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Tr. Now you see when I wrapped the thread around but once it did not hold your fingers tight at all, and you could move them as you pleased and break the thread : even when I had wrapped it around several times you could do the same, but not so easily. But when I had wrapped the thread around a great many times, it held your fingers tight and you could not break the thread at all.

Now I have done this to show you what I mean by forming habits. For instance, I want you to get into a habit of holding your pen right. You hold it right one day, but that doesn't make

you do it again, any more than one string holds your fingers in one place. Still you are a little more apt to do it the next day, and then the next, and so on till you are so used to holding it right that you can hardly help it; then we say you are in the habit of doing it. Then it is as hard for you to change and do some other way as it was for you to break the strings and move your fingers as you pleased.

Now we can not help forming habits of some kind. What kind of habits do you think we had better form?

Ch. Good habits.

Tr. Can you think of some habits that are good ? Very well, to-morrow we will talk about some of them.

M. F.

AFTER SCHOOL.

Few practices of otherwise good teachers are so defenseless as “keeping pupils after school.” The habit once acquired is almost as difficult to break as any vicious tendency of life. We have heard no good argument in its favor. All progressive teachers, most supervisors, all normal schools, all pedagogical literature, all physicians, are arrayed against the practice, and yet some teachers cling to it with exasperating tenacity. With rare exceptions it is a failure as a punishment. It is vicious to have the pupils feel that they can afford to be idle, lazy, or playful in school hours, and make up for it at leisure afterward. The air of the school-room at such a time is unfit to breathe. The liability to disarrange home plans, to the annoyance of parents,

was trying to impress us with the fact that habits were formed gradually, and that they could not be sudde nly changed.

We may break a habit as we made it-by breaking a thread each day,

ON PRONUNCIATION.

A copy of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary was offered at a teachers' institute in Pennsylvania to any teacher who would read the following paragraph and pronounce every word correctly according to Webster. No one succeeded in earning the dictionary, although nine made the attempt. Any one will be surprised upon looking up each of the test words here given to find how many are commonly mispronounced :

“A sacrilegious son of Belial, who suffered from bronchitis, having exhausted his finances, in order to make good the deficit, resolved to ally himself to a comely young lady of the Malay or or Caucasian race. He accordingly purchased a calliope and a coral necklace of a chameleon hue, and securing a suite of rooms at the principal hotel, he engaged the head waiter as his coadjutor.

He then dispatched a letter of the most unexceptionable caligraphy extant inviting the young lady to a matinee. She revolted at the idea, refused to consider herself sacrificeable to his desires, and sent a polite note of refusal; on receiving which he procured a carbine and bowie-knifie, said that he would not forge fetters hymeneal with the Queen, went to an isolated spot, seviered his jugular vein, and discharged the contents of his carbine into his abdomen. The debris was removed by the Coroner.” -Center Table.

OPENING EXERCISES.

TEACHER. Come here, Emma,- let me wrap this thread around your fingers. Can you break it? E. Yes ma'am.

Tr. Now I'll wrap it around twice. Harry, can you break it now? H. Yes ma'am.

Tr. Now I'll wrap it around a great many times. Now, Willie, can you break it? W. No ma'am.

Tr. Now you see when I wrapped the thread around but once it did not hold your fingers tight at all, and you could move them as you pleased and break the thread : even when I had wrapped it around several times you could do the same, but not so easily. But when I had wrapped the thread around a great many times, it held your fingers tight and you could not break the thread at all.

Now I have done this to show you what I mean by forming habits. For instance, I want you to get into a habit of holding your pen right. You hold it right one day, but that doesn't make

you do it again, any more than one string holds your fingers in one place. Still you are a little more apt to do it the next day, and then the next, and so on till you are so used to holding it right that you can hardly help it; then we say you are in the habit of doing it. Then it is as hard for you to change and do some other way as it was for you to break the strings and move your fingers as you pleased.

Now we can not help forming habits of some kind. What kind of habits do you think we had better form?

