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thought, new subjects of thought, nobler sentiments, pleasures of a beneficial kind for leisure hours, ability to make others happier and better, etc.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-1. An appositive modifier denotes the same person or thing as the word which it modifies; a possessive modifier, a different person or thing.

2. Deer, sheep, swine. Scissors, ashes, snuffers.

3. The masculine gender refers to objects of the male sex, the feminine to objects of the female sex, and the neuter to objects that have

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no sex.

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4. “I tell you that which ye yourselves do know," is a complex declarative sentence, of which “ I tell you that” is the principal, and " which ye yourselves do know" is the subordinate clause. “I” is the subject nom. unmodified; “tell", the pred. verb, is modified by the indirect object "you", and the direct object “ that”. The pronominal “that” is modified by the clause " which ye yourselves do know.” Of the subordinate, "ye" is the subject, modified by the emphatic reflexive yourselves"; "which ” is the connective and also the objective modifier of “do know", the subordinate predicate verb.

5. The “passive voice” is made by annexing the past participle of
transitive verbs to the different tenses of the verb " be."
6. (a) Present tense with future signification.

(6) Past tense denoting past time.”
(c) Past tense denoting present time, and implying that the

supposition is contrary to fact.
(d) A customary action or universal truth is expressed by the

the present tense. 7. (a) “I feel so bad about it.” The subject is described, rather

than the manner of the verb. (6) The sentence is correct. 8. There are six tenses: three represent absolute time, and three relative time. The three simple tenses are present, past, and future. We may think of actions as completed in any of these times, giving rise to present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses.

9. The passive voice represents the subject as receiving the action, and, therefore, is confined to transitive verbs.

10. The infinitive expresses the act or state without predicating anything, and consequently is not limited by person and number

GEOGRAPHY. Boston, New York, Norfolk, Charleston, San Francisco. On a sea-coast, a good harbor is favorable to the building up of foreign commerce, and thus the growth and prosperity of a commercial city are secured.

2. The two states resemble each other in fertility of soil, in having

on. They frequent

cudy in literature. ther explanatory, tc. The characte e author in its poc thor's personaliti ces which gave the ntroduce the features , thus resulting in ai

2.-I.

n one work of eact, as icans; Nathaniel

Irving, " The Kizika

y be obtained an imara xpression, a wider rangers

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The arteries end in the capillaries. The veins begin in them. Through the thin capillary walls the elements of renewing life pass out and bathe the cells of the various tissues of the body. A portion of the unused material and a portion of the waste or used-up material passes back toward the heart directly through the veins; other portions through the lymphatics, which empty into the large veins before the latter reach the heart. The blood is the fluid by means of which this interchange of substances takes place.

READING.-1. Three characteristics of good oral reading : distinctness of enunciation, accuracy of pronunciation, expression. Three characteristics of good silent reading: close attention, accurate knowledge of the meaning lying behind the word-form, ability quickly to interpret the thought and to realize the sentiment expressed through these word-forms properly associated.

Means of securing distinctness of enunciation, practice upon the elementary sounds singly and in association; of securing accurate pronunciation, the diacritical marks and the dictionary; of securing expression, good silent reading, general culture, practice.

Means of securing close attention, interest, habit; of seeing the word vanish in the thing, proper primary instruction; of obtaining rapid realization of the thoughts and the emotions of a selection, (1) less attention to the mannerisms of oral reading, (2) less attention of the pupil to himself as the “ performer” of the reading hour, (3) concentration of the pupil's mind upon the circumstances, the purposes, the outer and inner life, of the character or of the actions portrayed, etc., (4) analysis of short selections which may awake the imagination, the reason, or the feelings of the pupil until he forgets himself in the thought of another.

Rhetorical pauses are pauses of expression. They frequently occur where there are no punctuation marks.

3. If the reading lesson be regarded as a study in literature, the first thing to consider is its character, i. e., whether explanatory, narrative, descriptive, argumentative, persuasive, etc. The character of the piece will naturally lead to the purpose of the author in its production. This may involve some study of the author's personality. It may involve also something of the circumstances which gave rise to the production studied. This will probably introduce the features of the production as a work of art and of genius, thus resulting in a discussion of its intrinsic merits.

4. Three American writers of fiction, with one work of each, are: J. Fenimore Cooper, “ The Last of the Mohicans " ; Nathaniel Hawthorne, “Septimius Felton"; Washington Irving, “The Knickerbocker History of New York”.

5. From the study of good literature may be obtained an improvement in one's language, a better style of expression, a wider range of

2.

a

thought, new subjects of thought, nobler sentiments, pleasures of a beneficial kind for leisure hours, ability to make others happier and better, etc.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-1. An appositive modifier denotes the same person or thing as the word which it modifies; a possessive modifier, a different person or thing.

Deer, sheep, swine. Scissors, ashes, snuffers. 3. The masculine gender refers to objects of the male sex, the feminine to objects of the female sex, and the neuter to objects that have

2.

no sex.

4. “I tell you that which ye yourselves do know,” is a complex declarative sentence, of which “I tell you that” is the principal, and “which ye yourselves do know" is the subordinate clause. “I” is the subject nom. unmodified; “ tell", the pred. verb, is modified by the indirect object “ you", and the direct object “ that”. The pronominal “that” is modified by the clause “which ye yourselves do know.” Of the subordinate, “ye" is the subject, modified by the emphatic reflexive “yourselves ”; “which" is the connective and also the objective modifier of “do know", the subordinate predicate verb.

5. The “passive voice” is made by annexing the past participle of transitive verbs to the different tenses of the verb “be." 6. (a) Present tense with future signification.

