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bullock, etc. Then have the list read. Ask the name for such endings. Have the definition repeated and the force of the affixes given. Leave the thought with the pupil that there are many other affixes with other meanings, and that at another time these will be reconsidered in connection with those as yet unknown ones.
EXAMPLE AND LIBERTY.
“The spontaneity natural to early infancy is sometimes the means of saving children from the inconvenient results of their extreme organic and intellectual plasticity. But it would be dangerous to count too much on this spontaneity. The respect due to the individuality of the human being makes it incumbent on us to be very careful as to the examples the child sees around him, especially from the moral point of view. The idea in education would be to allow each child scope for his own particular bent, while at the same time setting one example before him.” Locke understood the necessity of respecting the natural bias in each child, and could not endure the artificial product, which is the invariable result of constraint and affectation. He specially deplores this fault in what concerns manners and behavior in society. "Affectation," he says, “is a clumsy and forced imitation of what should be easy and natural, and is devoid of the charm which always accompanies what is really natural, because of the opposition which it causes between the outward action and the inward motions of the spirit.” Away with politeness and agreeable manners, if they endanger the frankness and sincerity of the child. “Mamma,” said a child four years old, “are you not going to tell Madame X. to go away? She has been here a long time." I greatly prefer, even in a child of four years, this frank and innocent rudeness, to formulas of politeness, repeated by rote, but not felt.
There is another reason, well worth our consideration, which should deter us from stilling a child's natural initiative by the undue influence of our example and activity. We see in ani. mals a sort of individuality of action which does not belong to man; the development of their powers and skill affords them the greatest possible amount of enjoyment when they are young, and later on inspires them with a kind of proud confidence. And the same thing may be observed in little children. Tiedeman says of his own son at the age of fifteen months, and the observation might have been made earlier: “When he has done something of his own accord, given a certain impetus to one of his toys, for instance, he shows evident delight, and takes pleasure in reiterating the action.” And he goes on to remark, with equal truth: “Children in general like to do by themselves wiat they have hitherto been obliged to let others do for them. They like to feed themselves with their own hands, to wash and dress themselves, etc. This liberty in action, even in imitated actions, is one of the conditions of a child's happiness; besides that, it has the effect of exercising and developing all its faculties. Example is the first tutor, and liberty the second, in the order of evolution; but the second is the better one, for it has inclination for its assistant."
(See "The First Three Years of Childhood," by Bernard Perez.)
A DEVICE FOR TEACHING NUMBER.
“In observing the results achieved by the Kindergarten educators,” says Edward R. Shaw, “I have felt that Frobel's great discovery of education by occupations must have something for the public school, that a future application of the putting of experience and action in the place of books and abstract thinking' could be made beyond the fifth or sixth year of the child's life. This book ('Education by Doing,' by Anna Johnson) is an outgrowth of this idea, conceived in the spirit of the New Education.
It will be widely welcomed, we believe as it gives concrete methods of work—the very aids primary teachers are in search of. There has been a wide discussion of the subject of education, and there exists no little confusion in the mind of many a teacher as to how he should improve upon methods that have been condemned. There is a general desire and demand for better methods. The principles enunciated by Spencer, that science is evolved out of its corresponding art,” and “that the abstract is to be reached by way of the concrete,” are as true in their applications with reference to teachers as to pupils. And, theretore, whoever gives concrete methods, based upon right principles, is doing the most to aid the great body of teachers, and is laying the surest foundation for a recognition of the principles of the science of education.
Of the concrete illustrations of the book, the following is a selection :
“EXERCISES WITH FLAGS TO TEACH NUMBER. “Cut white or colored muslin into four-inch squares and sew them on to small sticks for flags; then paste large numbers on them. The numbers may be printed or cut from old calendars. Distribute the flags to the class, and have each child in turn tell what number is on his flag, and state all he can about the number, as I have number ten; two fives make ten; five twos make ten; five and five make ten; eight and two make ten; seven and three make ten,' etc. The teacher may call upon two of the scholars to stand, and have them add, subtract, multiply or divide their numbers, or give an example, using the numbers in any way they may think of.
