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be used supplementary to the text-books, a healthy love of good books will be instilled, and a wider range of knowledge be acquired. Good reading will produce an improvement in all grades, increase of knowledge, self-help by investigation, and will become a power in pupil's hands for the acquisition of knowledge.

Discussion was opened by Miss F. C. Simpson, of Jeffersonville, who read a very interesting paper on the subject.

The Committee on Resolutions, through its chairman, W. H. Cain, reported: 1. In favor of the Blair Bill; 2. Of compulsory education; 3. A minimum school term of six months ; 4. Of liberal appropriations to the state educational institutions; 5. Heartily endorsing the work of the Reading Circle; 6. A tribute of respect to the memory of the late John D. Philbrick; 7. Returning thanks to the citizens of Vincennes, the railroads, and the chairman of the executive committee.

The resolutions were adopted.

The following report was then received from the Committee on Nominations:

President-E. A. Bryan, Vincennes.

Vice-Presidents-Miss Bertha Wolfe, Mitchell; Miss F.C. Simpson, Jeffersonville ; W. H. Hoffman, Washington; G. C. Hubbard. Madison.

Secretary-Miss Edith L. Jackman, Mitchell.
Permanent Treasurer-J. P. Funk, Corydon.

Executive Committee J. H. Martin, Madison, chairman; Stevenson, Rising Sun; J. W. Carr, Bloomington; S. P. McRae, Princeton; A. B. Charman, Terre Haute.

. On motion of Mr. Woodburn, a committee was appointed to look up the minutes of previous meetings and the constitution, and report next year. The committee is as follows: J. M. Olcott, Greencastle : J. P. Funk, Corydon; Miss Annabel Flemming, Vincennes.

On motion of Mr. McClure, and at the request of the State Superintendent, Mr. Funck was appointed to prepare a history of the Association for publication in Supt. Holcombe's next report.

The Association was then invited to go in a body, under the guidance of Edward Taylor, of Vincennes, to visit the historical points mentioned in the program. The first place reached was the site of the old Court House, the history of which was given by Mr. Taylor. From there the visitors proceeded to the Harrison Mansion, being entertained here by a paper from Miss Annabel Flemming, of Vincennes. [Her paper will be printed.] From this point the company went to the Old Fort Sackville, and its history was told in an address by Mr. Taylor. The next place visited was St. Xavier's Cathedral. Its paintings were admired, the tombs of its deceased bishops and ancient library were all inspected. Mr. Cothorn, of Vincennes, then addressed the company from the Cathedral steps, giving many interesting historical facts. The Gas Works were then visited, the company having sent an invitation to the Association.

EVENING.—The Association assembled in the Court House and listened to an address by ex-Gov. Porter, on “ Hamilton and Jefferson." The address was able and delighted an immense audience.

At its close, the President called for a report of the Treasurer, which was as follows:

Balance last year.
Expended .

$12 45

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2 10

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We regret that we can not give notices of all the high school commencements. The spirit is willing but the space is limited.

The short articles or notes on Psychology in the Primary Department, by Prof. Sandison, should be carefully read. If carefully followed up a clear understanding of the subject will be reached.

A MISTAKE.-Prof. Hailman says that the Journal made a mistake last month in attributing to him the origination of the term “New Education," since it was used by Fræbel and his followers nearly half a century ago. It is true, however, that Prof. Hailman was one of the first, if not the first, to use it in this country, and he does object seriously to its misuse and abuse.

CONSCIENCE–What is It?-Some authors define it as that power of the mind by which we distinguish between right and wrong. This we can not agree with. The intellect distinguishes between right and wrong, and conscience impels toward the right and causes remorse when wrong is done.

Example.-Suppose a person has subscribed for the School Journal with the understanding that he was to pay for it at a stated time, and then the time passes without payment being made--what then!

Why, the intellect will note the contract, will note the expiration of the time, will note the fact that the publisher needs his money, and conscience will prompt him to pay up. If any good reason exists for deferring payment, conscience prompts a letter of explanation. Conscience is a good thing":

SUPERINTENDENTS are now busy planning for their county institutes—in fact many of them have already fixed the time and engaged instructors. The Journal will suggest that if not so many were held "the last week in August," it would be less difficult to secure workers. Further: some superiutendents have been in the habit of engaging three to five instructors and lecturers from the outside. This should not be: (1) because they are not needed and can not be used to advantage, and (2) because in the “busy season" there are not enough workers to meet the demand, and some must do without-it is selfish. Two workers from the outside is the maximum that can be used to advantage. As a rule, to increase this number weakens the instruction and makes unnecessary cost.

When a teacher is to be called upon to assist in an institute the Supt. should designate his subject and notify him weeks in advance, so that he may make careful preparation. Teachers can not afford to listen to extemporized exercises.

HOLD UP-ENOUGH.

The following letter from Dr. A. L. Eisher, secretary of the Elkhart school board, is published as a matter of news and explains itself:

DEAR SIR:- From the coat-smoked mountains of Pennsylvania ; from the prairies of Illinois; from the Empire State; from the pineries of Michigan; from Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, Maryland, Massachusetts, and from our own Hoosier State come pouring in applications for the superintendency of our schools. They nearly all say,

I see by the Indiana School Journal that there is to be a vacancy in your schools, etc."

