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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

QUESTIONS PREPARED BI'STATE BOARD FOR JARCH.

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[These questions are based on the Reading Circle work of last season. ) READING.-I. Name three essentials of good reading. 2. What are the kinds of emphasis? Define each. 3. Write two questions that require the falling inflection. 4. What is the aspirated tone, and when is it used?

5. Give a good method for conducting a recitation in the First Reader.

6. Read a paragraph of prose and a stanza of poetry selected by the superintendent.

50. WRITING AND SPELLING.–The penmanship shown in the manuscripts of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 100. wity reference to legibility (50), regularity of form (30), and neatness ( 20). The hand-writing of each person will be considered in itself, rather than with reference to standard models.

The orthography of the entire examination will be graded on a scale of 100, and i will be deducted for each word incorrectly written.

SCIENCE OF TEACHING.-I. Illustrate what is meant by synthesis. By analysis.

By what process has the child acquired the spoken word before he enters school?

3. Should the child be allowed his individuality in his writing in the early work? Give the reason for your answer.

4. What are the objects to be accomplished in the study of l'. S. History?

5. What is the first step in teaching number? This is based upon what principle?

ARITHMETIC.--1. If a room is 14', feet long, 14!, feet wide, and 10 feet 3 in. high, what will be the cost of plastering at 15 &nts per sq. yard?

Bought 200 gallons of molasses, paid 45 cts. a gallon, and sold at the rate of 3 gallons for $2; what was the total gain?

3. Sold two cows for $36 each; on one I gained 20', and on the other I lost 20% ; how much did I gain or lose by the bargain, if any. thing?

4. Reduce to its simplest form. 5. In 10 bu., 3.5 pks., 723 qts., 12 pt., how many pints? 6. When ?4 of a yard of velvet costs $5, what will ? : of a yard cost: 7. Add the square root of .030625 to the cube root of 3048.625.

8. From .32 of a day take .14 of an hour, and give the answer in hrs., min., seconds. 9. Deduce a rule for dividing one fraction by another.

If 50 men build 50 rods of wall in 75 days, how many men can build 80 rods of wall 3.2 times thick and 4.5 times as high in 40 days: Solve by proportion, and give reasons for stating and reducing the proportion.

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GRAMMAR.-1. In what way do verbs indicate time? 2. What time may be expressed by the present tense of verbs? Give examples.

3. How many and what genders have nouns and pronouns? Why? 4. State the essential difference between a relative pronoun and an interrogative.

5. What determines the case form of the compound relative whoever?

6. What is the characteristic of a verb that distinguishes it from all other classes of words?

7. In teaching English Grammar, what importance do you attach to the analysis of sentences? Why?

8. Analyze: That which really belongs to the mind of the reader is attributed to that of the writer.

9. Parse the words which and reader in the above sentence. 16. In teaching English Grammar, to what extent would you have exercises in parsing? What objects would you seek to accomplish by this phase of instruction?

GEOGRAPHY.-1. Locate Glasgow, and tell for what it is chiefly important. Where is Amsterdam?

2. Describe the climate and productions of Louisiana. 3. Account for the regular rise and fall of the Nile. 4. Name the four largest of the West India Islands, and tell to what country each belongs. What are the chief exports of Havana?

5. Sketch the Missouri River, showing what States and Territories it crosses or borders.

6. Locate three great cities of the world that are on or near one of the Tropic Circles.

7. Name all the States crossed by the Blue Ridge Mountains. What crops are adapted to the tide-water region of the South Atlantic States?

8. Specify three important regions of the United States in the production of salt.

9. Explain the commercial and manufacturing interests of Cleveiand, by reference to the advantages of location for the one, and the sources of raw materials for the other.

10. What are the chief productions of Southern Russia? What seaport its chief point of exportation?

HISTORY.-1. What important document secured certain States in the Northwest from ever becoming the seat of slavery?

2. What conflict in political doctrine, as to citizenship, between England and the United States, lay at the foundation of the war of 1812?

3. Describe the connection of the discovery of gold in California with the Civil War.

4. What purchase during Johnson's administration, ridiculed at the time, is likely to prove of great advantage to the United States?

5. Has this country gained or lost by the Civil War? Give reasons for your view.

5, 15. PHYSIOLOGY.-1. Give a full account of glands; their structure, function, etc. Describe the principal glands in the human body. 450.

2. Discuss the skin; its structure, its hygiene, and the outgrowths from it.

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ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS PUBLISHED IN APRIL. GRAMMAR.-I. a. The classes into which words are divided according to their use. b. Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

By its use in the sentence. 3. Who relates to persons, which to things, and that to persons or things.

4. Who is applied to persons, which may relate to both persons and things, and what is used to inquire about things.

5. When it is the object of a transitive verb or a preposition.

6. Nouns whose plurals end in “s” add the apostrophe only. Nouns whose plurals do not end in “g” annex the apostrophe and the letter "s".

7. “They never fail who die in a just cause,” is a complex declarative sentence, of which “They never fail" is the principal, and who die in a just cause" is the subordinate clause. The sub. nom. they is modified by the relative clause. The pred. verb fail is modified by the adverb never. Who is the subject of the sub. clause, and also the connective: die is the pred. verb, modified by the prep. phrase " in a just cause."

8. The clause, “For those that fly may fight again ": that's slain modifies he.

9. a. That custom was formerly quite popular. Indefinite past time is meant. b. What sounds has each of the vowels ? Each is the subject and requires a singular verb.

10. A synopsis consists in giving an outline of the verb in all the modes and tenses, in one person and number. The conjugation of a verb consists in giving all the forms in all the modes and tenses.