“Several may stand and the teacher may call upon some one to add their numbers very rapidly.
“Endeavor to bring as much variety as possible in the exer. cise. In this way the children learn the value of numbers and become familiar with all their combinations.
“The flags may also be used as a review in Roman numbers, the children stating what Roman number corresponds to the number on their flag."
THE AIM OF PRIMARY WORK.
It is said by S. S. Laurie that “the aim of the primary school is to make men live better lives—better intellectually, by giving greater activity, vigor and precision to the powers by which they know and do better morally and religiously, by causing them to live in obedience to the laws of God as revealed in the nature of man and the visible order around him, and in harmony with the will of God as communicated in His word. The better. ing of men's wills and the bettering of men's intellects—these are the great ends which the school has in view. Accordingly, - if asked to sum up, in a few words, the end of primary instruc
tion, and to do so in words which will indicate its ultimate aim at the same time that they furnish the schoolmaster with a criterian by which to measure every detail of his work, we shall probably be able to find no answer more fitting or more exhaustive than the formation of character.
THE SCHOOL ROOM.
(This Department is conducted by Geo. F. Bass, Supervising Prin. Indianapolis schools.
REFLEX ACTION IN ARITHMETIC. ANY things are accomplished by reflex action of the cranial ganglia, say the physiologists. There is a danger of trust
ing too much to this action. Some pupils solve problems by it. One may probably multiply, divide, etc., by some such sort of action, but it is not safe to decide whether we are to divide or multiply by this reflex action. The following problem was given to a class of intelligent pupils: "Spent $60, which was of my money.
How much had I at first ?” Many of theni solved it so:-*X $60= $36. Ans. The teacher wondered why.
They had been solving such problems as, “John has $60. Mary has as much. How much has Mary? They had worked on this kind for several days—ten each day—all done by the same pattern placed on the same spot on a piece of paper of uniform size and color of every other piece of paper used at the hour of preparation. This sameness has its advantages that we thoroughly appreciate. Now these pupils had naturally enough fallen into the habit of seeing an integral number and a fractional number and multiplying the one by the other and receiving a 100 as their mark on daily preparation.
"But," says a very careful and effective teacher, “my pupils explain every example during the recitation time. This is done
correctly, so this can not be the reason they fail.” Let us see; are not the explanations just alike? may they not say them by reflex action ?
Put a “stray” one in your set every day. At first they will solve it by the pattern; but when their attention is called to the meaning of the problem, they will see their mistake and correct it. These stray problems may serve to prevent this habit from forming.
CAN THEY WRITE A LETTER?
Every one at some time in his life will need to write a letter of some kind. Nearly all will write a letter of friendship. Many will need to write business letters. Most people seem to decide whether a subject for instruction in schools is practical, by whether the pupils will ever be called upon to use it in after life—in the “business world” as such are fond of calling it. While we do not think this is all that decides the practicability of a subject, we think it is an element that should not be ignored. It becomes a very important element when it happens to refer to a thing that all will be called upon to do-as is the case in writing letters.
It would seem, then, that “Letter Writing" is an eminently practical subject. But is it taught? Do not schools generally give more time to "parsing" than to letter writing? Is not ten times as much time given to “preparing” their daily arithmetic paper, as to writing letters? Some grades write ten compositions in a quarter, and not one letter. This is not learning to write letters by writing them, but by writing something else. It is true something-yes, much-may be learned in this way that will be needed in letter writing :-proper use of language; proper capitalization and punctuation; and neatness of work may be acquired. May is made emphatic, because, as a general rule pupils do not acquire these things through their language work with anything like the thoroughness that they acquire the power to add.
Why? After the fourth grade there is scarcely a day of school life passes that they are not required to add. They add and add