(6) Past tense denoting past time."
(C) Past tense denoting present time, and implying that the

supposition is contrary to fact.
(d) A customary action or universal truth is expressed by the

the present tense. 7. (a) “I feel so bad about it.” The subject is described, rather

than the manner of the verb. (6) The sentence is correct. 8. There are six tenses: three represent absolute time, and three relative time. The three simple tenses are present, past, and future. We may think of actions as completed in any of these times, giving rise to present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses.

9. The passive voice represents the subject as receiving the action, and, therefore, is confined to transitive verbs.

10. The infinitive expresses the act or state without predicating anything, and consequently is not limited by person and number

GEOGRAPHY.- Boston, New York, Norfolk, Charleston, San Francisco. On a sea-coast, a good harbor is favorable to the building up of foreign commerce, and thus the growth and prosperity of a commercial city are secured.

2. The two states resemble each other in fertility of soil, in having

-I.

a generally level surface, and in abundant water facilities; both also · being dotted with lakes. Both are commercial states; Louisiana being the outlet of the trade of the Mississippi valley, and hence having a large foreign commerce; while Minnesota is at the source of the river and exports chiefly its own products, flour and pine lumber. They differ in climate, productions, origin of inhabitants, and systems of education. Minnesota is also a manufacturing state.

3. From San Francisco south in the Pacific Ocean; rounding Cape Horn, it enters the Atlantic Ocean, pursues a north, northeast course to the English Channel; passes through the Strait of Dover into the North Sea; through the Straits of Skager Rack and Cattegat into the Baltic; through the Gulf of Finland to St. Petersburg,

4. Pacific, Indian and Arctic Oceans; Black, Mediterranean, Red, Arabian, China, Japan, Yellow, Okhotsk, and Caspian Seas; Bay of Bengal, Gulf of Siam, and Persian Gulf.

5. United States of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chili, Patagonia. Ecuador is bounded on the north by Colombia; east, by Brazil; south, by Peru; west, by the Pacific Ocean.

6. Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoli, Egypt. In these countries is found the oldest civilization, and, in many respects the most advanced.

7. Russia is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean; east, by Asia, from which it is separated by the Ural Mountains and River, and by the Caspian Sea; south, by the Caucasus Mountains and the Black Sea; west, by Roumania, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, the German Empire, the Baltic Sea, and Sweden. The chief exports are grains, hemp, flax, cattle.

8. Mississippi, St. Lawrence, Mackenzie, Atlantic and Pacific systems.

10. The Tropic of Cancer is located 23%2° north of the Equator to mark the northern limit of the Sun's vertical rays; the Tropic of Capricorn 23%2° south of the Equator to mark the southern limit of the Sun's rays. The Arctic Circle is located 23?2° from the North Pole, and the Antarctic Circle 232 from the South Pole, to mark the limit of the circle of illumination beyond the poles.

ARITHMETIC.--1. 78 of =. 913=176. Ifs=173, 7t=its of 1 or 's. 73=72Xi's, or 20.

Ans. 20.
.0512-+.032=1.6. 1.6+.005=1.605. Ans. 1.605.
3. 46X27X243 X 27 bricks=78246.
4. 4 in.X17oo yds.=2200, or .00045+.
5. 750(yd.) X$1.75=$1312.50, cost of carpet.

274 % of $1312.50=$29.53125, commission.
14 % of (1312.50+29.53125)=$3.3550, cost of draft.
$1312.50, cost of carpet,+ $29.531 +, com., + $12.50, freight,=

$1357.886+. Ans.
6. $800X.10X21, yr.=$20. $90:-$20=4?4X1%=4?%. Ans.

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. 18

18

35

1 13:

18

18

2.

60

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7. l; of 2 A=A, A's day's work.

of 5 A=> A, B’s day's work.

23 A+ A=I& A. 9 A:12 A=6 days. Ans. 8. L. C. M. of 250, 350, 525=5250. 5250+25=5275. Ans. 9. +=133 X X=X=495. 3X3X37Xjil

. Xbo=rilo 35 tulo=2139397, or 13011487. Ans.

1 392 + 522 = 65 feet.

1185
32

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17760

10.

GEMS OF THOUGHT.

RULES FOR THE JOURNEY OF LIFE. Never ridicule sacred things, or what others may esteem as such, however absurd they may appear to you.

Never show levity when people are engaged in worship. Never resent a supposed injury till you know the views and motives of the author of it, and on no occasion relate it.

Always take the part of an absent person, who is censured in company, so far as truth and propriety will allow.

Never think worse of another on account of his differing from you on political and religious subjects.

Do not affect to be witty, or to jest so as to hurt the feelings of another.

Say as little as possible of yourself and those who are near you.
Aim at cheerfulness without levity.

Never court the favor of the rich by flattering their vanities or their riches.

Speak with calmness and deliberation on all occasions, especially of circumstances which tend to irritate. Frequently review your conduct and note your feelings. Like the kingdom of heaven, the fountain of youth is within us; If we seek it elsewhere, old shall we grow in the search.Dryden. A man's own good breeding is the best security against other people's ill manners.-Chesterfield.

The first ingredient in conversation is truth; the second is good sense; the third good humor; and the fourth wit.-Sir Ilm. Temple.

We are always much better pleased to see those whom we have obliged, than those who have obliged us.

As charity covers a multitude of sins before God, so does politeness before men.-Greville.

Acts, looks, words, steps, form the alphabet by which you may spell characters.-Lavater.

What I spent, I had; what I left, I lost; what I gave, I have.-Old Epitaph.

Men resemble the gods in nothing so much as in doing good to their tellow creatures.-Cicero.

If men wish to be held in esteem, they must associate with those who are estimable.

Cheerful looks make every dish a feast,
And 'tis that crowns a welcome.

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