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The teacher would place objects, and leaving them in position, have the pupils draw the objects in position, upon slate and blackboard.

4. The teacher would place several objects at once, delay long enough to have the pupils fix clearly their position, and then disarranging, have the pupils place from memory.

5. Have the pupils place objects from dictation; as, “Place the ball upon the center of the stand; upon the middle of the left-hand edge."

In the work on color, form, etc., as threads for geographical ideas, the work would first be taken as usual in those subjects. For example, if the color were yellow it would be taught first simply as a color, and the children would be led to distinguish it by the usual means, such as color-charts, ribbons, and various objects.

In the next place its geographical bearing would be brought to view, in that the children would be led 10 think of the color as pertaining to various things that are touched upon to a degree in geography work; as,

VARIOUS Soils.

Rivers: as, the Hong-ho, Tiber, Arve. 3. MINERALS: gold, sulphur, ochre.

4. ANIMALS: Birds-Meadow.lark; Baltimore Oriole; Bullock's Oriole; Yellow. headed Blackbird; California Woodpecker; Wild Canary; Summer Yellowbird; Yellow-hammer; Warblers (nearly all). Mammals---Bats (some); Deer (some); Weasel ; Ground Squirrel; Puma. Butterflies - Papilio turnus; Colias protodice; Pieris rapae.

5. PLANTS: Dandelion; Golden Rod; Pumpkin ; Melons; Poppy.

In the conversation concerning the color as found in these, their regions would incidentally be spoken of, their distance and direction from the pupil's own region, etc.

In a similar manner the ideas of form, size, etc , could be considered.

1.

2.

Above all thin seek to know the right-which never crosses God's will—and having learned to “deal justly, love mercy, and to walk humbly before thy God,“ dare both to do and maintain the right.

GENERAL LESSONS ARE NOT ADDITIONAL

SUBJECTS. It is usual to arrange for the first year's work, a series of lessons on place, form, size, distance, direction, color, etc., as general lessons. These are called general lessons, because the discipline of mind gained by means of them is general in its bearing, and because the ideas obtained from them are involved in many fields of work. The comprehension of any picture that is before the child for examination involves all of these ideas of place, form, etc.; the mastery of any word as a form, also involves them, as does the knowledge of every letter in the word; if they have not been fixed, to a degree, before the child begins writing, he must deal with them along with the writing: the same is true of drawing. A series of systematic lessons upon these topics, i. e., place, form, color, etc., are direct aids to the mastery of the common branches. Really they are ideas inherent in the common branches, they are not new studies. The criticism is frequently made that the public schools of to-day are not as efficient as the old ungraded schools, and that one of the main reasons is that the present system of schools is loaded down with too many studies. A recent criticism of the public schools says that the reason of their inefficiency is made manifest by a glance at the prevailing course of study, which consists, as there stated, of the following :- Lessons in Arithmetic, Geography, Grammar, Reading, U. S. History, Spelling, Writing, Physiology, Definition, Composition, Drawing, Form, Color--thirteen distinct lines of work, as the writer avowed.

The primary teacher, who presents this work on general lessons should understand the system in which she works well enough, and should see into the subjects for general lessons clearly enough to be able to show to any patron of the schools, that with the possible exception of Drawing these lines of work do not mean an enlargement of the course of study. And even this study is such an important introduction to writing, and renders the mastery of forms in reading so much more easy, and confers such added power upon the eye and the hand that both the time and mental effort required for it as a separate study are

more than made up by the ease in the mastery of the other subjects as a result of its study. “What's in a name?” Can Definition be mastered with less effort by being merged into the other studies, of which it is an inherent element? Is there, indeed, such a study in the public schools of to day, apart from Reading, Geography, and the others of the eight branches ? Are not the ideas gained in a regular series of lessons in Form, necessarily involved in writing, primary reading, and other of the legal branches ? And are they not as easily mastered when taken in distinct lines ? To say that the schools of to-day have Mathematical Geography; Political Geography; and Physical Geography does not make it clear that the schools of the present have three studies, for one in the schools of olden time. It only indicates that educators of this period discriminate more carefully than those of the past. Geography, if well taught, in the schools of earlier days involved the ideas of political, mathematical, and physical geography in their necessary relations. Likewise, Grammar, or Language, if well taught, involved work in composition. The difficulty of school work has not been increased by differentiating the elements in the subjects carefully, and giving specific names to the divisions. The only danger is that the primary teacher will, because the work in general lessons has assumed specific names, as Form, Color, Place, etc., come to look upon them as separate subjects, and treat them as things in themselves -thereby losing sight of the truth that the ideas comprehended in the term 'general lessons' belong necessarily in the eight common branches and have been lifted out and arranged into distinct lines of work because of their general and necessary bearing upon these legal subjects. They are in them and of them.

