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QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.
[ Questions for November are omitted. ] ANSWERS TO BOARD QUESTIONS PUBLISHED IN DEC.
ARITHMETIC.-1. V (225+145) 2=140 ft., Ans.
52 men : 45 men.
15 da. : 25 da. 3. Antecedents of a proportion are the first terms of each ratio.
Consequents are 45 men, 60 feet, 8 feet, 25 da., and 546,3; ft. 4. $18000=Capital. =D's; $=G’s.
13 of gain, or $5400,= $1800, L's share.
of $3600 = $1600, D's.
of $3600= $2000, G's, Ans.
$5000—$47.75=$4965.25, net proceeds of draft.
$4956.25+$75 = $5031.25, the cost of draft, Ans.
=$3306.301 +present worth: $3457.84—$3306.301 + $151.538+true discount, Ans. 8.
8 mo.= = 13
$6.5520, interest, Ans. 9. 34
3 X 300 10. 34 da. + 142 da. 18 da.
One got is of $53, $10 T; the other got 14% of $53, or $425, Ans. PHYSIOLOGY.- The muscles are the motor tissues of the body. Each muscle is composed of bundles of fibers. These bundles are covered by a sheath of connective tissue, which also sends off partitions from its under surface to envelope each bundle, or fasciculus. Each apparent fiber in the fasciculus is itself a bundle of very fine threads, which are also separated and at the same time bound together by delicate connective tissue.
Outside the sarcolemma, or sheath enclosing the primary threads, lie the blood-vessels, scattered in among the smaller fasciculi. Passing in among these and through the sarcolemma into the muscle substance itself are the nerves of motion.
Involuntary or unstriped muscle-threads are composed of elongated, flattened cells, tapering at either end and in some way cemented together. Voluntary or striped muscle-threads are also made up of cells, these including, like the involuntary, nuclei surrounded by protoplasm, and also an irritable and contractile substance which gives them their power of motion under stimulation. The property of contractility in the, cells enables them, by enlarging their diameter to diminish their length, and thus the length of the muscle which they compose.
The muscles are the active organs of motion, the bones the passive organs of motion. The joints of the skeleton, by allowing the ends of a muscle, through its tendons, to be attached to different bones, give to the body its powers of action and locomotion. Each motion of a muscle is attended by a waste of tissue. This, however, is readily supplied by new material from the blood when the body is properly exercised. Violent and exhaustive exercise, and lack of exercise, have the same tendency—to produce weak and flabby and pale muscles. Moderate exercise, in pure air, in sunshine, and under such surroundings as furnish a pleasant mental stimulus, is decidedly beneficial.
The amount of exercise which should be taken is to be regulated by the common sense and the general physical condition of the individual. The muscles require rest after labor. This nature has wisely arranged for in the automatic or involuntary muscles. The heart rests over onethird of the twenty-four hours by means of the alternate beats of auricles and ventricles, as well as by its slower pulsations when the body is in a recumbent position. Alcoholic stimulus abnormally increases the rapidity of the beats, especially if taken at night, and this tends to shorten life.
-I. Monotone is the utterance of the successive words of a paragraph in one unbroken key. It may be employed in passages of sublime description, of solemn denunciation, or of deep reverence. It usually requires a low tone and a slow rate.
2. A cadence is a wave of the voice ending with a downward tone, at the close of the sentence. It differs from the falling inflection in that the latter is a gradual sliding of the voice to the close of the expression.
3. It is difficult to define “expression": it is something that can be felt, or its absence detected, by a keen sensibility, but the precise elements of which it is hard to state. Correct expression of the voice, however, may be said to embrace all those elements of force, pitch, time, quality, etc, which are necessary to bring out delicate shades of meaning. In a wider sense, expression may also include the play of the features, the motions of the body, etc., etc.
4. The following question has the falling inflection: What will he do with it?
5. As accent upon a syllable, so emphasis lays stress upon a word, thereby making it important. The design of emphasis is thus to bring out the peculiar force or meaning of a word or of words. Of the various kinds of emphasis may be mentioned,-emphasis of prominence, of contrast, of ellipsis, cumulative emphasis, etc.
HISTORY.—The answer to this question requires : First, a concise account of the formation of the Articles of Confederation, the conflicting views of the different States, especially the fear entertained by the smaller of being overridden or swallowed up by the larger ones.
Secondly, the radical weaknesses and imperfection of the Articles, which, in providing for the claims of the State as individual, made none whatexer for the effective power of the Central Government. This could recommend and suggest, but from want of authority and power could not enforce. Its weakness should be showed especially in foreign affairs, where of all others it should have been strong. It could recommend the payment of debts, but it could not levy taxes to pay them, or even to carry on the government; it could appreciate the importance of commerce, but could not regulate it. One State could pass laws to the manifest injury of others, but Congress had no power to interfere for the protection of the weak. In short, instead of a nation, the Confederate States had not even the uniting influences given by the common cause which produced the war.
Thirdly, the clearly seen necessity for a change should be shown, and the difficulty in bringing it about contained in the Articles themselves; the continuance of the old fear of the large States held by the small ones, the plans suggested by Franklin and others, and the idea of creating a monarchy with Washington at its head, a plan so promptly and so emphatically rejected by him, as also the attempted convention at Annapolis, which failed.