Ch. Good habits.

Tr. Can you think of some habits that are good ? Very well, to-morrow we will talk about some of them.

M. F.

AFTER SCHOOL.

Few practices of otherwise good teachers are so defenseless as “ keeping pupils after school.” The habit once acquired is almost as difficult to break as any vicious tendency of life. We have heard no good argument in its favor. All progressive teachers, most supervisors, all normal schools, all pedagogical literature, all physicians, are arrayed against the practice, and yet some teachers cling to it with exasperating tenacity. With rare exceptions it is a failure as a punishment. It is vicious to have the pupils feel that they can afford to be idle, lazy, or playful in school hours, and make up for it at leisure afterward. The air of the school-room at such a time is unfit to breathe. The liability to disarrange home plans, to the annoyance of parents,

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should be considered, for the parent has rights that the teacher is bound to respect. The teacher owes a duty to her school, as a whole, which requires absolute, immediate rest from work when school closes. Those teachers who argue that they an not get on without it should remember that any other teacher would take her school and get as good results as she has without such vicious practice, and that if she would only acquire the art she might do it herself. Viewed in the most favorable light, it testifies against a teacher to keep her pupils after school. - Exchange.

FOR PUPILS.

OUR PRESIDENTS.

PERHAPS those having difficulty in remembering the order in which our Presidents come may find assistance in the following lines. The jingle of rhyme is often a great aid to memory, and especially so to many who can not remember hard facts. They are taken from the “Letter Box" in St. Nicholas for July.

FATHER WASHINGTON left us united and free,
And John Adams repelled French aggression at sea;
Boundless Louisiana was Jefferson's crown,
And when Madison's war ships won lasting renown,
And the steam-boat was launched, then Monroe gave the world
His new doctrine; and Quincy his banner unfurled
For protection. Then Jackson with railways and spoils,
Left Van Buren huge bankruptcies, panics, and broils.
Losing Harrison, Tyler by telegraph spoke;
And the Mexican war brought accessions to Polk.
Taylor lived not to wear the reward of ambition,
And Filmore's sad slave law stirred up abolition ;
So, compromise failing, Pierce witnessed the throes
Of the trouble in Kansas. Secession arose
Through the halting Buchanan. But Lincoln was sent
To extinguish rebellion. Then some years were spent
Reconstructing by Johnson. Grant lessened our debt;
Hayes resumed specie-payments, and Garfield was set
On reform, which, as Arthur soon found, come to stay.
Now for President Cleveland good citizens pray.

PRIMARY DEPARTMENT.

This Department is conducted by HOWARD Saxdison, Professor of Methods in the

State Normal School)

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(Stenographic Report. ] THE teacher exhibits a moulding board on which are different forms of islands shaped out of moulding sand.

Teacher. Joe, what do you think I have here? Joe. You have islands. T. I mean what kind of land do you think I have ? P. You have different kinds of islands. T. (Pointing to the different islands), What kind of a surface have I here? P. You have a hilly surface.

T. What kind have I here? P. A low surface.

T. Look in the centre of this body of land; what kind of a surface ? P. You have a high surface.

T. What will I call it? P. A mountain surface.
T. Not quite. P. A plateau.
T. Yes. What have I here? P. Two volcanoes.

T. And still you say that ihese are islands. How many still think they are islands ? (All the pupils think so.) Why do you think so ?

P. Because they are portions of land surrounded by water on all sides.

T. Can any one give me a different definition for an island ?

P. An island is a body of land surrounded by water on four sides. An island is a portion of land surrounded by water.

T. Let us see if these bodies of land are all surrounded by water. How many think this body is ? (All agree.) Come and show me with your finger that it is.

P. (Pointing.) It has water all around there.

T. Come and show me that this body of land is surrounded by water. P. (Pointing.) This is water around it.

T. How many agree that these bodies of land are islands because they are surrounded by water on all sides? (All agree.)

T. You said a moment ago that some of them had different kinds of surfaces. I wonder if you can tell me anything about

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