THE GROUND FOR PUNCTUALITY IN SCHOOL.

THERE are several ways in which punctuality is viewed. Sometimes it is viewed as an outer habit merely. Sometimes it is considered as an inner quality. One teacher considers that the reason for having the child punctual is that his record on the reports may be clear. Another thinks that combination with his classes is the real ground for insisting upon the pupil's being punctual. Very

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few teachers or parents put most stress upon the thought that the pupil is to be punctual in order that he may become punctual, i. e., in order that punctuality may be implanted as a habit in his spiritual nature. He is to be punctual in school it is true, in order that he may combine with the other pupils in the work, and, incidentally, have a clear record, but above all the pupil is to be punctual in school in the view of having it become second nature to him to be prompt in the payment of a note, in keeping an engagement, or in completing a given piece of work in the appointed time, when he has entered upon his business career. Punctuality has been said to be “the hinge of business,” but as a habit of the spiritual nature it is even more than that; it greatly advances the happiness both of the individual and of the community. A great many of those vexations and worries that unnecessarily subtract mental energy that might be applied to the problems of lite, are due to the want of this habit. It is a rare thing to have a coal dealer deliver coal at the time agreed upon; or money paid at the exact time promised. The habit of punctuality in the after school life is what the teacher is to work for, and this is the idea that is to be made prominent to the pupil, and not the relation of punctuality to his record. Punctuality has a great deal to do with success in life. One may be a little behind time in keeping an engagement, and a situation that he hoped for is, in consequence, given to another. Concerning it, some one has said, "A time for everything and everything in its time" is quite as useful a motto as “A place for everything and everything in its place." As a habit it includes some of the best characteristics of human nature, and like all other habits it is strengthened by exercise.

OUTLINE OF A LANGUAGE LESSON.

(THIRD OR FOURTH YEAR.) “The humming-bird is a rare little artist. Its nest is a masterpiece of skill. The outside of the nest is of lichen or moss, and the inside is of a soft woolly substance composed of the finest silky fibers gathered from plants. This little fairy cradle is no larger than a large hickory-nut; and is suspended from a leaf, twig, or bundle of rushes."

Purpose.-To lead pupils to see that the English language fur

nishes two or more equivalents for the word nest, in the second

case.

2.

-I.

A snug

Steps.-1. To lead pupils to determine the meaning of the word nest when standing alone.

To lead pupils to decide the meaning and use of the word nest in the sentenee, 3.

To lead the pupils to determine the nature of the expression fairy nest.

4. To lead pupils to substitute the word cradle for the word nest.

5. To lead pupils to decide upon the meaning of the word cradl: when standing alone.

6. To lead pupils to determine the nature and use of cradle in the sentence. 7.

To lead pupils to decide as to the appropriateness of the two expressions.

Manner of Procedure. Write the word upon the board; lead pupils to see that the word nest means--A bed or retreat prepared by a bird for rearing or hatching its young. place in which young animals are reared. A cozy or snug resting place or residence. A mass of ore or mineral in an isolated place in the rock. Hence nest may mean any snug retreat of man, animal, or mineral.

2. To lead pupils to see that in this sentence the word nest means the bed prepared by a bird for rearing its young.

3. To lead pupils to observe that nests differ in form, size, structure, and material, i. e., lead them to see the adaptation of the nest to the particular wants of the bird. The ostrich's nest of sand; the swallow's nest upon the rocky cliffs; the penguin's square court of rock; the floating raft of the grebe, are only a few of the many which might be selected for illustration.

4. Lead pupils to see that some nests are attached in such a manner that any slight motion may cause them to rock or swing; hence they may be called rocking beds or cradles. Examples: Thistle bird, tailor bird, Baltimore oriole, hanging titmouse, and ruby-throat humming bird. (The bird mentioned in the lesson is the ruby-throat.)

5. To lead pupils to see that cradle means:-A moveable bed so constructed as to rock, for the use of infants; hence, the

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