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the shape of an island. Would it probably be of a regular shape or of an irregular shape ? P. An irregular shape.

T. You said a moment ago that there were different kinds of islands. Come and show me one kind of an island, and tell me what it might be called.

P. (Pointing incorrectly.) This is a reef.
T. Joe, come and show me why you think Arthur is wrong.
J. I would call that an atol. This is a reef.
T. Show why this is not a reef. P. This is a half-circle.
T. Is it a round wall, or is it one long wall ?
P. It is a round wall.

When we have a round, circular-shaped coral island, we call it an atol. Now come and show me a reef.

P. (Pointing.) This is a reef.
T. Tell me another name for this. P. A coral island.
T. Tell me another name for this. P. A coral reef.

I would like to see another kind of an island.
P. (Pointing.) This is a volcanic island.
T. Which part is the volcano ?

P. This part.
T. Tell me another kind of an island. P. An atol.
T. And another. P. An oceanic island.
T. Why do you call that an oceanic island ?
P. Because it is out in the ocean.

T. Suppose it was near some continent, what would it be called ? P. It would be called a continental island then.

T. Show me another kind of an island.
P. (Pointing.) Like this.

T. We have more of those islands than we do of others. What could we call them ? P. An island with a low surface.

T. I know of other islands that have low surfaces, and they are not that kind. I wonder if we could not call them common islands. Yes, we can call them that. I would like to have some one come ard point out all the islands that I call common islands. P. (Pointing.) This one, and this one, and this one.

T. Show me all the volcanic islands you can on the board.
P. This, and this, and this.
T. Show me all the coral islands you can on the board.
P. This one, and this one.

Which part of this one ?

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P. (Pointing to the centre.) This part.

What is this called ? P. An atol. T. Can some one tell me the difference between a volcanic island and an atol ?

P. The difference between a volcanic island and an atol is that some volcanic islands are common islands with volcanos on them, and some are volcanos with a circular atol around them.

T. Now I want to know the difference between an atol and a common island.

P. An atol is a circular island, and a common island may be any shape.

T. Tell me how coral islands are made.

P. They are made by the coral animals. They go around and bring dirt, and the wind carries dirt and leaves and branches over there, and sometimes when birds fly over they drop seeds and the seeds grow and it makes an atol.

T. Can any one tell me anything else ?

P. They do not go around, but they go down into the water and build up until they come to the top, and then sometimes the birds drop seeds on them and they grow and form trees.

T. And the coral animals only make what part of the island ?
P. The rough, rocky wall.
T. I wonder in what kind of water the coral animal builds ?

The warm water.
T. In what bodies of water do we find these atols?
P. In the Indian Ocean.
T. In any other ? P. In the Pacific Ocean.
T. In what ocean do we find the largest ones?
P. In the Pacific Ocean.

T. I would like to know something about the water on the inside of an atol.

P. The water on the inside of an atol is as smooth and nice as a small pond, and is sometimes called a lagoon. The water on the outside is rough and the waves dash against the outside, but on the inside it is always smooth.

T. Is the water on the inside clear?
P. Yes, sometimes you can see the fish.

Do the sailors make any use of these lagoons ?

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P. If there should be a storm on the ocean, they could go into these lagoons.

T. There is something about the atol yet that I do not know. I do not see how the sailors get in.

P. They have little open spaces. Sometimes one and sometimes two.

T. Is there anything else you can tell me about the atol? I think if you think real hard, you can tell me something about the surface.

P. Sometimes they have a high surface and sometimes a low surface.

T. What do you think about it, Anna ?

A. The surface is almost always low, because the animals can't build up so high, just to the water.

T. And it would take a very long while for them to build up that high, would it not ? P. It would.

T. Is an atol ever large enough for cities and towns to be built upon ? P. Yes.

Are some of them large enough for a little country to be there by itself? P. Yes.