Will you please help me head them off? Every mail brings a dozen or more applications; all from good men, doubtless, but it is utterly impossible to give them all the attention they desire and deserve. Please tell them that it was a mistake,—that we never wanted a superihtendent,-that we never shall want one! That we have already selected the man. By so doing you will greatly oblige an over-worked scribe.

THE NATION.IL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION

Is to be held this year at Topeka, Kan., the second week in July. The rate on all the main lines west is one fare for the round trip. From Indianapolis the price is $15.50. This will afford a rare opportunity for teachers to see the “Great West." The tickets are good till August 31. The same liberal terms have been secured for all who wish to go beyond Topeka on excursions. The round trip from Topeka to Denver is $20.

It will be desirable in many ways to have the Indiana teachers so far as possible go together. To facilitate this it is asked that every one who expects to go will send word to State Supt. J. W, Holcombe. If a sufficiently large number can start from Indianapolis arrangements can possibly be made for reduced rates on sleeping cars and meals. Please notify Mr. Holcombe of your intention to go, whether you can join the excursion or not.

The prospects are that Indiana will send a delegation of at least 100, and that the meeting will be the largest ever held—not excepting the one at Madison. Send to Supt. Holcombe for circulars giving full information.

A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING.

An answer to the following question is asked: “Must a teacher in order to give instruction skillfully know and clearly see the elements of which the different branches of knowledge are composed?"

ANSWER.-It is certain that a person can not teach another what he does not know himself. One can never make clear to another what is not clear to himself. Hence it follows that whatever it is necessary to teach, should be perfectly mastered by the teacher. Good teaching implies on the part of the teacher a knowledge of the facts to be taught, together with a knowledge of the logical order in which to present these facts.

In this connection it should be remembered that there is a different between thoroughness and exhaustiveness. A child may be taught thoroughly what he is ready to receive of a subject, and yet leave much unlearned. So a teacher may know thoroughly what it is necessary for him to teach, and yet not know everything about a subject. And yet the more exhaustive the knowledge of the teacher, the more thorough the teaching is likely to be.

THE STATE SUPERINTENDENT AND THE TRUSTEES.

Mr. Holcombe has followed the plan of Mills, Hoss, and perhaps some others of the State Superintendents, in issuing circular letters of counsel and information to the trustees of all the school corporations of the State. His letter of two years ago was well received; that of 1886 is just published. In view of the financial irregularities of school officers within the past two years, much interest has been felt in the course which the State Superintendent should take in the matter of financial supervision. With no changes in the statistics to aid him, Mr. Holcombe has adopted strong and judicious measures based upon existing provisions of the laws. He not only requires from the trustees statements of receipts and expenditures, as heretofore, but demands in addition full statements of all indebtedness. He further requires that an affidavit accompany each trustee's report of finances.

The following brief extracts are made from his letter and reportblanks lately prepared :

( From the Letter. ] Financiat Management. This subject is very important at the present time, as a number of trustees have recently brought disgrace upon themselves and suspicion upon the office by fraudulent issues of township orders. Probably in many of these cases the trustees intended no wrong, but were victimized by designing sharpers. But it is all the more necessary that trustees exercise great caution in all their transactions. The best protection against mistakes of this kind is perfect openness in everything pertaining to the public interests, with frequent and frank consultations with the county superintendent, county attorney, commissioners, and others competent to advise; and full and accurate reports. I call special attention to my notes and instructions on the blanks prepared for your statistical and financial reports, to be made in August.

| From the Financial Report Blanks.) 1. Do not depend on your memory of how the report was iade last year, as several changes and additions have been made. Read carefully every note, and if any requirement of the blank is not clear to you, ask an explanation of the county superintendent.

2. Failure on the part of the trustee to make this report at the time specified, to-wit: on or before the first Monday of August, subjects the school corporation to a diminution of $25 of its next apportionment of common school revenue, for which amount the proper trustee ischargeable and liable on his bond. If this report is not made before the next apportiontment, the county auditor shall hold the warrant for the money apportioned from the delinquent trustee until such report is made and filed. (Sec. 4451 R. S.)

3. This report should be full, accurate and promptly made, and a duplicate copy thereof filed and carefully preserved as an office paper. Trustees are requested to keep the blank clean, and to make the entries as neatly as possible, as their reports this year will be sent to Indianapolis, for inspection by committees of the Legislature.

4. The attention of the trustee is called to the affidavit below, and to the fact that the county superintendent is empowered to administer oaths by $4539 R. S.

5. The numerous errors and omissions which have heretofore occurred in trustees' reports, induced the State Superintendent to submit the following suggestions : ist. Each item provided for in the blank should be accurately reported in the form provided. 2d. Nothing should bexeported by estimate when the exact amount can be given. 3d. When any matter is required to be roported by item and total, the total should be equal to the sum of the items. Obvious as this may appear, it is frequently overlooked in making reports, and is a source of much annoyance and trouble to this department.

6. By virtue of the power vested in the Superintendent of Public Instruction by $4414 R. S., I hereby require of every township trustee, and every town and city school board, a full statement of all indebtedness contracted by said trustee or board, for school purposes, or on behalf of and in the name of the school corporation, and unpaid on the 31st day of July, 1886; and I direct boards of county commissioners to examine said reports before approving the annual settlements of said trustees and boards.

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