Fourthly, the efforts of Washington, Hamilton, Madison and others should be shown, which led to the Convention at Philadelphia, at which all the States were represented except Rhode Island; the difficulties the Convention labored under and which often proved nearly fatal.
Fifthly, the eventual success in reaching an agreement which resulted in the formation of a document to be submitted to the States and made effective so soon as it was adopted by nine of the States.
Sixthly, the provisions of the Constitution should be concisely mentioned, showing how the General Government was empowered to make, construe and execute the laws necessary for its operation, and also empowered to act at home and abroad as a nation with all a nation's influence and effectiveness, control commerce, levy taxes, govern and con
trol the inter-relations of the States; the provisions for conserving at the same time the rights of the individual States should be shown.
Seventhly, then should follow the rising up of parties, the opposition to the Constitution, headed by Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry, and the counter effort made by Washington, Hamilton, Madison and others successfully setting forth the substantial benefits to be derived from tha instrument, its adoption by the various States in order, and the adoption of the Amendments which cured the objectionable features of it.
SCIENCE OF TEACHING.-1. To comprehend that imagination creates no new material is to come nearer an understanding of the nature of the mind and of that faculty. This knowledge aids by enabling the teacher to know when material must be supplied and where it must come from. A proper knowledge of imagination gives the senses and consciousness as the primary sources of all the mind's material and thought, memory and imagination as the secondary sources. If any given product is to be wrought, the teacher can determine from what sources the material must come and whether the pupil is already in possession of it or must be put in possession of it. Ignorance of these facts would leave the procedure to chance and give as many opportuuities for failure as for success in the work.
2. The child should be taught to correct his pronunciation by the dictionary and by the usage of good speakers, but always to refer the latter to the dictionary. He should be taught to correct his articulation by what he observes in others, by his own judgment and ear and by the notes and pronunciation of the dictionary, taking care to practice so that a correct habit shall take the place of the wrong one. School-training should implant the habit of discriminating and correcting pronunciations and articulations and of reference to the dictionary.
3. The fundamental fact of geography is that of the mutual adaptability of man and the earth—man as an inhabitant, and the earth as his home. A knowledge of this relation is the most fundamental knowledge of the subject. As man breathes the air that surrounds the earth, navigates its waters, mines it minerals, depends for his food, clothing and shelter on its plants, animals and minerals, he needs to understand the causes that influence these things most directly. The structure of earth—meaning thereby its materials, their arrangement and laws of dependence—is the most directly related to these elements in the line of cause and effect. The differences of climate, vegetation, animals and civilization are mainly dependent on the structure. Hence a knowledge of structure is conditional to all these things.
4. The second stage of spelling, in the order of simplicity, is the learning of the parts of the word, and its peculiarities of structure. All methods of spelling, if we exclude primary reading, begin with the word as a whole, which would be the most simple form. When this is
learned, the parts (syllables, capitals, accent, punctuation, etc.), and peculiarities come in order. The spelling of a word involves several points: spelling proper, pronunciation, accent, punctuation (hyphen, etc.), capitals, meaning and use.
5. The method by which the mind learns any whole not too complex, if left to its natural modes of action, is to get a general idea of it as a whole, and then specialize the parts one by one. Still another reason exists for taking whole letters in writing before going to the practice of the so-called principles. The child prefers the concrete and whole to the abstract and the disconnected part. The former, by the nature of the case, is capable of much more interest. Hence to put in a long time at first practicing principles or parts would be to discourage the child and probably give him a distaste for the work. A blending of these two elements will probably secure the best results.
GEOGRAPHY.-1. In the situation of Minneapolis are found combined two important elements which contribute to the growth and prosperity of cities, excellent manufacturing facilities and a position favorable to commerce. The State of Minnesota is well-timbered; the soil is fertile and produces large quantities of grain. At Minneapolis, the Falls of St. Anthony, with a perpendicular descent of eighteen feet, afford abundant water-power for manufacturing. The city by means of the Mississippi River has direct commercial communication with the Gulf States. It has also by lake and railroad, communication with the Atlantic and Pacific States.
2. Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Nevada, California, Oregon, with a portion of Minnesota and Louisiana.
3. South America consists of three distinct physical regions; the primary highland, consisting of the Andes Mountain System, on the west; the secondary highland—the plateau of Brazil--on the east, with a great plain in the centre, broken at the north by the mountain land of Guiana. The continent presents great variety in climate, from the extreme heat of the Torrid Zone to the icy coldness of the southern extremity.
4. Russia, bordered by Black and Baltic Seas, and by the Arctic Ocean; Turkey, by Black Marmora and Mediterranean Seas; Greece, Austria, Italy, France and Spain by the Mediterranean Sea; Spain, Portugal, France, Great Britain, Norway, by the Atlantic Ocean; Belgium, Holland, Germany, Denmark, Norway and Great Britain, by the North Sea; Sweden, Denmark and Germany by the Baltic Sea.
5. Rice is most successfully cultivated in a warm climate on the banks of rivers in a deep soil, consisting chiefly of decomposed vegetable matter, and so situated that the fields can be flooded by the opening of tide-gates.
7. (a) Rio Janeiro, Bahia. (b) Coffee, sugar, caoutchouc. 8. Switzerland is bounded on the north by the German Empire; east