending venae cavae.
The arteries end in the capillaries. The veins begin in them. Through the thin capillary walls the elements of renewing life pass out and bathe the cells of the various tissues of the body. A portion of the unused material and a portion of the waste or used-up material passes back toward the heart directly through the veins; other portions through the lymphatics, which empty into the large veins before the latter reach the heart. The blood is the fluid by means of which this interchange of substances takes place.
READING.–1. Three characteristics of good oral reading : distinctness of enunciation, accuracy of pronunciation, expression. Three characteristics of good silent reading : close attention, accurate knowledge of the meaning lying behind the word-form, ability quickly to interpret the thought and to realize the sentiment expressed through these word-forms properly associated.
Means of securing distinctness of enunciation, practice upon the elementary sounds singly and in association; of securing accurate pronunciation, the diacritical marks and the dictionary; of securing expression, good silent reading, general culture, practice.
Means of securing close attention, interest, habit; of seeing the word vanish in the thing, proper primary instruction; of obtaining rapid realization of the thoughts and the emotions of a selection, (1) less attention to the mannerisms of oral reading, (2) less attention of the pupil to himself as the “ performer” of the reading hour, (3) concentration of the pupil's mind upon the circumstances, the purposes, the outer and inner life, of the character or of the actions portrayed, etc., (4) analysis of short selections which may awake the imagination, the reason, or the feelings of the pupil until he forgets himself in the thought of another.
2. Rhetorical pauses are pauses of expression. They frequently occur where there are no punctuation marks.
3. If the reading lesson be regarded as a study in literature, the first thing to consider is its character, i. e., whether explanatory, narrative, descriptive, argumentative, persuasive, etc. The character of the piece will naturally lead to the purpose of the author in its production. This may involve some study of the author's personality. It may involve also something of the circumstances which gave rise to the production studied. This will probably introduce the features of the production as a work of art and of genius, thus resulting in a discussion of its intrinsic merits.
4. Three American writers of fiction, with one work of each, are: J. Fenimore Cooper, “ The Last of the Mohicans”; Nathaniel Hawthorne, “Septimius Felton”; Washington Irving, “The Knickerbocker History of New York”.
5. From the study of good literature may be obtained an improvement in one's language, a better style of expression, a wider range of