T. I wonder where we find such a one ?
P. In the Indian Ocean.
T. I wonder how many miles long it is?

P. It is five hundred miles long and eighty miles wide. Some of them are only a quarter of a mile wide.

T. Yes, they differ, some of them are quite wide, and others are not so wide. Now, I want to talk about the volcanic islands. I wonder how they are made ?

P. A volcano comes up and forms a kind of an island.
T. Do they ever come up in a very short time?

P. You said you knew about an island that the people did not notice. It came up in one night, and in a few days it kept going down and down until they could not see any island.

T. I did tell you about a volcanic island coming up in one night, and that the volcano was three times as large as this building, and I said something about how far you could go around that island. How far was it? P. Two or three miles.

T. Right. And how long was the island there?
P. Two or three days.
T. Yes, and then it began to gradually sink until finally it

went out of sight altogether and the island was there no longer. May a common island have more than one kind of surface?

P. It may have a low surface, a high surface, and a rocky surface.

T. Tell me of an island with a mountain chain running through the centre. P. Cuba.

T. Tell me of some river that we visited that had many islands with low flat banks and low flat surfaces.

P. The islands in the St. Lawrence River.

T. Yes, the St. Lawrence River has a great many islands in it, but is that the river? P. The Mississippi River. T.

Did we see many of them ? P. Yes. T. What kind of surface did they have? P. Low surface. T. Did you see one with a high surface ? P. Yes ma'am. T. What island was it? P. It was Rock Island. T. How many would like to make a volcanic island ?

(Fach child is given a pan filled with moulding sand, with which they form an island with a low, flat bank, and low surface, and a volcanic island.)

READING FOR PRIMARY GRADES-II. SOME damp cloudy day when the slates and pencils are particularly noisy, when the little feet can not be quiet and lessons will be tiresome, read The Ugly Duckling, or Star Dollars, or What the Moon Saw, or Ole Sukoi, or The Fir Tree, and the teacher as well as the children will feel the quieting influence of the honest old fairy Hans Andersən, whose eyes were so keen to see what children love. At another time read from Harpers' Young People of August 19, 1884, of the little German boy whose parents were very poor, but honest, who lived in a wee cottage with the garden on the roof. Read how the boy stretched his mother's large apron over some currant bushes making a teni, where he loved to lie for hours at a time watching the birds, the flowers, the blue sky and the clouds, weaving little stories which were afterward unfolded to the delight of hundreds of other children.

He could do more than dream, however, for one day when he was in a field helping to glean after the harvesters, a selfish and cruel landlord drove the gleaners out with a heavy whip. The little Hans running with the others lost his wooden shoe, and as he stopped to pick it up the man raised his whip to strike, but looking into his angry face Hans said: “How dare you strike nie when God can see it!”

Harpers' Weekly (of some months ago) contains a picture of his home, and in Houghton & Mifflin's book-catalogue the chil. dren will find a picture of the dear old story-teller himself.

FANNIE S. BURT.

DEPARTMENT OF PEDAGOGY.

(This Department is conducted by S. S. Parr, Principal De Pauw Normal School.]

:0:

WANTED; A RATIONAL GRAMMAR OF THE

ENGLISH TONGUE.

A

RECENT writer in Language Notes exposes some of the fallacies and ridiculous blunders of our present grammars. He cites

the contradictory and confusing views taught in all the grammars relative to the cases of the noun, as an evidence of the chop-logic that rules in text-books on grammar. He might have cited two other classes of features that are equally objectionable. The definitions used in nearly all our school grammars are in many cases untrue, or based on unessential relations of the thing defined. Take for instance the definition, found in nine-tenths of our grammars, for the subject itself: “ English grammar is the science of the Eng. lish language.” Now plainly it is no such thing. The statement may have once been true. The science of the English language is now not English grammar, but English philology. English grammar is, properly, the science of the English sentence. It no longer includes orthography, etymology, prosody, pronunciation, etc. These subjects are treated by themselves or as parts of the more general subject of English philology.

Again, take the current definition of the noun: “A noun is a word which names an object." This astounding piece of information is based on the unimportant relation which exists between the

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