GEOGRAPHY.-1. a. 23.2° north ; 66!,north.

3. Ural Mountains, from north to south; Caucasus, Himalaya, Pyrenees, Alps, all from east to west.

4. South through the Adriatic Sea, east through the Mediterranean passing south through the Suez Canal and Red Sea; through the Strait of Babel-Mandeb into the Gulf of Aden; southeast through the Indian Ocean and the Malacca Strait; northeast through the China Sea and Pacific Ocean to Tokio.

6. In passing due west from Indianapolis, the first appreciable change in climate is the increasing dryness. The mountainous districts are colder, with the atmosphere more rare and dry; while on the Pacific slope, rainfalls are abundant. 7.

Local time is determined by the longitude of any given place. Standard time is an arbitrary division for convenience in running railway trains. By this method meridians 150 apart are selected, there being a difference of just one hour from one meridian to another, and

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all places between these two meridians having the same standard time.

8. Hecla is in Iceland; Vesuvius in the western part of Italy; Popocatapetl, in the central part of Mexico; Katahdin, in the northern part of Maine; Black Mountain, in the western part of N. Carolina.

9. The ocean currents are due to the unequal heating of the globe. The heat of the tropical sun evaporates large quantities of water in the torrid zone, and the waters of the colder zones flow in to restore the equilibrium thus disturbed.

10. The soil of Ohio is generally fertile and adapted to agriculture; the climate is temperate and generally equable; the chief productions are coal, grains, flax, grapes, and pork.

PHYSIOLOGY.—The nutrient portions of the food, absorbed by either the veins or the lacteals from the stomach and small intestines, pass to the heart by one or the other of two routes. The portion absorbed by the lacteals goes through the mesenteries (where there is a slight change in color from white to pinkish), the receptaculum chyli, the thoracic duct, the left subclavian vein and the descending vena cava into the right heart. The portion absorbed by the veins goes into the portal vein, thence to the liver to allow the secretion of glycogen and bile, thence by the hepatic veins and the ascending vena cava also to the right heart. From the right heart the blood passes by the pulmonary arteries to the lungs, ærated-giving off the carbonic acid and effete matter gathered from the destruction of tissues and receiving the oxygen to be carried to the tissues,—thence goes through the pulmonary arteries to the left heart, whence it is pumped through the great aorta and smaller arteries to the parts and organs of the body.

READING.-1. (For answer to this question, see April number of the School Journal.

2. Three things a pupil should have before attempting to recite a lesson in reading : a. Have an accurate knowledge of the word-forms as such ; b. Have a clear knowledge of the meaning symbolized through these word-forms; c. Have a lively realization of the thought and the sentiment of the selection as a whole.

3. Monotony in reading is a fault; monotone, an adaptation of the voice to the character of the selection. The former is a lazy, laggard, expressionless utterance of words; the latter, an earnest, forceful expression of thought and emotion.

4. The punctuation marks serve to indicate the grammatical relations of words and sentences.

5. (For answer to this question see School Journal for September, 1885, p. 523),

ARITHMETIC.- :-1. Upon the principle that dividing both dividend and divisor by the same number has no effect on the quotient. =. When I divide the numerator by 2, I take half of the number of parts;

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and when I divide the denominator by 2, I double the size of the parts; therefore the value is unchanged.

2. (1 hr. 20 min. 24 sec.)X15=20 6'. 90° 25' W.--20°6'=70° 19' W. Ans.

3. Forty-six and seven thousand twenty-one ten-thousandths, two hundred thousand three, seventy and three hundred hundred-thousandths, eight hundred nine and five thousand eight hundred hundredthousandths, three hundred eight thousand five hundred four.

4. 129--76; = 523; 1214--223=912. 42 X X X X

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= 559. Ans.

5. 40 A

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6400 sq. rd. | 6400 sq. rd.=-80 rd. Ans. 6. Žof 23 = = 3. of steamboat = $18,000, $ 12 of $18,000, or $9000. , or all, = 5 X $9000 = $45,000. Ans.

7. 133 miles = 26040 ft. 26040 ft. - 15'. ft. = 1680 times. 26040 ft. = 16.8 ft. = 155 times.

| The forward wheel revolves 1680 times.
The hind wheel revolves 1550 times. Ans.

130 times more. 8. $195.25 X.07 X 2178 yr. $40.47 + Ans. 9. (1) Multiply the numerator by integer; as, 34 X2=4, or 1o.

(2) Divide the denominator by integer; as, 34 X2=1, or 12. 10. Quantity is anything capable of increase or decrease.

Figure is a character representing a definite quantity.
Proportion is an equality of ratios.
Interest is a compensation for the use of money.
Cube root is one of the three equal factors of a number.

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QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION OF PUPILS COMPLETING THE COURSE OF STUDY IN “THE COMMON BRANCHES

OF THE COUNTRY SCHOOLS.
Prepared by the following Committee of the County Superintendents'

Association: Jno. W. Holcombe, J. F. Snow, D. D. Fickle, S. B.
Boyd, A. E. Rogers, D. J. Crittenberger, J. H. Henry, Douglas
Dobbins, A. J. Johnson, H. M. Skinner. Used on the Third Satur-
day of February, 1886.
GEOGRAPHY.-I. Name the five great powers of Europe.

Where is the Island of Elba; the Island of St. Helena ? Why are these islands famous ?

3. Bound Central America, and name one of the independent republics forming part of that country.

4. Bound your county: name the townships. What is the approximate population of the county?

5. Name the largest and smallest independent divisions of South America, and give the capital of each.

6. Name the independent governments of Europe.

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